SUDAN REPUBLIC

THE COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL STRATEGY

1992 – 2002

VOLUME I

“In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate.”

THE COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL STRATEGY

1992 – 2002

VOLUME I

Translated by: Hashim EL-TINAY

 

C O N T E N T S

                                                                                                                                                PAGE

                INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                              1

                SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SECTOR STRATEGY                                                                 15

  1. Behaviour and Social Elevation Strategy 16
  2. Social Welfare Strategy 32
  3. Child Welfare Strategy 44
  4. Youth Strategy 54
  5. Women Strategy 65
  6. Solidarity Strategy 70
  7. Voluntary and Benevolent Work Strategy 75
  8. Health Development Strategy 85
  9. General Education Strategy 97
  10. Higher Education Strategy 120
  11. Urban Planning and Housing Strategy 129
  12. Tourism Development Strategy 141
  13. Sports Strategy 146
  14. Environment Strategy                                                                                                 155

 

                HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY                                                           161

  1. Introduction 162
  2. Population Strategy 164
  3. Public Service Strategy 167
  4. Training Strategy 173
  5. Statistics Strategy 177

 

                CULTURE AND INFORMATION SECTOR STRATEGY                                                     179

  1. Cultural Renaissance and Radiation Strategy 180
  2. Information Strategy 189

 

                SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY SECTOR STRATEGY                                                     200

 

                POLITICS AND THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM STRATEGY                                                      214

  1. Introduction 214
  2. Federal Government 214
  3. The Political System 219
  4. Trade Union Work 220
  5. The Judicial System 222
  6. Peace 224

                SECURITY AND DEFENSE SECTOR STRATEGY                                                                230

  1. Security and Defense Strategy: general

                objectives and guidelines                                                                                                                   230

  1. Police Strategy 233

                ECONOMIC STRATEGY                                                                                                               251

  1. Introduction 252
  2. Programme of Priorities and Major Policies 256
  3. Financial and Economic Policies 259
  4. Investment 264
  5. Financing 265
  6. Commerce                                                                                                                                 268
  7. Insurance 269

                AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES

                SECTOR STRATEGY                                                                                                                      271

  1. Introduction 272
  2. Irrigation and Water Resources Strategy 278
  3. Irrigated Agriculture Strategy 279
  4. Rain-fed Agriculture Strategy 279
  5. Natural Resources Strategy 280
  6. Animal and Fish Wealth Strategy 282
  7. Drinking Water Strategy 283

                MAPS AND LAND DATA STRATEGY                                                                                       296

                INDUSTRY, POWER AND MINING STRATEGY                                                                   300

  1. Introduction 301
  2. Strategy of Industry 301
  3. Strategy of Power 311
  4. Strategy of Mining 319

                TRANSPORT, TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION AND

                STORAGE SECTOR STRATEGY                                                                                                339

  1. Introduction 340
  2. Railways 347
  3. Road Transport                                                                                                                 348
  4. Roads and Bridges 348
  5. River Transport 349
  6. Sea Transport 349
  7. Sea Ports 350
  8. Air Transport and Airports 350
  9. Public Transport 351

10           Petrol Pipes Network                                                                                                                           351

  1. Storage                 352
  2. Posts, telephone and other communications 352

EXTERNAL RELATIONS SECTOR STRATEGY                                                                                  354

 

 

THE GLOBAL NATIONAL STRATEGY:

Avant-propos:

This is a ten year strategy plan, inspired by the genious of the Sudanese people, responding to its ambitions, and respectful of its aspirations. It has been discussed and approved by a national congress which is the Global National Strategy Congress.

Strategic planning is a characteristic of civilized societies. It sets for people noble goals to be achieved through long-term targets, reflecting the greatest objectives of these societies, and galvanizes and mobilizes all their energies to attain them. In so doing, it traces the path leading to that, and determines the ways of its interaction with its world and its environment.

The essence of strategic thought and strategic solutions is the ability to invent the chosen historical future, not the future dictated by others, imposed by blind whims, or formed by casual improvisation. It enveloppes the meanings of the future’s forecast, the insight towards its formation, the evolution of its realisations, and the ability to foresee the potential dangers and their avoidance at the right time, as well as the monitoring of the side and negative effects of some programs, during the invention of that chosen future, thus avoiding them, or minimising their effect, specially the negative social consequences resulting from the structural changes in the national economy. This requires availability of futuristic and  abondant data, and adoption of pertinent propositions. This futuristic view is the opposite of lack of awareness and haphasard guessing. It allows no chance for unexpected mishaps or sudden complications. And according to this meaning the proposed solutions become strategic solutions and not sheer belated improvised responses.

This is why it was imperative that the National Salvation Revolution ( NSR ), at the second anniversary of its long life, with God’s blessing, during which it has established firm foundation, rooted its vision, permeated people by its slogans, and the clear formulation of the basic orientations of the Umma and its aspirations through the sectoral congresses of dialogue, organised around various themes of concern, be they political, social, economical or cultural, to prepare a global strategy plan, opening a new stage in the march of the revolution, taking it beyond the stage of salvation to that of the new horizons of the global civilizational renaissance; through the mobilization of all the energies of the state and the society towards the global goals and the noble ends, inspired by a revolutionary method that defies difficulties, and by which it can overcome incidental and passing crisis in various sectors, and moves to realize greater targets; which constitute the real essence of human life, so that a new generous Sudan becomes a dignified and an inspiring example for other societies, culturally, educationally, in its living standards, its environment, its liberty, discipline, justice and shura ( consultation ), dignity and might, proposing an authentic revolutionary method which is original in thought, culture, politics, sociology, morality, economics, sciences, technology, behaviour and performance in all walks of life.

 

THIS STRATEGY:

  1. It is the beginning of an overall and entire revival of authentic values determining the renaissance of thought and cultural development, and propelling the society and mobilising its energies in a revolutionary and free framework, able to revive its potential, and awaken its will.
  2. It is a global planning involving all sectors of Sudanese society, in unison and harmony, to achieve the complete renaissance and the greatest leap forward the Sudanese people have been aspiring for.
  3. It is an overall plan for the optimum utilisation of the nation’s entire resources and energies.
  4. It is a plan of ambition to revive the hope and renew the confidence in the potential of this generous homeland, drawing a picture of what it is capable of achieving through the efforts of its sons and daughters under conditions of good planning, genuine determination, enthusiasm for productivity and work, and perfection in action.
  5. It is a solemn map of the civilizational transformation towards the society we aspire to, a society of freedom, dignity, might, prosperity and noble values; a society that gives the example and leads the way of good deeds to other human societies and that becomes an inspiring model for others.

Like other Third World countries, the Sudan has seen, since its independence, various plans and programs, to accelerate development returns but has followed western or eastern models, deprived of authenticity, revival and attachment to roots, and hence, remained elitist, theoritical, academic and dependant; divorced from the self and reality, and has in the best of situations, achieved a limited economical success, at the expense of the independence of the national will, political and social progress as well as national security and stability. In addition, it concentrated most of the effort to realize a development hostage to external factors, financed by foreign funds. This led to mortgaging of the Umma’s will to creditor’s and their dictates, resulting in negative changes in the life styles and consumption patterns which rendered the country  dependent for its food and dress on foreign assistance and aid, tied to policies and conditions of the donor countries.

However, this national global strategy, is different from the plans and the programs that preceeded it since it is :

1) An authentic and huge plan designed to unleash all creative energies in the society, on the basis of self reliance in the broadest sense covering areas such as natural resources, the potential of spirit and charity, knowledge and craftsmanship that God almighty has bestowed on us, without being narrow-minded, isolated or falling prey to outside pressures.

2) It is the movement of the entire society to plan for itself, and not that of the state only and its limited bureaucratic organs. It is based on the spread of liberties, refraining to impose a specific model, since it is the result of a dialogue,  a free exchange of ideas, a broad consultation of individuals in society, during the sessions of the overall global strategy congress; and its various sectoral meetings, those of its subsidiary committees, meetings of members of these committees and the public, as well as segments of all the work force and their organisations, taking into consideration previous research and plans, thus making use of all available experiences.

3) It is a strategy that, for the first time, puts emphasis on man, in his total dimensions, as the centre around whom all plans and programs rotate. It neither limited itself to material prosperity alone, nor did it side with spiritual  and moral well-being only; rather it blended between spiritual needs and the exigencies of existence and material progress, thus conceptualising for morality, thought and culture as well as for education, health and environment, the same way it paid attention to economics , agriculture, industry, energy and mining.

4) It determined clear-cut quantitative as well as qualitative targets on which the plan was based, and fixed a specific timetable within which the targets are to be met, setting the indicators and criteria capable of measuring work progress and achievement.

5) It boasts, compared to other plans, inter-sectoral program harmony, inspired by a unique and unifying philosophy, reviving the glories of the past, identifying the challenges of the present to conquer the future, moulding the here-and-now with the-here-after, thus mobilizing effectively the society’s energies in order to attain the strategy’s set objectives.

And since strategic planning does not spring from a vacuum, it parted from a solid base of all that is positive in past experience, avoiding its negative and weak aspects, thus building on what has already been achieved through the efforts  of founding national governance, via the adoption of the federal system, the setting up of consultative organs and popular congresses to facilitate effective decision-making; in this way  were concluded the main orientations based on the outcome of the (4) congress of the dialogue for peace, and all those that discussed separately the following topics: economic and social progress, revolutionisation of the educational system, foreign relations, information, culture, services, women, children, youth, sports, refugees, justice and legal reform, and the new political system.

This is how this strategy has managed to spell out the ultimate national goal and its broad guidelines.

THE NATIONAL GOAL:

The national goal that the state strives to accomplish is the creation of a global national renaissance, enabling the Sudan to realise its identity, guaranteeing liberty for its populance, raising their living standard, and giving it the power and means necessary to protect and enhance its existence and values.

THE GUIDELINES:

1) NOBLE VALUES; they include the moral teachings solidely enshrined in religion and faith, positive traditions, righteous conduct, national heritage and culture.

2) DIGNITY; the development of state civilizational capacities and its defensive capabilities, thus guaranteeing its dynamic existence and progress.

3) LIBERTY; in its broadest sense to liberate national will thus realising the dignity of both citizen and nation.

4) PROSPERITY; the attainement of an advanced and prosperous life for the citizens, enhancing their human and social rights, satisfying their basic needs leading to the Umma’s superior aspis energies to attain its objectives and goals. It also constitutes the hard core of the cohesiveness of the society, since a society’s behaviour, from a strategic viewpoint, is the framework within which the desired civilizational renaissance and its goals can be achieved.

THE BASIS OF THE BEHAVIOURAL MODEL:

FIRST: The principle of the oneness of God, which is

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the cornerstone of worship, its condition and initiation, the essence and the center-piece of liberty, since man is subordinated to the one and unique Creator. It is accordingly the basis of equality among peoples, since it negates sovereignty and governance except to the almighty God of the universe. It is the ruling principle and the ultimate reference for all good conduct, he who abides by it is in the right and he who ignores it is in the wrong.

SECOND: The group principle, since the umma is one of

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a group, where the individual belongs to all and all belong to the individual just as in the relationship of the body and its organs; no arrogance, no classes, and no discrimination. Hence the emanation of justice, shura (democracy), equality, and solidarity, pre-requisites for safeguarding the entity of the umma and the basic rights of its individuals.

THIRD: The human dignity principle, embedded in the

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origin of the creation of man, and the truth of his divine mission on earth. Thus people are an incarnation of the divine on earth, and deserve equal respect, without discrimination on the basis of race, colour or ethnic origin, and are valued on the basis of their piety. From this principle springs basic human rights in preserving the self, the mind, religion, wealth and honour.

FOURTH: The correct and natural instinct (fitra)

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principle; as people are by nature inclined to do good, accept goodness, and are created capable of distinguishing and recognizing good automatically. Hence  the society is good so long as it is in tune with its wholesome and natural instinct (fitra), whose foundations it has consolidated.

FIFTH: The will to do good and avoid spreading                                                                    _______________________________________

evil on earth, by establishing good deeds, and by blessing and consolidating them, holding in estime positive and noble initiatives and charity, constantly seeking new heights of beauty, perfection and creativity. Avoiding doing evil on earth by safeguarding rights, by refraining from wasting human life or spoiling the environment or wasting its potential, and by condemning all things negative.

SIX: The universality and the humanity principle,

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as the behaviour that we advocate are neither limited in time nor in space, springing from wholesome natural (fitra) instincts borrowing from good experiences, animated by noble humanist ideals and values regardless of their origin, with a view to know and fathom them, and hence adopting them in behaviour and action, until the emergence of the behavioural model that enables its society and its citizens to meet all their responsibilities vis-a-vis the human family, thus offering it the good example that it can follow.

SEVEN: The good example principle,

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by behavioural leadership, establishing the good example, which attracts people to follow it because of its excellence and persuasiveness, good doing, self-denial, and commitment to duty, since behaviour is based on principles that have to be proven by conduct and work.

EIGHT: The truth and sincerity principle,

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in the application of authentic behavioural values, and overseeing the individual’s and the group’s behavioural harmony with it, avoidance of dishonesty and contradiction between deed and talk, and credibility in the application of these values at all levels, without falling in the trap of double standards in all dealings be they at the individual, group or international level.

NINETH: The functionality of behaviour,

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as a framework for development, determining its course, propelling its rythm, opening the way for social elevation, and the reconstruction of the umma on the basis of what is good for it, since behaviour constitutes the criteria of the principle upon which must be based civilizational conduct.

TENTH: Behavioural renewal, through the perpetual

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search for the better and the more perfect, and the aspiration for yet loftier models, in the human experience, surpassing them through the constant improvement and renewal of the behavioural model in order to enhance the society’s authentic behavioural pattern, updating its articulation of values, and thus responding to the challenges of contemporary human life.

THE BEHAVIOURAL MODEL

The behavioural model is based on a relationship of dialogue between the individual’s responsibility and that of the group. The individual, being the recipient of divine directives, is the center-piece of behavioural responsability, which helps him uplift himself as well as improve his society; and the society is framework within which the individual grows up, providing him with a good environment for his healthy  development, and preparing him to carry out his responsibilities, as there can be no responsibility without liberty and message, enobling him with ideals and great values, filling him with the feeling of being part of the group, inculcating in him a strong will, self-confidence, and the pride in his homeland and his umma ( community ), making available for him both knowledge and knowhow indispensable for the improvement of his condition and that of his society. Modern groups today are a complex fabric, where the state has a preponderant influence due to its abilities to mould the political, the economic, the cultural and the social environment. It sets the rules and regulations and thus determines the framework of individual and group activity, issuing directives through its policies, means and organisms.

Hence the exemplary behavioural model that the state projects has a direct impact on all strata of the society, thus providing a reference for universally accepted conduct.

The same applies to the institutions of public administration. And so the exemplary behavioural model that this strategy aims at is designed to characterise state organs of sovereignty, government, security, economics, social affairs, information and culture, education, local government and popular institutions.

All these are animated by behavioural values broader than the confines of their legal framework, forming in its totality the society’s general spirit, thus becoming the motivation to aspire to noble objectives.  This creates an environment of willingness to sacrifice and to give that propels the society towards the realization of its major goals.

THE EXEMPLARY BEHAVIOURAL MODEL IN

THE ORGANS OF THE STATE

GOVERNMENT AND SOVEREIGNTY

The legitimacy of government and sovereignty in the contemporary world is based on power and delegation. These are not, either separately or jointly, sufficient basis for legitimacy. Power can be misused, thus becoming a means of coertion and imposition. Delegation , in the best of cases, can be but partial, giving only minimum legitimacy based on conventional considerations whose contours can never be accurately determined. In addition, delegation of power can often be used against the objectives for which it was originally established. The more idealistic method that inspires the behavioural strategy, is that based on global and well established behavioural criteria, so that legitimacy can be founded on voluntary choice and acceptance, in accordance with right and justice based on belief and divine law, “Obey me so long as I obay ALLAH/God in managing your affairs”, and “No one is required to obey in doing that which the Creator has forbidden”. Upholding right is based on a multitude of fine expressions encompassing behaviour and government. In order for the desired model to be totally transparent, the declared policies must be in harmony with the intentions, goals and objectives that government organs endeavour to attain in the interest of the general national good, blocking the way to political intrigue and double standards.

And hence priority in this scheme is given to values of right, justice, integrity, taqua/fear of God, feeling responsible toward God, honesty and ability, the capability and the energy, in the choice and designation of those invested with responsibility, who are to carry out their duties in a spirit of compassion, care, truth, firmness, perfection and perseverence. And as the scope of shura (consultation) widens and spreads as a guarantee for system and manpower renewal and the choice of the most qualified man for the right place in all circumstances, those in charge of the common good are constantly reminded to remain upright and just in the execution of their duties, guaranteeing the widest consensus on the basis of citizenship, consent, acceptability and popular allegience so that the designation becomes a correct one, and the authority at the service of the designee is guided by the general will and committed to achieve the common good. A large diversity and distribution of state authorities, will naturally put an end to monopoly thus leading to equilibrium and hence stability.

It is imperative that the behavioural pattern set by the strategy be adopted and absorbed by the society as a whole, as well as by all government organs at all levels, including public positions, shura ( consultation ) and executive councils, popular committees, sectoral, mass and popular organisations,

and the local government, the states, the federal, judiciary, justice and security organs.

EXTERNAL RELATIONS

The most crucial issue in external relations is the balance between interests and principles. Principles are complex with different dimensions, which could be based on the achievement of greater behavioural interests, concerning

the broad community, or bigger regional entities or humanity at large. However, vital enlightened interests with a vision of the future are not necessarily in contradiction with the essence of moral values. Crises usually erupt when opportunistic, short-sighted interests win against broader considerations of principle and interest. Foreign policy should not be based on opportunism and narrow interest, but rather external relations ought to be established on values of continuous interaction and dialogue, where logic and entente prevail, and where the spread of noble values that realize justice and liberty, and cooperation in defending humanity from the symptoms of moral disintigration, and combatting crime, drugs, alcohol, poverty, natural disasters, and protecting the environment.

Efforts should be mobilised to consolidate the spirit of compassion and complimentarity, collective self-reliance in fidelity to the responsibilities of our being part of the Arab, African and Islamic worlds and humanity at large. We should endeavour to unite the umma ( all muslims ), help the damned of the earth/underdog to regain their human dignity and pride, be a refuge for the oppressed, in the forefront of the struggle and jihad against colonialism and domination, an example for the peoples on their march towards self-fulfilment. We should work for the establishment of a new world order based on equality, complementarity, partnership, justice and peace, respect of agreements and obligations, a new world order in which the balance of power and cooperation tilts in favour of the good of humanity and its benefit.

SECURITY

The concept of security in the modern state has widened and has become inclusive of total security touching on various aspects of human life be they political, economical, social or cultural. Security has become part of the basic services that individuals, groups and the state need to safeguard their tranquility, and protect their achievements and resources.

The security apparatus must see to it that national unity is protected, and citizen’s peace tranquility and dignity maintained. It should provide advice to those in charge of public responsibility, maintaining a harmonious equilibrium between the exigency of respect for liberty and the maintenance of security. In carrying out its mission, it should be guided by values of high morality, justice, equity, piety and fear of the Almighty, avoiding discrimination, provocation of strife, discorde and corruption. And the more the society responds in a positive way both to national security policies and the organs entrusted to carry out such policies , on the understanding that national security is a responsibility of the society as a whole, the more real security is achieved. And in order for the society to respond positively, those entrusted with this task must respect, in carrying out their duties, the moral values pertaining to human rights of privacy, property, liberty, avoiding threats and intimidation so that the citizen does not see in them an enemy that threatens his security, in which case the whole basis, objectives and purpose of this noble and vital service for the protection of the development of the society and the state and the safeguarding of the umma’s achievements, fall apart.

ECONOMICS

Contemporary societies are characterised by an ever increasing influence of western civilization due to the widening power of money. This comes from the integration of many activities that were part of the traditional non-pecuniary dealings into the modern economic and commercial framework, including education and health, etc. All this happened in addition to the ever growing needs of people, and the division of society into more and more specialized strata, increasing collective group reliance, and thus raising the importance of the economic factor. And as societies’ and states’ needs increased, money became a means of domination and control. People who had money found themselves in a position of controlling and dictating policies. The contemporary pattern of wild consumerism leading to a greater dependence of both the individual and the group on monetary centers worsened the matter, since by getting in the bad habit of spending more than they could really afford, they fell into the trap of borrowing which led to indebtedness and the loss of political will.

The essence of true belief is man’s liberation from all worldly pressures, be they political or material,   and the integration of nobler non-material values in the new society, where ownership of basic ressources (water, energy, pasteur) becomes within the reach of all, providing greater opportunities for initiative and motivation of the citizens to improve their lot by investing their life.

This economic pattern places man in great estime, gives greater value to work justly remunerated, prevents exploitation, speculation, corruption and monopoly in its different forms (of goods, resources, material power etc.), forbids waste of wealth both public and private, depleting the environment and badly exploiting its resources. And since this economic pattern is based on a logic that surpasses the causes of class struggle, by demanding that the  rich spend for reasons of charity, solidarity and complementarity, and that a gap in material gain should not lead to a gap in rights, with a clear emphasis on the social responsibility of wealth.

All the economy is oriented towards improving the lot of the group and ensuring its needs in a manner it can regain its dignity enabling the Umma to occupy its rightful place under the sun.  Policies should encourage productive work and productivity, availing open chances for free and honest competition . It is imperative that the economic sector community as a whole starting with the banks, chambers of commerce, labour organizations and employers, professional and trade unions, assume fully their social responsibility, each one of them developping a charter of honour of the profession and its ethics. It is also important to understand that the national goal in the economic field is not sheer cumulative growth of money and wealth, but rather is based on a new vision and capability inspired by the modern and healthy theories of economic development, respectful of the society’s values of satisfaction of basic needs, consent and justice. It is part of the global civilizational change inspired by values and patterns of exemplary behaviour, just relations according to the social criteria and limitations flowing from the umma’s values and its noble ideals.

WORK RELATIONS

People’s relations in work and their history is a record of a perpetual quest for justice among them. This record has witnessed the history of slavery, man’s exploitation in the feudal system, and the exploitation of entire people and societies for the benefit of another society through colonial subjugation. Work relations have, however, developped during the industrial revolution in various countries, causing all types of suffering and injustice to workers, reflected in the confiscation of individual’s liberty and dignity, imposing on them coertion, forced labour and exploitation, the deterioration of the natural, social and economic work environment, in addition to injustice in awarding them the equitable and just material and social remuneration for the work provided.

As a reaction to all this came the ideas calling for the unity of the workers, limiting the concept of work to manual labour, and at certain levels of it in the functional performance hierarchy, using all means to divide the society mobilising the less lucky part with hate, weakening incentives for individual gain that motivate more productivity. And instead of stopping at rendering justice to the workers, these ideas went on to create political and social systems in tune with their concepts, which in turn led to worse injustice, if not more than the injustice they intended to fight in the first place, and on most sectors of the society including workers who received the lowest level of pay thus providing a fatal blow to both productivity and justice.

However, the solution resides in the recognition and respect of religious values which emphasize human dignity of every human beeing regardless of his class, material position, social origin, or religion, stressing the basic right of fair and prompt remuneration for work done (and give the employed their due) ensuring equality among those who have capital and those who are working with money in the economic sectors, opening opportunities of private gain; liberating productivity motivation at the individual and group level by assuring equality of opportunity, justice in the rules and in wealth distribution according to social systems (inheritance) and spending; achieving the minimum, decent standard of living through financial and social tax as well as of official solidarity, and the linking of many religious values with voluntary expenditure; ridding the society of social

hurdles such as class stratification; fighting against feudalism and monopoly. The most pressing duty today is the effort of innovating ever renewable ways and means to translate these noble principles and generous meanings into the concrete realities of contemporary life and the ever-changing times, while respecting the basic teachings and the cardinal postulates.

 

INFORMATION AND GUIDANCE

Information and the media have become of paramount influence on public opinion and its formulation, in the interpretation of events, and the setting of priorities. And because of the increasing volume of circulating information and the ever quicker pace of life, a lot of messages – including wrong ones – find their way through the media into people’s minds, affecting their opinion concerning a particular issue, and thus creating an impression that is difficult to change. It also has a huge impact on the general taste and the prevalence of patterns of social behaviour, over and above its impact on morale, will, and its role in political, social, and cultural mobilisation.

Moreover neither can major official policies in the modern state, nor the essence of their message reach and touch the public without adequate media coverage by both modern and conventional media. Information has also become a means of censorship and control over the behavior of government and public institutions, as well as a platform for democracy and mass participation in the running of the country.

International hegemony over the media means control of the orientation of public opinion, and pressure on political systems to follow one direction, and hence the danger that the media be left in the hands of a few states or people, or that it be allowed to do its vitally important job in a haphazard way through negligence. It is imperative that what the media reflects be the expression of the ambition of the umma and its intrinsic values, that guidance has meaning, which helps the society move towards the realisation of its desired goals.

And the moral obligation of ensuring the citizen’s right to communicate, to know, to express his point of view, clarity in addressing the issues, total objectivity, having at heart public responsibility, represents the healthy basis for the accomplishment of the role of the media in the correct way, thus rendering information an effective tool in the reconstruction of the umma. On the other hand, limiting the chances of expression, resorting to practices of media manipulation blackout and attempts at controlling public opinion, seeking political gain through the media instead of spreading shura  ( free debate, consultation leading to consensus ), and consolidating truth and objectivity, all this lead to a situation haunted by doubt and lack of confidence incapable of leading to real development in the political, social and cultural life, and rendering mobilisation efforts futile exercises of occasional outbursts of volatile excitement. This, of course, holds the serious threat of dividing opinion, and lessens the chances of reaching a national consensus, and hence the realisation of the global civilizational renaissance. This is why it is important that the rules regulating ownership of the mass media take into consideration the above-mentioned moral guidelines, which should enjoy full expression in state policies, and in the practice of information and media work. The state must stop monopolising the mass media and quickly open the way for private sector initiatives in the establishment of news and information organs, committed to the same moral model and the honour as well as the ethics of the profession.

EDUCATION

Education is considered as the basis and the principal means in the task of moral guidance and the cultivation of great values, that gradually move a society towards perfection in total liberty, free and voluntary interaction in a manner that opens the way to renewal, inventiveness and diversified and innovative expression about values of (fadila). In this way education does not become another means of repression, since it is in essence supposed to be a motivating force for behaviour and should not be one of the means of limiting man’s freedom and hence lose its very meaning in both the soul and the spirit.

Education should therefore be based on respect for diversity and difference. It should aim at unity and harmony, in total respect for that diversity, considering morality as a positive and propelling value, that expresses values of belief and group, and the principles of freedom, equality and justice, truth and sincerity, and the encouragement of creativity and beauty, the protection of the society and the environment, enhancing basic natural instinct and elevating human dignity, in addition to its other functions mentioned in educational strategies, since it is considered as the corner-stone in the efforts of returning to the umma’s original religious and philosophical sources for inspiration to desired civilizational change.

CULTURE

Culture is the meaning underlying that which counts of a people’s life. It is the sum of their values and the  base/bossole of behavioural criteria, and it should therefore have its roots in a specific philosophy, which is the philosophy of belief  in one God, so as not to allow room for the spread of customs, concepts, habits, or behavioural patterns which might  disperse people’s allegiance and the united flow towards their goals; so that all facets of cultural life with their diversity and dynamism contribute, in the end, to the predominance of noble  values, the strengthening of national feeling, solidarity, togetherness, and unity among the people, ridding them from segregation and discrimination based on religion, race, class,or colour. It is imperative that efforts be deployed to encourage chances of cultural expression, leading at the end to  a one and united national culture. It is also imperative that cultural planning open all doors for the free and creative expression of natural instinct in the people. It should be protected it from spoilation

and corruption. This would establish a just and fair criterion to measure progress in various cultural environments, enriching the healthy soul with what it contains as dimensions of beauty and of ideas, and hence developping artistic and literary creativity, spreading images of creativity to all aspects of public life, be it people’s appearance, their clothes and ornaments, or urban and garden planning etc.

 

THE BEHAVIOURAL MODEL IN THE SOCIETY

AND FAMILY CONTEXT

SOCIETY’S  FUNCTION

The behavioural model that should prevail, and should enjoy the backing of the law, is based on the teaching of good moral values, and the eradication of social injustice and discrimination among people’s rights on the basis of religion, race or culture. Because the more a society upholds moral values in their befitting highest place, the more the process of  integration and unity of its people is facilitated, the more values of solidarity spread, and the stronger becomes the noble moral foundation that solidifies social cohesion. The society’s functions in uplifting morals and the social standard depend upon its ability to:

  1. Provide the healthy and pious environment that encourages good behaviour, inventiveness and productivity.
  1. Be a genuinely civil society, that has initiative and independance of authority in catering to most of its needs, relying on its own resources and potential, authentic in its orientations, renovating in its plans and performance, guided by the best in human experience, becoming an example and a model for other human societies.
  1. Be characterized by justice and equality, with a dynamic favouring full participation of its members in public life, men and women, who uphold the values of shura and participatory democracy.
  1. Ensure complete social welfare to its members, making available to them chances for in appropriate education, training, health, food, clothing and shelter, as well as in leisure time and productive and remunerative work. Social welfare institution’s should be guided by the basic principles of the behavioural model in both their planning and action, thus enabling the family, the individuals and all sectors of the society to attain the behavioural ambition that this strategy aims to see achieved and propagated in the society, becoming capable of self-renewal, in order to carry out its functions in the most ideal and efficient way.
  1. Ensure that laws and legislations emanate from the Umma’s heritage and facts of its reality, responding in a balanced way to the needs of the individuals and the society, expressing the people’s will and codifying it, being flexible and receptive to improvement and modernisation thus facilitating the intended civilizational change. It is expected to provide its members security and tranquility and safeguard their human rights, so as to enhance their sense of belonging and love of their country and the readiness to sacrifice for its dignity, protection and defence.
  1. Enhance the status of the family and its capabilities, providing it all the support it needs to fulfil its functions towards its members.
  1. Safeguard woman’s dignity and rank, protecting her self-esteem and self-respect, giving her equal chances in social security and work and in human and social rights.

RAISING A FAMILY

The family is the first unit and basis of the society,  and the environment in which an individual grows up and develops his personality. Its effectiveness in fulfiling its responsibility depends on the degree of its commitment to the following moral basis:

  1. a) Selection of spouses on the basis of piety and uprightness avoiding racial considerations.
  1. b) Simplifying marriage for all who desire to get married, avoiding expensive dowries, exagerated festivities, extravagance, and overspending.
  1. c) Qualitative and loving cohabitation of spouses, so that married life holds affection, care, good behaviour, where the husband assumes the overall responsibility of the family, realizing that the task of raising children and bringing them up in the best manner, and the administration of the household, is a joint matter between the spouses; whereas the woman spreads love, affection, compassion and care in the life of the family, upholding religion and honour in the husband’s presence and absence.
  1. d) Creation of a healthy home environment free of discrimination between boys and girls, so that they grow up with noble values, positive orientations and good behaviour, and the ability to give.

CHILD UPBRINGING

The upbringing of children takes place in both the family and the social environment, each being inspired by the moral behavioural model mentioned in the beginning of this strategy, where the efforts of both the family and the society merge to fulfill this mission and comitment, according to the following moral basis:

  1. a) Keenness to cultivate the authentic spiritual and social values in the young based on right and wrong, the permitted and the forbidden, the good and the bad, according to religion, so that his religious commitment flows naturally from his righteous soul, aware of the good it has for himself and his society, and the upholding of the society’s values and traditions, and good codes of social conduct.
  1. b) Inculcating the young with the necessary skills that will enable them to behave properly with others, starting with their parents, brothers and blood relatives, neighbours, acquaintances, friends, and mates.
  1. c) Both parents and elder brothers should give the example to the young in all that the family must do to bring them up.
  1. d) Enabling the young to enjoy a happy childhood, and a gradual and wise exposure to the social and natural environment, through explaining to them both the society and nature and sowing in them the seeds of loving them in the deepest of their hearts, consolidating that by providing them waves of education in beauty such as love of beauty, literature, and refined arts be they spoken, painted, expressed, musical, theatrical or consensual.
  1. e) Developping the young’s awareness of the greatness of the universe, and the fact that God has entrusted it to man for the purpose of worshipping Him, building that which is useful to people, informing him that the intrinsic basic moral values reside in human dignity, truth, sincerity, and in the avoidance of corruption and the search for the attainment of that which is good.
  1. f) Fostering the young’s allegiance for the group, deepening in them the love of the country, and rendering them positive in their universal mission.
  1. g) Inculcating the love of work in the young, equipping them with the necessary methods and tools, rendering them capable in all domaines, be they intellectual or manual.
  1. h) Inculcating the young with the values of sacrifice, generosity, steadfastness and combativity, providing them the necessary equipment that enables them to translate these meanings into reality.
  1. i) Inculcating the young with the value of dialogue, and ways of sane social interaction, encouraging that which is right and good, forbidding that which is wrong and bad; emphasizing the value of positive dialogue, avoiding attitudes of imposition and coersion; resorting to forgiveness and tolerance, always ready to give generously, encouraging a voluntary spirit and wide scope of understanding, acceptance of difference and appreciation of a different point of view.

INDIVIDUAL’S BEHAVIOUR

The formation and the preparation of an individual takes place in stages each of which enables him to make his contribution to his immediate society, and society at large. In addition, moral education is a practical education,that cannot be complete unless the person is guided in his day-to-day life with the lofty and noble moral, social and humanist values. The adoption of values and principles should be reflected in one’s total pattern of conduct : in what one says, does and wears.

  1. a) In the family context the individual’s conduct is characterised by good behaviour and respect for the parents and love of brothers and sisters. He should participate actively in housekeeping, farming and shepherding, taking part in all economic activities available in his environment, protecting his blood relations, holding in high esteem his parents, looking after them when they grow old.
  1. b) The individual’s behaviour and conduct should be characterized by: answering promptly neighbours’ calls for assistance and their cry for protection; safeguarding their right, honour and wealth; cooperation and solidarity with them; the active involvement in upgrading the environment of the village, locality or vicinity; and giving the necessary attention to gardens and public parks as well as establishments of the social services, should characterise the individual’s behaviour and conduct.
  1. c) With respect to schoolthe young should show respect of the teachers, love of mates and cooperation with them, abiding by the value of courteous dialogue, discussion and advice, improvement of learning skills. They should participate in out-of-door activities and in the activities that improve the study environment and contribute to the service of the community, as a member in the boy/girl scouts, youth tourism and military training, and general community service, and patriotic involvement in all its aspects be they political, economical, social, cultural or voluntary.
  1. d) In the work environment, the individual is to be duty conscious, loving his work, doing it as part of his worship of God, keen on doing it, doing it as best as he can and improving it, respecting with discipline its conditions, demonstrating initiative, creativity and innovation, enhancing the spirit of group work, and refraining from all that wastes work capabilities, from absenteism and laissez-aller, proving his full assumption of the responsibility he is entrusted with, avoiding receiving of money for favours, exercising utmost restraint from the temptations of power, and of its unfair and unjust utilization against people. He should be vigilant and highly time-conscious, respectful of punctuality in hours, employing the time of work both efficiently and ably. The worker should be an example for his colleagues, and he who is in charge an example to those he is in charge of, exercising right as duty and duty as a right, giving priority to duty rather than to right, and giving rather than taking, without the denial of all his legitimate rights.
  1. e) In areas of voluntary and benevolent work, the individual should be in the forefront of those eager to do good, either personally or by supporting voluntary and benevolent organisations, financially or by active participation, orienting it towards serving the society and raising the quality of its life.
  1. f) In the area of the arts, culture and literature, the creative individual is expected to emphasize the values of doing good, love, beauty and charity, enhancing the foundations of moral and social excellence, making use of humanity’s brightest experiences, improving and innovating them, using his creativity to express the unity of the creation, the unicity of the Creator, and the good of all mankind.
  1. g) In the context of public service the individual is expected to uphold values of shura, exchanging advice, participation and democracy. He is to uphold right and exercise justice, be forthcoming and effective, take initiative, promote reform, stay away from corrupt practices, be true, honest, sincere and altruist, keen on the preservation of the nation’s unity and interest, distancing himself from tribal, partisan and feudal groupings and other similar divisive and dispersing practices. He is to uphold the meanings of self-reliance, liberty of the national will and the national decision, founding his judgements, opinions and conduct on his religion, mind and conscience.
  1. h) And in the field of national defence, and the preservation of its security and stability, it is imperative for the individual to have a spirit of jihad, sacrifice and love of shihada, courage, and good reputation in times of strife, patience and forgiveness.

MEANS, EVALUATION  AND  FOLLOW-UP

Each and every aspect of the global strategy has a moral and civilizational dimension that guides, motivates and checks its movement. Moral principles in government, politics, economics, social affairs, education, information and culture, in order to be concretized, have to be transformed into plans before becoming a living reality. The implementation of the strategy is, on the other hand, the way to upply moral principles and to evaluate moral performance.  Follow-up is realized by the commited implementation of the global strategy plans. Finally, the evaluation of the performance of the moral and social excellence strategy is achieved by the performance evaluation of all sectors of the global strategy on the basis of the set criteria and measures where success or failure shall be determined by statistical and questionaire techniques.

 

SOCIAL WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

Social welfare cares about the individual, the group and the society at large. It aims at the individual’s  protection, up-bringing and his liberation from his social problems. It helps him to develop his talents, providing him the opportunities that enable him to effectively contribute to his society, satisfying his material, moral and spiritual needs. It helps both the group and the society to develop constructive relations, creating the suitable conditions to improve and strengthen social interaction.

Social welfare and development programs are based on guidelines, objectives, policies and priorities built on reality  and available ressources, and within construction, developmental and welfare axes, as follows:

GUIDELINES:

1.Social welfare activities emanate from the principles and values of religion and wise social custom.

  1. Man is the means and goal of social development.
  1. The family is the unit of society and it must be protected and nurtured, enabling it to carry out its functions.
  1. Satisfying the society’s social welfare and development needs according to available scientific methods based on the social service profession and social science data.

5.Popular and official efforts are to be combined in social welfare and development programs and projects.

GOALS:

  1. Raise and improve the standard of living of the citizens.
  1. Achieve social solidarity.
  1. Mobilise all forces of the society in order to satisfy its needs on the basis of self-help and the society’s independence from authority, in catering for its social needs.
  1. Look after those destined for social solidarity and social defence, forming and integrating the marginal categories in the society.
  1. The orient of the movement for social change towards the achievements of the global national objectives and the national goal.

 

POLICIES:

  1. Combat poverty through the productive family programs, and social solidarity.
  1. Find solutions to social problems such as wandering children, begging and drug consumption.
  1. Take social precautionary measures to avoid negative phenomena.
  1. Social welfare and rehabilitation of social solidarity and social defence groups and special categories.
  1. Mobilise the woman sector and develop her capabilities to effectively assume her role in founding a family, and in society.
  1. Look after the senior citizens, investing their experiences and energies in productive life.
  1. Mobilize organisation and support for national and international voluntary effort for an effective contribution to the reconstruction of the umma.
  1. Issue new legislations to organise social welfare and development programs and improve existing legislation so as to be in tune with state directives.
  1. Develop environmental industries encouraging people to work therein to be able to contribute to an increase in the Gross National Product (GNP).
  1. Make available specialised and qualified human ressources, and use international experiences in all the areas of social development and welfare.

THE PRIORITIES:

  1. Preparation of the institutional and legislative framework for programs of social welfare and development.
  1. Combatting poverty through the programs of productive families and the establishment of a society enjoying solidarity.
  1. Treating social distortions such as the increase of vagabonds, beggars and drug consumption.
  1. Providing welfare and training to the target categories via programs of social welfare.
  1. Undertaking studies and research that helps in social planning.
  1. Formation of the necessary human resources in order to improve performance in all areas of social development.

PROGRAMS:

  1. PRODUCTIVE FAMILIES PROJECTS:

Providing two million families ownership of the means of production within the ten year strategy period, at the rate of  two hundred thousand productive families yearly, with an overall cost of twenty billion sudanese pounds, at the rate of two billion every year. This includes areas of food security, clothing and rural industries, whereby the distribution of the productive families projects will be made at the rate of twenty thousand productive families to each wilaya, and these projects will be based on the following:

  1. a) Social mobilization and training
  2. b) Administrative organization
  3. c) Ownership of the means of production
  4. d) Marketing
  5. e) Follow-up and evaluation
  1. VOLUNTARY WORK:
  1. Increase of national voluntary associations to be able to cover all areas of assistance and development.
  1. Preparation of national development programs at the federal and regional level that enables foreign voluntary organizations to join in with their efforts in the area of development.
  1. Organization of workshops and conferences on practical and application aspects of the programs, and the carrying out of researches and studies to help and guide voluntary work in the social welfare and social development field.
  1. Updating rules and regulations organizing voluntary work, thus emphasizing its role in realising the objectives of this strategy and the supervision of its implementation.
  1. CONSCIENTIZATION AND SOCIAL GUIDANCE:

The organization of conscientisation and social guidance programs at the centre and in the regions making use of both modern and traditional mass media, cultural caravans, and available fora with a view to achieve all set objectives, emphasizing the following:

  1. Mobilisation for the participation in the productive families projects
  1. Raising of social awareness and eradicating bad habits
  1. Rationalisation of consumption, encouraging the spirit of saving and productivity
  1. Family guidance and child welfare
  1. Health and environmental guidance
  1. f) Spiritual consciousness
  1. g) Eradication of illiteracy, especially among women, and supporting continuous education
  1. h) Cooperative guidance
  1. i) Facilitating marriages
  1. j) Raising the efficiency of local leaders and identification of shura leadership through the organization of training workshops and seminars
  1. k) Establishment of 66 units of social awareness, a unit per muhafaza
  1. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS:
  1. Establishment of nine multi-purpose social centres at the wilaya level and 66 social centres at the muhafaza level, and 256 social centres at the local council level
  1. Establishment of two hundred production units in all existing social centres in all the wilayas of the Sudan.
  1. FAMILY PROGRAMS:
  1. Preparation and excution of social awareness programs designed for the family to spread awareness in matters pertaining to health, nutrition, education and law with regard to personal and family affairs.
  1. The study of behavioural and consumption habits fighting their negative aspects.
  1. Introduction of social service programs in general as well as higher education institutions.
  1. Support of poor families having handicapped children to secure their up-bringing in the family fold and protection.
  1. Establishment of cooperative and productive family societies at all levels providing them with the means necessary to ensure their continuity.
  1. Undertaking studies to shed light on the socio-economic effects of the extended family, and its needs in areas of lodging and family welfare.
  1. Giving the families ownership of the means of production through the productive family programs.
  1. The spread of family clubs, at the rate of one per muhafaza in urban areas, and the continuation in the efforts of generalizing family centres, where programs of family welfare and guidance are presented.
  1. WOMEN PROGRAMS:
  2. Support of organizations concerned with women.
  3. Making an inventory of national, international. and regional conventions approved by the Sudan for their implementation.
  4. Training leaders in women work at all levels in the fields of social work and social development.
  5. Establishment of women affairs documentation organs.
  6. Preparation of women’s programs through the social centres in the following areas:
  7. a) Women’s jurisprudence.
  8. b) Child education.
  9. c) Protection of the environment.
  10. d) Utilization of appropriate power technology
  11. Nutrition.
  12. f) Fighting practices harmful to maternal and child health.
  13. g) Prevention from A.I.D.S.
  14. h) Combatting wrong consumer habits.
  15. Establishment of 9 centres for the formation and training of young women. Provision of legal consultancy services and family guidance to women through social welfare offices and social centres in coordination with jurists and judicial institutions.
  16. Social awareness, formation and training programs for nomadic women through conscientisation caravans.
  17. Establishment of a lending bank to finance women development projects.
  18. Coordination between the Union of Sudanese Women and specialised bodies in the excution of literacy programs  and the formation of rural women.
  1. WELLFARE PROGRAMS FOR THE ELDERLY:
  1. Undertaking statistical and social surveys and studies, to identify the number of the elderly and the retired citizens, to know their needs and capabilities.
  2. Undertaking awareness raising campaigns on the conditions of the old.
  3. Amendment of obligatory retirement policies permitting the society to benefit from the experiences of the elderly, their ideological and operational capabilities, as long as they are capable of giving.
  4. Extension of social protection, solidarity and zakat ambrella to cover the old and their families.
  5. Assistance and support for the families with elderly people to enable them provide the necessary care in accordance with Allah’s order for people to treat their parents with love and compassion.
  6. Quarterly review of the basis on which pensions are calculated to guarantee dignified living for the retired and their dependants.
  7. Overall health insurance coverage to elderly giving them priority in prevention and cure.
  8. Establishment of national voluntary organizations and societies for the welfare of the elderly.
  9. Preparation of a global plan on how to make use of the abilities of senior citizens and the elderly in education, literacy, coranic schools, social services and productivity.
  1. SPECIAL CATEGORIES PROGRAMS:
  1. Rehabilitation of existing establishments and application of scientific methods in the rehabilitation and welfare of the handicapped providing these establishments with a spiritual educational method.
  2. Enlargement of the program to integrate the handicapped and its application in all wilayas, and the introduction of the productive units system in institutions for the handicapped.
  3. Enlarging possibilities of means of transport for the handicapped.
  4. Encouragment of the creation and support of cooperative societies for the handicapped.
  5. Development of the artificial limbs centre and the addition to it of a medical shoes factory and a natural medicine unit, with branches in all the wilaya’s of the Sudan.
  6. Making available the human as well as the material means for the welfare and the rehabilitation of the handicapped.
  1. Activating the national council for the handicapped and the creation of its branches in all wilayas.
  1. Provision of welfare for the brilliant and the genius.
  1. SOCIAL SECURITY PROGRAMS:
  1. Enlargement of general assistance programs to social security categories through social welfare offices and social centres.
  1. Generalizing the model program for the production of school uniforms in all production units in social development establishments.
  1. Generalizing the free-services project through the social centres.
  1. Adoption of the social security law and its application in coordination with specialized bodies.
  1. Making available the necessary guarantee to finance productive families projects for the poor from specialised banks via solidarity savings and zakat.
  1. Encouragement of the establishment and support of popular pharmacies.
  1. THE SOCIAL DEFENCE PROGRAM:
  1. Curbing the phenomenon of juvenile delinquency
  1. Curbing the phenomenon of begging, and the establishment of (9) lodging homes in the wilaya’s to welcome the elderly who have no family, and those living around centres of prayer and public buildings, encouraging those who have able families to look after them.
  1. Inclusion of all families of prisoners in the productive families projects.
  1. Making an annual inventory of those on whom a diya ( islamic compensation for loss of life ) judgement was passed among the poor, and endeavouring to solve them through social solidarity programs and the enlargement and support of the kafala system to categories of social defence.
  1. Undertaking studies and research of phenomena that threaten social security such as cultivation of opium, and nakedness among some tribes, with a view to facilitating the eradication of these phenomena.
  1. Rehabilitation of psycological treatment establishments in coordination with specialized circles and the introduction of the spiritual treatment system in social defence establishments.
  1. Updating social defence establishment’s curricula.
  1. Preparation and execution of programs combatting drug consumption and delinquency.
  1. Introduction of a prisoner’s saving’s document system, at a rate of 50% of the production, with which sum a prisoner freed, can start anew.
  1. Preparation of programs adressing the phenomenon of delinquency of young women.
  1. Consolidation of prison social service offices and especially women prisons and the development of training and formation programs for women prisoners.
  1. Presentation of awareness-raising programs via the mass media to treat the phenomena affecting social defence categories.

EXECUTION AND FOLLOW-UP:

  1. a) Making available the human and material fabric necessary for the execution of the strategy.
  1. b) Creating, within the ten year period, social welfare offices at the muhafaza and council level.
  1. c) Providing technical and material support for the execution of the plan intoducing the computer for statistics and documentation, and the establishment of data banks in all areas of development and welfare at the central and wilaya level.
  1. d) Improvement of the conditions of service of social experts.
  1. e) Establishment of a training centre for social researchers.
  1. f) Making possible for social specialists to prepare for higher diplomas, master and doctoral studies, and the establishment of scientific cycles in social work for the higher
  1. g) Carrying out applied research to solve negative social phenomena in the field of development.
  1. h) Preparation of work guidelines for all aspects of social work and to all levels of execution.

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS

  1. a) Transforming families from consumerism to productivity thereby becoming able to fulfill their functions.
  1. b) Arrival at the society of social solidarity.
  1. c) Reliance on local and personal resources to satisfy needs.
  1. d) Participation in the increase of national income through the productive families programs and the tapping of potentialities.
  1. e) Minimizing the acuity of negative social phenomena.

STAGE BY STAGE PROGRAM:

  1. FIRST STAGE: 3 YEARS
  1. Making available the human resources and the technical and material support.
  1. Establishing a social welfare and development structure so that planning, criteria verification, training, research and documentation and external relations become the responsability of the federal ministry, wheras the emphasis of execution will be on the efforts provided by the grass-roots voluntary organizations, popular committees, and local government councils. Parallel to this should be established ministries and departments that help concretise this work, enhancing at the same time the wilaya’s rôle within the federal government, with a view to helping the society attain self-reliance in satisfying most of its needs, meeting the challenge of social development and welfare.
  1. Execution of the first stage of the productive families’ projects by giving 600,000 productive family means of production which constitutes 30% of the plan.
  1. Rehabilitation of existing social welfare institutions ( centres of the handicapped, social centres, social defence institutions and child welfare centres ).
  1. Completion of the legislative framework by reviewing the social laws and legislation relative to child and infant welfare, and the registration of voluntary committees and voluntary labour organization law in the sudan, and the follow-up ofpromulgating the new laws organizing social work.
  1. Execution of 30% of the program of opening social welfare offices at the local council level.
  1. Execution of 30% of the program of establishing social centres at the wilaya, muhafaza and local council level.
  1. Execution of 30% of the program of the establishment of institutions for the rehabilitation and the welfare of the handicapped in all wilayas ( the blind, the deaf, and the mentally retarded ).
  1. Execution of 30% of the integration of the handicapped in society programs.
  1. Execution of 30% of the social defence and security program, woman and the family, the elderly, voluntary work, and social consciousness and guidance.
  1. Starting conscientisation campaigns on the problems and conditions of the elderly.
  1. Amendment of retirement and social welfare and security legislations in a way to make use of what the elderly can offer and ensure looking after them.
  1. Review of the basis of the calculation of the retirement and social security.
  1. Starting the establishment of elderly peoples’ national voluntary societies.
  1. Supporting the families with old people so that they can look after them.
  1. Review of the social defence establishments curriculla and the introduction of spiritual medicine therein.
  1. Putting an end to the phenomenon of child deliquency and curbing that of beggary.
  1. Raising the standard of 30% of the work force in areas of social work, giving them training.
  1. Carrying out 30% of the research projects included in the strategic plan.
  1. SECOND STAGE: 4 YEARS
  1. Execution of 40% of the totality of the program of the productive families projects: giving 800,000 families ownership of the means of production.
  1. Execution of 40% of the global plan for the spread of social welfare offices at the muhafazas and local councils levels.
  1. Execution of 40% of the program of establishing welfare and rehabilitation institutions for the handicapped.
  1. Execution of 40% of the program of establishing social centres at the muhafaza and local council level.
  1. Execution of 40% of the program of the integration of the handicapped in society.
  1. Execution of 40% of the social defence and security program, that of women, the family and the elderly, voluntary work, and social conscientisation and guidance.
  1. Training of 40% of the social welfare personnel, and raising their efficiency.
  1. Carrying out 40% of the social research projects included in the strategy.
  1. THIRD STAGE: 3 YEARS
  1. Completing the execution of what remains of the programs included in the strategy and the evaluation of the performance in the social welfare and development strategy.

FOLLOW-UP AND EVALUATION:

  1. Undertaking a yearly evaluation to measure the degree of achievement vis-a vis the totality of the program, and determining its quality.
  1. Undertaking a stage by stage evaluation of the the three stages of the strategy to measure the performance in each stage, quantitatively as well as qualitatively.
  1. Final evaluation of the performance in realizing the strategy and the degree of attainment of the sectoral objectives, and their impact in reaching the national goals, and to determine to what extent what has been achieved in the social welfare and development sector in taking the society closer to the achievement of the Sudanese civilizational project.

                                                CHILD WELFARE STRATEGY

                                    The noblest goal of this strategy is to secure the upbringing of generations of Sudanese children, on whom is personified the picture of the future that we want for our country, and who are capable of creating that future. Generations that have faith in God, are attached to the principles of its religion, aware of its mission to the nation and to humanity at large, sincere to its homeland, endeavouring to develop it on the basis of self-confidence and pride in its civilizational character, committed to the principles of belief, right,justice,

charity and doing good, ever aspiring in its ideas, conduct and attitude, to the superior and lofty ideals of humanity, in its individual and collective attitude, because our children are the voice of the future, and the more we take good care of them the more we guarantee the making of that future, its enhancement and development. In implementing this noble mission we will follow the following guidelines:

GUIDELINES:

  1. a) Child develpment, welfare and protection with a religious, nationalist and humanistic commitment, inspired by and emanating from our spiritual and social values, our heritage, principles, the facts of our condition and responding to our aspirations.
  1. b) Child development, welfare, safeguarding their rights, satisfying their basic spiritual, psychological, biological and cultural needs is a fundamental component of social development, which is the essence of global development and the guarantee of the continuity of the civilizational renaissance.
  1. c) Upright child up-bringing is a public responsability which the state, the society and the family shall  carry out in a spirit of social complimentarity.
  1. d) Child welfare is a priority for our developmental efforts, our strategies and sectoral programs.
  1. e) Child up-bringing in a family context is the very basis of child development and welfare, and it is for the state to bear the responsability of consolidating the means and resources of the family to enable it fulfil its responsability.
  1. f) Commitment to the guidelines of the national work plan to preserve, protect and develop the children of the Sudan.
  1. g) Commitment to insuring children rights mentioned in the Arab, islamic, regional and international rights of the child covenants, for all Sudanese children.

OBJECTIVES:

            In addition to the general objective of the child welfare strategy, this strategy aims at the following:

  1. a) Bringing up physically, psychologically, spiritually, morally and socially healthy children, prepared to assume their rôle in life effectively.
  1. b) Commitment to the objectives of the national work plan to safeguard, protect and develop Sudanese children.
  1. c) According special attention to children living under difficult conditions by realizing the following objectives:
  1. Eradication and uprooting of child delinquancy and rehabilitation of convicted youth psychologically, spiritually, educationally, socially and professionally.
  1. Welfare and education of orphaned children.
  1. Welfare of handicapped children and their integration in the society.
  1. Welfare of immigrant children.
  1. Giving special attention to outstanding children providing them with the conditions suitable for the development of their talents and abilities.

POLICIES:

  1. a) Making available the social, material, cultural, and technical needs for children and the resources necessary for their welfare.
  1. b) Provision of the necessary assistance to needy children who live in difficult circumstances.
  1. c) Promulgation of legislations protecting children from exploitation.
  1. d) Encouragement of genius and creative children and their assistance to develop their talents, abilities and capabilities.

PRIORITIES:

  1. a) Programs pertaining to the basis of child and maternal services.
  1. b) Programs relative to children under difficult circumstances.
  1. c) Programs concerning the handicapped.
  1. d) Programs relative to convicted infants.
  1. e) Conscious-raising programs.
  1. f) Programs connected with supportive technical activities and research.

THE PROGRAMS:

  1. CHILD AND MATERNAL SERVICES PROGRAMS :
  1. General programs:
  1. Completion of the establishment of the national council for child welfare and its branches at the wilayas, muhafazas and local council level.
  1. Attaching nurseries to social centres at the wilaya and muhafaza levels and generalizing them by a unified method to all levels through popular effort.
  1. Encouragement of literary works such as book for children, magazines, increase of children’s libraries, establishment of theatres for children, theatres and the production of films and cartoons; the reconstruction of coranic schools, and the enrichment of nurseries’s with cultural materials.
  1. Establishment of children’s clubs at the wilaya level.
  1. Establishment of training centres for those in charge of nurseries.
  1. Introduction of social service in educational and health care establishments in coordination with relevant parties.
  1. Establishment of a toy manufacture.
  1. Rehabilitation of orientation activities for children and their consolidation through social centres.
  1. LEGISLATION:
  1. Completion of the legislative framework that ensures children’s rights and secures their basic needs.
  1. Improvement of the 1971 child welfare law, and the promulgation of a law to organize nurseries, and one to protect children from exploitation, and especially in the labour area.
  1. Review and amendment of the child welfare law to cope with new developments.
  1. PROGRAMS PERTAINING TO CHILDREN IN DIFFICULT CONDITIONS:
  1. DELINQUENTS: VAGABONDS:
  1. Implementing the family cohesion project for 36,OOO delinquents.
  1. Establishment of 3 centres for the prevention of delinquency in Khartoum, Kosti and Nayala?
  1. Implementation of the productive families projects for poor families with deilnquents.
  1. CHILDREN WITHOUT PARENTS:
  1. Rehabilitation of the five existing institutions by adding manpower and equipment.
  1. Establishment of nine youth centres in the wilaya’s capitals and cities.
  1. Encouragement of the alternative families system thus realizing the principle of solidarity.
  1. ORPHANS:
  1. Establish an orphan’s inventory determining its needs.
  1. Give priority to productive families projects, orphans and poor families.
  1. Establishment of three centres for the rehabilitation of orphan’s families in cooperation with voluntary effort in the Khartoum wilaya, generalizing it to the rest of wilayas.
  1. Awareness programs on the adoption of orphans.
  1. PROGRAMS PERTAINING TO THE HANDICAPPED:
  1. Transformation of existing institutes into centres for the formation of trainers.
  1. Establishment of 9 institutes for the rehabilitation of the various categories of handicapped – blind, deaf and the mentally retarded -, at the rate of an institute for each category in the capitals of wilayas.
  1. Increase of students’ access to handicapped welfare establishments, which should be doubled yearly.
  1. Provision and training of manpower for the establishments of the handicapped.
  1. Provision of aids for the handicapped to help them move.
  1. Inclusion in the 1993 census data of the number of handicapped and the type of handicap.
  1. Establishing with the help of higher education authorities sections in the education colleges of special education and welfare for categories of handicapped.
  1. Preparation of programs linking welfare for the handicapped and rehabilitation establishments with those universities that have special education sections rendering them more useful and beneficial for practical training of students.
  1. PROGRAMS RELATIVE TO DELIQUENTS:
  1. Rehabilitation of the seven existing centres.
  1. Establishment of three welfare centres for delinquents and their rehabilitation in El Damer, El-Obayid and Kassala.
  1. Establishment of 8 temporary centres, one in each wilaya.
  1. Establishment of two homes for delinquent girls.
  1. Full application of the 1983 delinquent infant welfare law.
  1. Making available manpower in the areas of delinquent infants welfare and their training.
  1. CONSCIENTIZATION PROGRAM:
  1. Reviewing and updating child-welfare establishments’ curricula.
  1. Emphasizing the rôle of the family in society.
  1. Eradication of bad habits and practices in the areas of consumerism.
  1. General conscientization programs for the society on child welfare and the adoption of children deprived of parents.

STAGES OF EXECUTION:

                        FIRST STAGE: ( 3 YEARS )

  1. Completion of the establishment of the national child welfare council and its branches in the wilayas.
  1. Establishment of nurseries in the social centres at both the wilayas and muhafaza levels.
  1. Preparation of programs for the production of child literature to be implemented within the strategy span, and the execution of 30% of that program in the first stage.
  1. Establishment of children’s clubs at the wilayas level.
  1. Establishment of centres to train nursaries’ women officers.
  1. Introduction of social service at a rate of 30% in the educational healthcare establishments.
  1. Establishment of a toys manufacture.
  1. Rehabilitation and consolidation of 30% of activities aimed at children through the social centres.
  1. Completion of the legislative framework that insures child’s rights and caters to its needs.
  1. Execution of the family consolidation project to cover 36,000 delinquents.
  1. Establishment of three delinquency preventive centres in Khartoum, Kosti and Nayala.
  1. Giving priority to poor families in the execution of productive families projects.
  1. Rehabilitation of welfare establishments for children without parents.
  1. Establishment of 30% of the welfare homes for children without parents in the capitals of wilayas that have no such homes.
  1. Execution of the needy orphans inventory program.
  1. Establishment of three homes for the rehabilitation of orphans’ families in cooperation with the voluntary effort.
  1. Transformation of existing handicapped welfare and rehabilitation institutes for the handicapped into centres for the training of trainers.
  1. Establishment of 30% of the welfare and rehabilitation establishments for the handicapped, the blind, the deaf, and the mentally retarded.
  1. Tripling the number of those benefitting from the handicapped welfare and rehabilitation establishments.
  1. Training of 30% of those working in the areas of the handicapped and child welfare, especially those working in the service of the handicapped children.
  1. Making available the means and aids that help the handicapped to move.
  1. Rehabilitation of the seven existing homes of unstable children.
  1. Establishment of three homes for the welfare and rehabilitation of unstable delinquents in El Damer, El-Obayid and Kassala.
  1. Establishment of two homes for the welfare of delinquent girls.
  1. completion of the application of the 1983 child welfare law.
  1. Beginning the execution of awareness programs pertaining to child welfare.

SECOND STAGE:

  1. Establishment of 60% of the nurseries at the local council level.
  1. Establishment of 60% of childrens’ clubs at the wilayas level.
  1. Execution of 40% of the program of childrens’ literature.
  1. Introduction of social service at a rate of 40% of the overall number of the educational and health care establishments.
  1. Rehabilitation of 40% of the activities destined for children through the social centres.
  1. Establishment of 40% of the homes for children without parents that are planned to be established in capitals without such homes.
  1. Establishment of 40% of the establishments of categories of the handicapped and their rehabilitation.
  1. Increase by seven folds the number of beneficiaries from the welfare and rehabilitation establishments for the handicapped children.
  1. Follow-up of the execution of that which was not executed in the first stage.

THE THIRD STAGE:

  1. Establishment of 40% of the social centres’ nurseries at the local council level.
  1. Introduction of social service by a rate of 30% of the totality of the educational and health care establishments.
  1. Completion of the production program for child literature by executing the remaining 30% of it.
  1. Rehabilitation of 30% of the activities destined for children in the social centres.
  1. Establishment of 30% of the social welfare homes for children without parents planned for capital cities without such homes.
  1. Establishment of 30% of the welfare and rehabilitation establishments for the handicapped planned to be created within this strategy.
  1. Continuity of executing awareness programs relative to child welfare.

MEANS OF EXECUTION AND FINANCE:

  1. MEANS OF EXECUTION:
  1. The national child council.
  1. Social centres.
  1. Social welfare establishments.
  1. Completion of the legislative and structural basis of the ministry of social welfare and development and the organs of child welfare at all levels.
  1. The families.
  1. Coranic schools, nurseries and schools.

FINANCE:

  1. Official support for children’s programs.
  1. Establishment of a children’s fund.
  1. Popular effort and national voluntary organizations.
  1. Rationalization of the support of donor states, international, regional and foreign voluntary organizations in the area of child welfare, and its orientation to achieve the objectives of this strategy.

                                                            YOUTH STRATEGY

            Our Umma who posseses unmatched and enviable civilizational capabilities, is able to unleash the energies of its sons and daughters to realize a new civilizational renaissance, tapping the great resources whose strongest foundation resides in its faith, its civilizational heritage, the wealth of its human and natural resources. Thanks to its healthy doctrine, its ancient civilization, its authentic culture, it has felt, through the ages, its great mission to improve its lot, and its ability to renew its life, and the establishment of its new society on the basis of the noble human values, of liberty, justice, equality and dignity, in addition to the cooperation and the solidarity among all its children, and the openess through good deeds to all peoples of the world, starting by the circles of the Arab, African and islamic peoples. That can be achieved only through its reliance on its people, and on the dynamic energies of its children, aspiring for social change, and civilizational renewal. Energies of its youth who represent the effective powers of the society. Thus youth is a partner in the present and constitutes all the future. It is at the centre of its force and might. Our Umma is young, and the youth represent its vast majority, and on them falls the responsability of its reconstruction, which necessitates their welfare and preparation to attain the level of this responsability. Accordingly the appropriate attention to their up-bringing and welfare, openning the avenues of progress and advancement for them, is an attention invested in the nation’s present and a guarantee of its future.  The fact is that a nation’s dynamism is inherent in the dynamism of its youth, and the degree of their feeling of responsability and seriousness.

            And our youth has a good example and model to follow in the youth of Islam that responded to the call of its newly born mission and gathered around it, occupying the first ranks in its forceful and sweeping movement forward, paying the price of its victory and spreading to far lands, accepting hardship, sacrifice and loss of life. Struggling with its ideas and conscience, its energy and its blood, to hoist its banner high in the world, building the noblest and the most refined civilization whose light has shined over the middle ages. Of late, our youth has led the movements of liberation in the Arab, African and Islamic homeland as well as in our country. It fought colonialism and wrested it, thus snatching political freedom for its peoples and nations. This is how youth are always pioneers, leaders and builders.

            Our youth today has, thanks to its belief, its willingness to give and its aspirations, the capacity to draw its inspiration from religion, and the construction of its country in such a way as to realize the authentic and renewable civilizational renaissance, that the global national strategy has made as its noblest goal.

            This is why the strategy has adopted, in the area of youth welfare and preparation to assume its rôle, a number of guidelines which together form the key of attaining the goals that the youth expect, and the mobilization of its immense energies and capabilities for the service of its people and nation. These are:

  1. Our nation is a young nation. The poulation growth indicators show that for a long time to come the predominance of youth growth will be the pattern. This fact necessitates that increased attention be given to this very vital sector for its own sake, and for the investment of its potential.
  1. Our youth has proven its ability to be a pioneer through its rôle in its nation’s history. This confirms the confidence in its ability to regain the historical and civilizational initiative, once we enable it to shoulder its responsability supported by the power of belief, the strength of its morality, and the ability to work, to give, to sacrifice and to ………….., and once we show them the reality of the civilizational confrontation between us and those who deny us the right to be ourselves. And that this confrontation is composed of three intermingled dimensions: a civilizational dimension by which authenicity is enhanced, and national personality consolidated, protecting itself, elevating its condition, continuing its historical civilizational rôle; a struggle dimension by which freedom is rendered complete, human and national freedom; and a developmental dimension by which is achieved progress and rapid and just advancement whose fruits can be shared by the sons and daughters of all the people, individually and collectively, and that the adequate assumption of the tasks of waging the struggles of authenticity, liberty, development, and succeeding in them, depends on the unity of the Umma’s thought, the unity of its will, its strong determination, to achieve a leap forward of the totality of its potentialities, and the efforts of all its sons and daughters, in a way to guarantee to their society with all its sectors security, tranquility, stability, solidarity and cohesion.
  1. Arming our youth through this new awareness, equipping it in a way consumerate with the responsability it entails, as an authentic part of Sudanese educational policy, and of its developmental strategy that considers youth, the future, the goal, the tool, the source and the energy of all the good it aspires to achieve for the people of Sudan, and its civilizational humanist rôle.
  1. The youth strategy gets its inspiration from the arabic, islamic and african culture, and its noble humanistic values, stressing man’s liberty and dignity, recognizing his place and rôle upon this earth, that God entrusted to him.

It also gets its inspiration from our country’s immense capabilities and potentials, and the struggle between them and the challenges facing it.

  1. Working with youth does not limit itself to their spare time only, but opens up to include all activities designed for the society. It is an authentic part of he overall developmental task, and the emphasis put on the investment of youth’s spare time underlies the importance gven to their great potentials. This should neither be ignored or wasted, linking out-of-school work with the educational and production process, complimentary to the educational as well as all efforts in favour of global development.
  1. Working with youth is also working for the society and the people, enabling the youth to develop its personality, realize its potential, contribute to the construction of its nation, through the development of its capabilities, its spiritual, ideological, moral, physical and social potential, a global, balanced and integrated development.
  1. Emphasis should be made on inculcating noble values in youth, developing its capabilities and potential, so that the passion of work characterizes his conduct and performance, by adopting the general guidelines of the global national strategy, its ends and objectives, and especially those of the education sector and its goals, in a manner integrating working with youth both inside and outside the school.
  2. The commitement of youth work to authentic principles and ideals leading to its progress and success, the most important of which are:

*          The principle of the humanism of youth work, by stressing the practice of respect of rights and duties.

*          The principle of education for belief so as to deepen youth’s belief in God, thus according due respect to what He preaches, avoiding what He forbids and cherishing these values as a prime source of inspiration.

*          The principle of its national identity, emphasizing that education and up-bringing emanate from a specific national and civilizational identity, whose functional and social nature guard the civilizational values and develop the nation; and the developmental principle based on the globality of these values, and the importance of the contribution of the citizens in their entirety, and especially the youth, in its realization, and their enjoyment of its fruits on the basis of cooperation, solidarity and justice.

*          The principle of democratic shura based on equality of opportunity, rights, duties and dignity among all youth, male and female, and respect on the basis that they are partners in life and destiny, and should enjoy the same degree of care and attention; in addition, this principle also means channeling efforts to the wider youth bases in the urban centres, the rural areas and the countryside, and that service should concentrate on areas of more density and greater need, with special attention being given to both handicaped and talented categories. It also means a democratic conduct of youth work, and the participation of youth themselves in planning and executing programs concerning them so that the work emanates from the will of the youth public.

*          The scientific principle based on the consolidation of science and the scientific approach in youth methodology, ideology and practice.

*          The principle of respect for work, emphasizing the value of work in life and civilization as the determining factor, and mover of life, and that man cannot accomplish his mission other than through work, and that ideas and work are, in their link, the two main sides of the human experience, teaching youth the love of work, emphasizing the importance of organization and cooperation and punctuality in work, and the realization of its productive objectives, and the respect of all facets of work be they ideological, operational, scientific or social, refraining from attitudes of disdain to manual labour, as work represents a high human attribute, and a superior civilizational value, as well as a religious duty.

*          The principle of education for life based on the respect of life, considered as a gift of God to man, and its protection as a right that must be preserved, and that all educational youth effort has as its very base human life, which progresses and becomes richer with it, and which makes more sense the more it is an emanation of life’s authentic meaning reflected by its various manifestations.

*          The principle of globality, complimentarity and equilibrium, so that youth work covers all facets of formation, education and cultural, social and economic activities, aimed at all youth categories, and at all Sudanese youth inside and outside the country, maintaining the link between them and their homeland and the roots of its authenticity, endeavouring to represent its country in the best way, portraying its civilization and defending its causes.

*          The principle of dialogue and shura aiming at the consolidation of the cohesion of the Sudanese society by constructive dialogue, profound consultation, among all its contemporary generations.

  1. Sudanese youth welfare is a public responsability incumbent on the state, civil associations, and especially youth, family and individual organizations.

THE OBJECTIVES:

                        The guidelines and the principles to which this strategy is committed constitutes a pertinent youth policy, and keeping them in mind and working to make them a living reality for the benifit of youth, who strives to put them at the service of the people and the reconstruction of the nation, reflects the fact that the intended superior goal and objectives are:

              –         first: bringing up generations of qualified Sudanese youth who are solid believers, attached to the principles of its religion, which forms the basis of its ideology, conduct and performance, aware of its mission vis-a-vis the nation, the society and humanity, being sincere to its country and serious about realizing its civilizational renaissance and confident in itself and its people, proud of its culture and civilizational heritage, and the continuous effort for its renewal to suit

its time, reformulating it to adequately respond to its future needs. Generations characterized by piety and good behaviour, committed to the ideals of liberty, justice, equality, bounty and beauty, and all superiour and noble human qualities in its individual as well as collective conduct.

             –   second: the unity of all youth of the Sudan, its individuals, its groups, its student , political, cultural,artistic, sporting, and scouting organizations,

in its diversity in kind and number, in an overall institutional framework; that materializes its hopes, enhances its creative inclinations and capabilities, is responsive to its aspirations, according due regard to the rôles of its organizations and areas of their competence, thus creating fertile arms in the unity of its movement.  The unity and gathering of youth around the cardinal basis of its umma and the sources of its authentic strength in its doctrine, its heritage, its culture, should be the driving force for the dynamism of this youth, giving them a special humanistic flavour, and cultivating their sense of belonging to it and the preparedness to defend its identity, its territory and its existence as a model of

progress, and in the effective participation in the formulation and the determination of the destiny of humanity. Enabling this youth to contribute to contemporary life through a give and take formula, thus uplifting its nation and endeavouring to realize the objective of its people, participating in laying enlightened and equitable foundations for the progress of humanity as a whole, attaining its security, its peace and stability, mobilizing values, capabilities and talents, that enable youth to achieve it.

            Third: ensuring effective participation of Sudanese youth and students, in their external activities, regionally and internationally; underlining the importance of their participation in meetings and in regional and international organizations connected with youth, students and sports, and in ideological, cultural and artistic fora, arming them with the ability to debate, and the power of conviction in defence of Sudanese, Arab, African and Islamic right, and all causes of right and liberation, giving justice to victims of injustice and putting an end to the exploitation of the exploited;  thus contributing in shifting in this way    the balance of power and international relations in favour of the developing countries.

            Fourth: assuring special welfare to youth who are in special circumstances and those who are gifted, such as the displaced, the handicapped and the genius, providing welfare for the displaced, rehabilitation for the handicapped, and a mobilisation of their energies in the movement of productive life, polishing the abilities and the talents of the gifted, making use of it in the service of their society and the construction of their country.

AREAS OF YOUTH WORK:

            Planning which is global, diversified and done with youth participation is imperative for effective youth work. It is unfortunate that the emphasis has so far been put on sports and the boy scouts’ movement at the expense of other fields, despite youth initiatives in the political and arts fields. Other areas such as religious, ideological, political, cultural and overall education have thus been neglected, either due to the difficulties inherent in the nature of working in these areas, or because of a lack of grasping their importance.  This situation has

imposed the necessity to determine those areas of youth work that are able to provide globality, diversity, complimentarity and equilibrium, elevating it to higher and new horizons by which the goals of this youth strategy can be achieved, ensuring effective youth participation in the realization of all goals of the global national strategy; the most important of which are the following:

  1. THE IDEOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL FIELD:

            This is the key field that forms the vision that leads youth work in all its areas. It is its foundation and basic logic. Through it authentic belief takes root in youth souls, and thanks to it they posses authentic ideological ability, gain the capacity to think clearly, debate logically and dialogue and  use the power of conviction, and show courage in case of confrontation, in addition to opening opportunities for youth participation in ideological and cultural production. It is also the area aiming at linking youth to its doctrine, its people’s heritage, and the civilization of its time; preparing a base of ideology and feeling around which can be united all the youth of the nation, its sons and daughters; providing them with a sharp vision that guides their work and efforts in all fields, and in their theory and practice in all walks of life. It is the guarantee to immunize youth to cultural and civilizational alienation, lost in the wilderness of negative immitation for others, and fascination by the empty glitter of Western theories, and by ways alien to its umma.  Special attention, in this area , is to be exercised in youth literacy, youth participation in national literacy campaigns, finding a solution of bridging the gap seperating youth males from youth females.

  1. THE FIELD OF BEAUTY:

            The work in this field leads to the ability to create in all areas of artistic and literary activities. And on this resides the essential basis of culture, the life of the individual, the group and that of the umma and the society.  It also creates the chance for creativity and enjoyment, as well as an oppurtunity for the creative expression of the individual’s perceptions and of the umma’s personality, and as such it is a means of enriching life and the improvement of its quality, deepening its meaning and its fertility, and speaking about it in the best and most positive manner.  The incorporation of beauty education in the mainstream of general education and leisure is in itself a source of wealth, with a very strong two-way impact vis-a-vis itself and that of building the characters of those studying and participating in this field. It is of paramount importance that special attention be paid to Arabic language and literature and the ability to express oneself with it; this is a basic prerequisite for working in this domaine.

  1. THE SCIENTIFIC, TECHNOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC FIELD:

            While the scientific and technological strategy points at the immense gap separating the developing countries from the developed in this field, it is this very field that is capable of effective contribution to bridging this gapfending against its destructive effects. Working in this field arms youth with with scientific capabilities and familiarizes them with modern technology, the ability to develop traditional technology, and inventiveness in these two fields. In addition, this field encourages inventions and provides welfare to the talented and young inventers. The activity in this field, on the other hand, has high and positive work and productivity returns, and on the development of all productive and service sectors, thus establishing the pillars of their very foundations.  Moreover, it has a special value in underlining the scientific spirit among the young, due to what it contains as a choice, a methodology and means of facing developmental and growth problems adequately and scientifically. It also ensures the capacity to assimilate the know-how of the scientific revolution and modern technology, and creativity in them, and the ability to apply them, and hence the employment of youth’s scientific and technological aquired skills for the good of the society, its progress and renaissance.

  1. THE SPORTS FIELD:

            Due to its doctrinal, educational, health, productive and defensive importance, this field has been the subject of a special strategy. All these aspects being of basic importance for youth education and growth.

  1. THE JIHAD AND MILITARY EDUCATION FIELD:

            Military education and the cultivation of the spirit of jihad in youth is a basic pillar in youth preparation to be ready for any eventuality.  This becomes of greater importance in a nation threatened in its territory and its identity, encircled by plots from all sides. It is a field that takes priority in our present life and through it power can be gained, will can be liberated, and the national identity can be safeguarded against the vicious attack that denies us the right to be what we are, or that we carry out our aspired goal in our region, or to be faithful to the obligations of our Arab, African and islamic commitments, which give us immense civilizational and historical capabilities and energies, imposing on us the duty not only to satisfy and consolidate them, but to consolidate and affirm its place and influence in the contemporary world, as well as in the civilizational meeting and dialogue on the basis of equal dignity and partnership.

            Effective work in this area is capable of sowing in our youth a resolute, determined and disciplined spirit. In this way we can make the necessary reserves available to our armed forces, providing it with a wealth of youth spirit and energy, and thus consolidating our ability to defend the nation: as an identity, territory and values. Moreover military education and jihad  is the effective means of transmitting the desired mannerisms and habits to our youth. All this renders obligatory the attention given to popular defence organizations and the obligatory national service.

  1. THE GENERAL SOCIAL SERVICE FIELD:

            This is a field that permits our youth to serve its community, local as well as national, and participate in the efforts of global economic and social development, leading to the realization of the civilizational renaissance which the

global national strategy is to establish. Work in this field opens unlimited possibilities, starting by raising the awareness of the local community and social mobilization, carrying out elementary/preliminary services in enviromental health, constructing village roads, developing cities, establishing small productive projects, developing traditional trades and industries, and participating in the establishment of greater projects, such as the ( the road of peace and defiance : linking Khartoum with Shendi) and others, and small as well as big agricultural projects and industries. All this through youth voluntary work realized by youth organizations and groups in the form of workcamps, awareness-raising and services caravans, and within the obligatory national service, or as an alternative to it. The obligatory approach brings better results both in the organization of this work and its educational returns.

  1. YOUTH TRAVEL, TOURISM AND HOSTELS:

            This work aims at encouraging youth to travel and to country life and hardship, getting to know in a direct way , its nation: its people, its nature, its

environment and potentialities, all leading to deeper love for it, motivating the desire to build it and defending its entire moral and material existence.

            THE STAGE-BY-STAGE PROGRAM:

            THE FIRST STAGE: (3 YEARS)

  1. Completion of the establishment of the youth organization, by creating specialized youth organizations in all fields ( cultural, technical, sport, of boy scouts, scientific .. etc ) and the construction of the all-encompassing youth organization.
  2. Starting youth literacy campaigns by concentrating on the young who missed the chance of going to school, and who did not have pedagogical guidance; and participation in the national literacy campaign.
  1. Effective participation in the creation of the political system, and the enrollment in its organs.
  1. Starting the programs of the rehabilitation of the spirtitual life:
  1. Rehabilitation of the rôle of religious practice through prayer.
  1. Learning by heart and perfecting the recitation of the holy coran in the mosques, in schools, organizing circles for the same purpose during summer holidays.
  1. Collective fasting.
  1. Prayer waking.
  1. Linking the rôle of prayer with the society by establishing child nurseries, health units, training centres and libraries, and the rôle of women believers.
  1. Starting the cultural and technical progams which include the following:
  1. Cinema, theater and photography programs:
  1. Creation of theater troups to present theatrical works all over the country.
  1. Organization of cinema and photography associations, and starting cinema production.
  1. Training of the talented.
  1. Writing of plays and theatre pieces and translation of fine plays.
  1. Educational consolidation programs:
  1. Acadamic consolidation lessons during schooling and in summer holidays.
  1. Visits to areas of practical application of the theoretical studies such as factories, laboratories, projects and establishments, organizing work in them during schooling and in holiday periods.
  1. Programs for issuing newspapers and periodicals:
  1. Wall magazines in schools and in higher education establishments.
  1. Issuing of youth and students’ newspapers.
  1. Youth and students participation through writing in national and local newspapers, general and specialized.
  1. Conferences, lectures and cultural caravan programs in the following fields:
  2. Political awareness and mobilization.
  3. Explanation of the global national strategy.
  4. Religious awareness and preaching.
  5. Culture, literature and art.
  6. Social aspects:

                                                1) Consolidation of the moral model.

                                                2) Habits and traditions.

  1. The economy and reconstruction.
  2. National security.

                        These subjects are presented in schools and in establishments of higher institutions, in living and working quarters, and in cultural, sports and social clubs and family homes… and other places all over the country.

  1. Military and jihad education including:
  1. The enrolment in military training in schools and higher education institutions program.
  1. The enrolment in the national obligatory service program.
  1. Joining popular defence camps in all parts of the country.
  1. Starting the voluntary work mobilization program in the following areas:
  1. Construction and repair of roads.
  2. Constucting the drainage system.
  3. Combatting floods and water disasters.
  4. Cultivating and harvesting the land.
  5. Constructing schools and public buildings.
  6. Constructing homes for the poor.

                        8.Organization of environment rehabilitation programs in the following areas:

  1. Cleaning campaigns in homes, schools, work sites, places of prayer and hospitals.
  1. Maintenance of public buildings ( schools, hospitals, places of prayer, youth clubs, and social welfare establishments.
  1. Planting trees in schools, work and living sites as well as in streets and public squares; and participation in the national tree-planting campaigns.
  1. Organizing health caravans to spread health awareness, providing health services, and consolidating basic health welfare units capabilities.
  1. Boy scouts and youth tourism programs which include:
  1. Boy and girl scouts programs for children and youth of both sexes generalized to schools and living quarters.
  1. Youth tourist programs enabling the young to have an intimate knowledge of their country.
  1. Establishment and rehabilitation of youth hostels.
  1. Sport programs:

                        The programs mentioned in the sports strategy will be executed according to the agreed plan.

  1. Starting science and technology programs:
  1. Establishment of scientific associations and science clubs in schools, universities, institutes and in youth, social and multi-purpose centres.
  1. Programs for the welfare of the talented and the young inventers.
  1. Development of trades and traditional industries.
  1. Establishment of agricultural and industrial projects in educational institutions, as a part of the students’ organizations programs.
  1. Establishment of technological, trade and home economics centres for the youth of both sexes.
  1. Guaranteeing a linkage between vocational training centres and work and production sites.

THE SECOND AND THIRD STAGES:

 

  1. The continuity of the programs of a continuous nature started in the first stage.
  1. Performance evaluation.

                                                            WOMEN STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION:

            Despite the fact that the women sector has been covered, and women needs have been included in the various sector strategies,  it is to highlight certain

ideas and meanings that a special women strategy figures in this sector. It is also a way to draw attention to issues pertaining to women, and their vital rôle in life. Women in addition, like most of the sudanese people, who suffered from the affliction and the agony of dependency, underdevelopment and exploitation, have suffered the most to such extent that customs and traditions dared to tamper with what religion underlined concerning their right in dignity, equality in responsibility, and humanity, and their rights in work, education and health, and holding public office, in welfare and respect. Moreover, women have special rights relative to child-bearing and the family circle welfare. All of this necessitates special attention to bridge the gap in their condition. And as women represent a formidable energy, constituting half or more of society, their inclusion in the march of renaissance and construction, places a duty upon society to give them special welfare, that wipes away from them all facets of injustice, consolidating their abilities and position, so that the society can move forward with the energy of all its sons and daughters.

This requires the active involvement of all sectors of the global strategy in the execution of women related programs, and their inclusion in the society’s productive life cycle. This, too,  requires the motivation, support and follow-up of the women organization, the ministry of social welfare and development as well as other state institutions, to guarantee the execution of all the programs in the three stages of the execution of the strategy.  Our effort to achieve this shall be guided by the following:

GUIDELINES:

            Consolidating the status of women enables the society

to attain its global renaissance. The unleashing of its energies

in the battle of rebirth, renewal and construction is a duty that must not be neglected, and giving women equal opportunites in

work, production and participation in public life is a right and a duty, emphasizing justice, equity and equality in society, thus applying God’s wish in honouring all people without

discrimination.

OBJECTIVES ACCORDING TO PRIORITY:

  1. Give first priority to women’s development and the satisfaction of their needs.
  1. Support the women sector and mobilize its energies as an important human resource in the realisation of the global national renaissance strategy.
  1. Elevate women’s function in society in the framework of authentic conceptualization for the whole society, and the adoption of policies in accordance with this function and its importance improving the present and constructing the future.
  1. Open new horizons for women helping them to become an effective factor in political, social and economic change.

POLICIES

  1. Consolidation and safeguarding of what has been achieved in the area of women’s rights.
  1. Practical application of legislations promulgated in favour of women, and completion of the legislative framework that consolidates her rights.
  1. According women all their God-given rights, and continuous conscientisation of the necessity of respecting these rights, as part of the doctrine.
  1. Waging war against customs and traditions detrimental to women and wasteful of their rights, by education and awareness-raising, encouraging women to stand by their rights, giving them the help needed.
  1. Consolidation of laws protecting the working woman and the promulgation of legislation necessary in all areas of work and specially in the unorganized sector.
  2. Wipe out women’s civilizational and reading and writing illiteracy, according due attention to their religious education, awarding them opportunities in professional training in literacy campaign and basic education programs, affirming their equal right in education and encouraging them to exercise this right in order to make up for the gap in this field.

MAJOR PROGRAMS:

  1. The program for organizing women in unions, societies and associations absorbing all Sudanese women regardless of their inclinations, their wishes and their professions, facilitating the unleashing of their energies in all walks of life as an organized force, and the unification of these organizations in an overall framework.
  1. The program for improving women’s various rôles in the different walks of life, enabling them to carry out all their functions, by authenticating its concept in educational and learning programs, consolidating it by the secondary programs, that are to be carried out across all sectors and programs of the global strategy:
  1. PROGRAMME FOR THE ELEVATION OF THE BASIC

            ROLE OF WOMEN AS MOTHERS, WHICH INCLUDES:

  1. Organization of workshops, debates and meetings and publication of booklets on maternity and child care and health and nutrition, and safe ways of child raising.
  1. Ensuring proper and adequate food for those who need it among

pregnant women and those who have just given birth and enabling the families to achieve that.

  1. Establishing special health and medical treatment days for

mothers and children.

  1. Honouring the ideal mother at the quareter, village, campment, council, state, willaya and at the national level.
  1. PROGRAMME FOR THE ELEVATION OF THE ROLE OF

            WOMEN AS WIVES, WHICH INCLUDES:

  1. Enlightening women through the available media, conventional and modern, of the basis of mariage life and its responsibilities, the good treatement of the husband, upholding of family welfare and cohesion, and making her aware of her rights and duties according to the teachings of religion, and noble Sudanese norms and usage.
  1. Offering of advice and useful experiences in solving problems pertaining to marital and family life, via special programs to be carried out at the quarters level, and in the mass media.
  1. PROGRAMME FOR ELEVATION OF THE ROLE OF

            WOMEN AS HOUSEWIVES, WHICH INCLUDES:

  1. Raising women’s awareness of the importance of saving in living expenses, avoiding extravagant spending and rationalization of consumption.
  1. Training women on how to find alternatives in the field of family feeding, on local industries such as making jam, marmalade, cheese, tomato paste and all other household needs, like soap, knitting clothes, needlework and other manual jobs.
  1. Training the housewife to depend on herself for the small jobs she needs done, like making a matress, painting, fixing electric objects, and first aids.
  1. PROGRAMME FOR THE ELEVATION OF THE ROLE OF

            WOMEN AS AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, WHICH INCLUDES:

  1. Providing her with agricultural production inputs, such as land ownership, appropriate technical tools, improved seeds, fertilizers and worm killers, and loans, credits and grants.
  1. Orienting agricultural guidance programs, both botanical and animal, towards women awareness.
  1. Generalizing the ” Gabraka ” system, ( a small farm attached to the house, in which a woman cultivates for her family’s needs in agricultural products ).
  1. Encouraging women to participate in farmers’ unions and associations, especially those concerned with marketing, storage, and cooperative societies.
  1. PROGRAM FOR THE ELEVATION OF WOMEN’S ROLE

            IN SMALL INDUSTRIES, WHICH INCLUDES:

  1. Development of traditional industries carried out by women with an effort to improve them, such as weaving of mats from branches of date trees, pottery, textile, wool, carpets, needle works and food production.
  1. Establishment of societies for marketing of these products locally and internationally.
  1. Introduction of new industries and training of women to enable them to acquire the skills needed therein.
  1. PROGRAM FOR THE ELEVATION OF WOMEN’S ROLE

            AS WORKERS IN PUBLIC SERVICE AND IN THE

            PRIVATE SECTOR, WHICH INCLUDES:

  1. Putting in practice the texts of laws pertaining to women’s work with regard to discipline, promotion and training.
  1. Preparing women and training them to hold supreme leading offices in the field of public service and production sites.
  1. Encouraging women to participate in trade unions and professional associations work.
  1. PROGRAM FOR THE ELEVATION OF WOMEN’S ROLE

            IN POLITICS, WHICH INCLUDES:

  1. The general union of Sudanese women undertakes political awareness campaigns at the quarters, villages and campments level, to urge women’s participation in public life, guaranteeing their representation in the political and services organs, such as popular committees as well as in the general and sectoral congresses of the political system.
  1. The organization of training cycles to prepare effective women political leaders.
  1. Ensuring women representation in political, popular and official conferences and delegations, to reflect the experiences of Sudanese women, and getting to know about women’s experiences in other countries.
  1. Giving women the opportunity to assume executive responsability at the highest levels, and in the institutions that are related to women concerns and issues.
  1. PROGRAM FOR WOMEN’S ROLE IN DEFENDING

            THE HOMELAND:

  1. Enlarging women battalions/regiments in popular defence ranks.
  1. Generalizing military training and civil defence in the educational curricula of women students.
  1. Making available the chance for women to participate in obligatory national service emphazising her role in the field of social service.

THE STAGE-BY-STAGE PROGRAM

  1. COMPLETION OF WOMEN ORGANIZATION’S PROGRAM:

            Work in this program continues as of the first year of the strategy, until the completion of women’s organizations, specialized unions and the all-encompassing organization.

  1. PROGRAM OF ELEVATION OF THE VARIOUS ROLES OF WOMEN:

            All major programs included in this strategy are of a coninuous nature, that ought to be initiated in the first stage, and their continuation all along the strategy years.  It is worth mentioning that effective women participation in society’s life and the accomplishment of their roles which are included in this strategy requires a complete cultural revolution and continuous and effective educational and information campaigns, to render conceptually authentic a correct understanding of women’s right to a worthwhile participation in the life of her society, and the realization of its civilizational renaissance, protecting their legislative and legitimate rights, material as well as moral.

                                    SOLIDARITY STRATEGY

GUIDELINES

  1. Man is the goal and creator of social development, and social justice is its ultimate objective.
  1. The family is the first embryo of society, hence giving it the necessary attention, appreciating the value of its abilities, insuring and protecting the means of its being, and adopting the concept of the productive and solidary family and legislating for it is a necessity to enable it carry out its great social responsibility.
  1. Social development is a collective effort, and the fruition of solidarity work between the citizen, the state and society, and popular participation is one of the corner-stones of social welfare and development.
  1. Education aims at inculcating deeply religious doctrines and valued social customs, and endeavours to strengthen national unity, commitement to the homeland, contribution to its construction, and the safegarding of its environment.

GOALS

  1. Upholding the values of solidarity, cooperation, welfare of relatives, blood relations and neighbours in society, and widening of the scope of social solidarity to include all sectors of society.
  1. Combatting poverty, ensuring the citizen’s basic needs, protecting him against economic, social and moral risks, preventing children from falling into vagabondary, and fighting prostitution and beggary.
  1. Participation in the just distribution of income and wealth, and the development of productive employment oppurtunities by giving ownership of means of production to one and a half million poor families.
  1. Multiplying zakat, wakf and other solidarity funds twenty fold, encouraging the benevolent to contribute generously to wakf funds.
  1. Enlarging the noble value of solidarity so that it becomes a voluntary popular practice helping to make society independent from state power in catering for its basic needs, including education, culture, production and benevolent works.
  1. Establishment of an organism to coordinate official efforts and those of funds and institutions working in the field of social solidarity.

POLICIES

  1. Enlarging the umbrella of social security to include all Sudanese citizens inside and outside the Sudan.
  1. Promulgation of a health insurance legislation.
  1. Promulgation of a unified legislation for social assistance.
  1. Galvanization of popular, voluntary, and benevolent effort of working in the area of social solidarity in a manner to widen its scope and deepen its impact on the life of the society.
  1. Arrival to the stage of global social solidarity by the promulgation of a unified social solidarity legislation assimilating all legislations in vigour in the field of social solidarity.

THE PRIORITIES

  1. Carrying out the necessary studies to determine the danger of poverty, the number of poor, the resources needed, in order to bring about the desired change, lifting the poor to a level where their basic needs are met, thus giving support to those who are entitled to it.
  1. Enlarging the social insurance umbrella quantitatively, qualitatively and geographically, including those working abroad.
  1. Productive families’ programs, by providing ownership of the means of production.
  1. Establishment of a solidarity bank.
  1. Formation of solidarity committees.
  1. Establishment of an information production unit.
  1. Establishment of the solidarity institute.
  1. Construction of popular housing units.
  1. Distribution of support to those entitled to it.

MAJOR PROGRAMS

THE FIRST OBJECTIVE

  1. 100% Coverage of all citizens by the social security system ( general insurance, pensions and health insurance ).
  1. Propagation of solidarity consciousness:

            .Discussion groups at the quarter and city council levels with the help of solidarity committees (500 yearly), and public lectures at the level of educational institutions (100 yearly).

            .Production of 20 films for cinema (mobile cinema).

            .           Production of 10 television series.

            .           A bi-monthly television program.

            .           Explanatory bulletins (5 million).

            .           A bi-annual specialized scientific magazine.

            .Encouragement of book production allotting a yearly sum for financing 5 million books annually.

            .Establishment of the solidarity institute to train those working in solidarity institutions.

THE SECOND OBJECTIVE

  1. Combatting poverty by ensuring satisfaction of the basic needs level to all citizens (100%).

THE THIRD OBJECTIVE

  1. Giving ownership of the means of production to one and a half million families among the poor.
  1. Establishment of 20% of the planned storage capacity.
  1. Establishment of ten thousand popular housing units.

THE FOURTH OBJECTIVE

  1. Multiplication by 2O times of the solidarity institutions revenu .
  1. Establishment of the solidarity bank.

THE FIFTH OBJECTIVE

  1. Establishment of solidarity committees in all quarter councils in the Sudan (popular committees).
  1. Contribution in the establishment of benevolent and voluntary associations and support of existing associations.
  1. Completion of the structural edifice of the solidarity department.

EXECUTION AND FOLLOW-UP

 

THE EXECUTION PARTNERS

  1. The solidarity fund.
  2. The national fund for social insurance.
  3. Zakat department.
  4. Pensions fund.
  5. Social welfare.
  6. Department of the displaced.
  7. Awkaf.
  8. Fund for the support of Sharia.
  9. Fund for the support of students.
  10. Insurance companies (life insurance).

DETERMINATION OF THE MEANS OF EXECUTION

  1. The above-mentioned solidarity organs begin the execution of the plan.
  1. After the completion of the legislative and structural edifice of the solidarity department, it takes over the execution of the plan.

FOLLOW-UP

Follow-up operations take place yearly according to the time schedule and the plan execution stages.

EXECUTION STAGES

THE FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

  1. Undertaking studies on poverty.
  1. Coverage of all those working for remuneration by social insurance by a rate of 100%.
  1. Generalizing health insurance by a rate of 100%.
  1. Rationalization of support distribution to those entitled to it.
  1. Giving 150,000 families ownership of the means of production yearly.
  1. Construction of 1,000 housing unit.
  1. Establishment of the solidarity bank.
  1. Unification of legislation.
  1. Beginning of the structure and setting up solidarity committees.

THE SECOND STAGE (4 years)

  1. Coverage of the remaining sectors by social security.
  2. Giving means of production ownership to 600,000 families.
  3. Completion of the solidarity department organic structure.

THE THIRD STAGE (3 years)

  1. Completion of social security coverage of all citizens from all risks.
  2. Completion of the social support formula.
  3. Completion of giving one and a half million families ownership of the means of production.
  4. Completion of constructing 10,000 housing unit.
  5. Reaching the stage of total social solidarity for all categories of the sudanese people.

                                    VOLUNTARY AND BENEVOLENT WORK STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

             Religion after religion and prophet after prophet have continued to hold in high esteem voluntarism and good deeds. As for islam, it makes a link between voluntary work, good deeds and faith, and the coranic verses describe those who do good as the benevolent, the winners in belief and the faithful, promising them salvation from the torture of doomsday, whereas it links the unfaithful and withholding to do good as in the verse. “

            All religions have bestowed upon man all the meanings of goodness, compassion and solidarity, including animal, plant and even stone care, forbidding agression against the environment, for the sake of protecting life.

            The statistics and figures show that in the Sudanese reality, on-the-field active national voluntary and non profit work, is still an infant, compared to the work done by foreign voluntary organizations; it suffers from many problems and from shortages in qualifications, experience and finance.

            Voluntary and non profit work in Sudan also lacks planning as is clear in all previous efforts, which were no more than individual uncoordinated efforts, dictated by the urgency of need and the pressure of working conditions.

            In the context of the global national strategy the presentation of proposals, of plans and programs within a global voluntary and non profit work strategy in the Sudan, in order to develop and guide it, making it more advanced and globally so, became an imperative.

FIRST: THE NATIONAL GOAL THROUGH VOLUNTARY AND NON PROFIT WORK

  1. Establishment of an all-encompassing social renaissance inspired by the moral foundations enshrined in religion, national heritage, civic culture, good behaviour and customs, and noble humanist values.
  1. Development of voluntary and benevolent work in a way to enable the Sudan to affirm its civilizational identity, and attain the strength that can guarantee the existence of its people and their values, and the attainment of an advanced standard of good living to its citizens, capable of enhancing their human and social rights, meeting their basic needs, and satisfy the aspirations of the Umma.
  1. That Sudan becomes the best society in the world in terms of social solidarity, collaborative cohesiveness and compassion.
  1. That the society becomes self-sufficient in satisfying most of its needs.

SECOND:  STRATEGIC GUIDELINES FOR VOLUNTARY

                        AND NON PROFIT WORK

  1. The Sudanese are one people united in citizenship. Religion constitutes a basic factor in their being and culture, and their belief gives them a missionary spirit, noble behaviour, strong determination, belief and attachment in superior values. These meanings are the core of the Sudanese struggle for liberty, authenticity, development and social prosperity.
  1. Social development is a collective effort, and the fruit of a work of solidarity between the citizen, the state and society, and popular participation is one of the cornerstones of social welfare and development.
  1. Voluntary work is inspired by the noble principles contained in divine religions, and those enshrined in the charters of the United Nations and regional organizations, and those contained in the recommendations of the previous national dialogue congresses relative to this field.
  1. Voluntary work is a national endeavour especially aimed at the needy without discrimination as to colour, language, religion or race.
  1. Real voluntary and benevolent work is purely humanitarian and should be free from any other motives.

THIRD: OBJECTIVES OF VOLUNTARY AND BENEVOLENT WORK

  1. Reactivate the social movement by the multiplication of benevolent, social and voluntary organizations vertically and horizontally and by rendering them more effective.
  1. Emphasizing the right concept of voluntary work that goes beyond the present narrow concept to include resettlement and development and all meanings of bir, good deed, justice and mercy, and all meanings that have to do with the respect of the dignity of man.
  1. Reinvigoration of the values of social solidarity and cooperation, the welfare of relatives, neighbours and the needy in society.
  1. Support of the poor and those in the low income category, fight poverty, and fend against the social and moral risks created by it, wiping them out totally.
  1. Assistance and support of special categories in society such as the old, the handicapped, the homeless, the orphans, the immigrants and the refugees and others.
  1. Realization of the principle of development through participation, enabling people to participate in serving themselves, and to own the means of production.
  1. Ensuring a strategic storage of the work needs of each voluntary organ according to the nature of its work.
  1. Preparation and formation of youth in a way that meets its needs, making use of its dynamic energies in the service of the society, its protection and its defence.
  1. Protection of the environment, its promotion and development.
  1. Revival of work values, the effort to earn one’s living, and the avoidance of begging.
  1. According attention to women, developping their skills, giving them the ownership of the means of production and facilitating for them proper ways of earning their living.
  1. Enlargement of the scope of national voluntary work beyond the local level to reach a regional and international scope.

FOURTHLY: AREAS OF VOLUNTARY WORK

  1. REFORM AREA: social welfare, welfare of wayward and felonious children, prisoners’ welfare, combatting drugs, alcohol and bad habits.
  1. PREVENTION AREA: popular police and fire organs, civil defence, child and youth welfare, environment protection and environment health protection.
  1. SERVICE AND DEVELOPMENT AREA: living quarters’ projects ( shop, workshop, oven, farm, tent, studio, nursery ) and popular development and productive families’ support projects.
  1. BENEVOLENT WAKFS AREA:

FIFTHLY: THE PRESENT SITUATION OF VOLUNTARY WORK

  1. NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:
  1. The number of Sudanese voluntary organizations and associations is (262) two hundred sixty two of which only 25% are active.
  1. Most national organizations complain of weakness in structure, administration and human resources, which negatively affects their performance.
  1. The operational number of these organizations does not cover the Sudan and is rather limmitted to narrow areas distributed in a disorderly manner.
  1. FOREIGN VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS:
  1. The number of foreign voluntary organizations working in the Sudan is (62) sixty-two organizations.
  1. A great number of these organizations entered the Sudan in 1984, as a result of the drought and dessertification, the breaking out of the war in the south, rural migration towards provincial capitals, and from the south to the north.
  1. The activity of these organizations covers almost all of the Sudan in an organized fashion, where each organization specializes in a certain region.
  1. The financial support given by doners and some United Nations agencies to foreign organizations supercedes that given to national organizations.
  1. Most doners prefer to provide their financial support to foreign executing organizations rather than to national executing organizations.
  1. A big portion of the support thus provided goes to cover expenses and salaries of those working in these foreign organizations.
  1. Some foreign organizations employ inexperienced personnel.
  1. A lot of the food products provided by these organizations does not suit the customs of those to whom they are destined.
  1. Foreign organizations emphasize assistance more than development.
  1. Some foreign organizations bypass the humanitarian work framework and dwell on areas incompatible with its nature.
  1. THE LAWS ORGANIZING VOLUNTARY WORK

            There is no unified law organizing national and foreign voluntary work, but rather a number of dispersed laws that fall short of accomplishing what is expected of them. These are:

  1. The registration of the associations law of 1957.
  2. Missionary law.
  3. The organization of the foreign voluntary work law.
  4. The technical committee law.
  5. The organization of the national voluntary social work law of 1988.
  1. THE AUTHORITY ENTRUSTED WITH RESPONSABILITY OF VOLUNTARY WORK
  1. There is not one authority responsible for national voluntary work, the formulation of its policies and its supervision, as this responsability is undertaken by a number of organisms such as the ministry of social welfare and development, immigrants department, humanitarian assistance department, refugees department, ministry of youth and sports, ministry of culture and information, as well as governments of the wilayas.

SIXTHLY: VOLUNTARY AND BENEVOLENT WORK PLAN

  1. Coordination of efforts by the establishment of a national council for voluntary and benevolent work that coordinates the policies, proposes federal laws for voluntary work, invested with the follow-up responsibility with executing organisms. This council includes:
  1. Government representatives of organisms working in the voluntary and benevolent work field, or related to it, such as the ministry of social welfare and development, the ministry of youth and sports, the ministry of culture and information, the ministry of guidance and religious affairs, the department of refugees, of humanitarian assistance and reconstruction, and of immigrants, as well as the peace and development foundation.
  1. Voluntary organizations representatives.
  1. Personalities having to do with voluntary and benevolent work.
  1. This national council should have a technical secretariat with units specialized in planning, follow-up, technical advice and assistance, and finance. This national council should also have similar councils at the level of wilayas and states.
  1. Undertaking a thorough survey of voluntary organizations and the evaluation of their execution capacities, classifying them by specialty, or according to geographical criteria, and issuance of work permits on either professional or geographical basis.
  1. Drawing a geographical map for voluntary work in the Sudan, orienting the distribution of the organizations in this map to cover all parts of the nation, all specializations, evaluating their activities, performance and giving them the support they need to carry out their mission.
  1. Tripling the number of active organizations to threefold their existing number.
  1. Reorganization of the large number of inactive national organizations and strengthening their structures, to enable them to carry out their role, and the promulgation of a law governing and organizing voluntary work, determining registration conditions.
  1. Concentration in work with those foreign organizations seeking to participate in developmental efforts.
  1. Working with foreign organizations on a partnership basis, encouraging them to widen their employment of qualified Sudanese personel, and the improvement of the capabilities of those working by continuous training.
  1. Raising the efficiency of the associations and voluntary organizations by the continuous training of its human resources, providing them material and moral support from the state.
  1. Building working relations with doner agencies and entering into partnership with them.
  1. Developping the capabilities of voluntary organizations in the area of self investment.
  1. Enlarging the scope of work of national voluntary organizations to include the regional and international dimensions, to be of assistance to the needy, working to realize victory for them and the powerless, and thus spreading the message.

SEVENTH: THE PRIORITIES

  1. a) Unification of the political, legislative and executive efforts in the area of voluntary work.
  1. b) Reorganization of the national voluntary organizations.
  1. c) Improvement of the efficiency of national associations and organizations through training and formation.
  1. d) Trippling the number of effective voluntary organizations.
  1. e) Realizing twinnage between national anf foreign organizations.
  1. f) Organization of the material and moral support provided by the State.
  1. g) Enabling the national voluntary and benevolent associations to enlarge their regional as well as international activities.

STAGES OF EXECUTING THE PRIORITIES

PRIORITY (A) :  Unification of the political, legislative and

 

                                                executive efforts

  1. The establishment of a national planning and coordination council during the strategy’s first year, and the establishment of counterpart councils at the wilaya and province level.
  1. Promulgation of laws creating the national council and the counterpart councils, during the first year of the strategy.

PRIORITY (B) :  FORMATION AREAS

  1. Reorganization of national organizations after undertaking the necessary studies to know each organization and its activities, and the promolgation of a law stipulating the conditions and specifications that national organizations are required to meet in order to be eligible for registration.
  1. Encouragement of national voluntary and benevolent associations to expand their activities beyond the national frontiers regionally and internationally, supporting them to achieve that, and the continuation of this effort up to the end of the strategy period.

PRIORITY (C) :  IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIZATIONS AND

 

                                    ASSOCIATIONS BY TRAINING AND FORMATION,

according to the following table:

year                                         percentage                   percentage in leadership

_________________________________________________________________

1994                                        30                                                                    20

1997                                        60                                                                    40

2001                                        60                                                                    40

_________________________________________________________________

THE MOST IMPORTANT AREAS OF FORMATION

  1. Early warning and information gathering
  2. Emergency situations
  3. Project study and preparation
  4. Project administration, supervision of project accounts and project finances
  5. External work and international relations.

PRIORITY (D) :  TRIPLING THE PRESENT NUMBER OF VOLUNTARY

ORGANIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS, TO INCLUDE ALL ASPECTS OF

 

VOLUNTARY ACTIVITY, AND COVER ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY

increase shall be attained according to the following table:

____________________________________________________________

Year                                                                            Percentage increase

____________________________________________________________

1992                                                                                                    30

1993                                                                                                    30

1994                                                                                                    30

1995                                                                                                    30

1996                                                                                                    30

1997                                                                                                    30

1998                                                                                                    30

1999                                                                                                    30

2000                                                                                                    30

_____________________________________________________________

2001                                                                                                    300

_____________________________________________________________

PRIORITY (E) :  TWINAGE OF NATIONAL AND FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS

  1. Issuing of twinage regulations between national and foreign associations, applying it to operating organizations so that working through twinage becomes the basic pattern of cooperation between national and foreign associations, and that the employees in these voluntary associations be mainly citizens in all jobs where qualified sudanese elements are available.

PRIORITY (F) :  ORGANIZATION OF STATE MATERIAL AND MORAL SUPPORT

  1. Allotting plots of land for the headquarters of the organizations and associations
  1. Distribution of the material support provided to organizations and associations according to their activity, and what is expected of them by way of achievement.
  1. Coordination of official information work to realize the objectives of voluntary organizations.
Type of support Land Finance Information Other
Percentage of support 100% according to need and activity according to need according to need

PRIORITY (G) :  REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL WORK

  1. Consolidating the capabilities of associations active outside the country, especially in Africa
  1. Making a plan to increase the number of associations working abroad, and thriving to execute them

EIGHTHLY: DETERMINING MEANS OF EXECUTING THE VOLUNTARY WORK PLAN

The council shall have a technical secretariat including the following units:

  1. Legislative unit: whose role is to propose unifying legislations and laws that guarantee the organization and the promotion of voluntary and benevolent work
  1. Technical assistance unit: whose role is to improve the efficiency of the human element by continuous training according to the plan, and provision of technical assistance to the associations
  1. Information and research unit: whose role is to make a statistical record of national and foreign voluntary organizations which includes executive capabilities, problems and possible solutions, basic information about the users, and supply of any useful information in the field of voluntary work.
  1. Organ of coordination with institutions having to do with voluntary work: to handle the coordination with organs and institutions having a relationship with voluntary work.
  1. Finance and investment unit: whose role is to make available the financial support to the work of the organizations and the establishment of a national fund for the purpose.
  1. Follow-up and evaluation unit: whose role is to follow up the voluntary work plan taking note of the positive and negative developments and proposing evaluation plans and means.

NINETHLY: VOLUNTARY AND BENEVOLENT WORK EVALUATION:

This shall be done by the national council as follows:

  1. a) Evaluation time period: every year
  2. b) Quantitative criteria
  1. Reorganization of the inoperative and weak organizations and associations according to the prescribed percentage.
  1. Tripling the number of successful organizations and associations.
  1. c) Qualitative criteria. Increasing the efficiency of the organizations by training their personnel, their leaders, according to the previously mentioned percentage, and criteria designed according to the need of measuring efficiency.
  1. d) Scientific research. Appropriate research shall be carried out in each case of evaluating a specific activity.

TENTHLY: COORDINATION WITH OTHER PARTIES.

            This shall be done via the coordination unit with relevant parties such as educational, instruction, cultural, religious guidance, information, finance institutions, and similar councils at the wilayas and province levels, the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and regional and international voluntary organizations’ networks.

                                                            *    *    *

 

                                                HEALTH DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            Healthcare development is a continuous task in society, and one of the basic factors for the realization of its renaissance and development. It is important that there be harmony between social progress, including health, and the society’s economic development. Each one is a guarantee for the realization of the other, and both guarantee the establishment of the global civilizational renaissance, fostering strength, harnessing existence and values.

            Health in this context ceases to be a service sector only, to become a major social objective, where the efforts of all the sectors join together to achieve its globality. Health services development with a view to providing healthcare for all is the responsibility of the whole society. In order to achieve this, the health development strategy adopted the philosophy of basic healthcare, which constitutes healthcare provided to the masses near their homes with their participation and with means acceptable to them.

GUIDELINES:

            The guidelines of the health strategy development emanate from the global guidelines of the social development sector which are:

1.Man is the goal of social development and its means, and social justice is its ultimate noble goal.

  1. The family constitutes the first nucleus of society, and it must be given the attention it deserves, improving its potentialities, and ensuring its basic needs and protection. The adoption of the productive and solidarity family’s concept and its legislation into law, is indispensable in enabling it to fulfill its great social responsibility.
  1. Social development is a common effort, and the fruit of work of solidarity between the citizen, the state and society.
  1. Popular participation is one of the cornerstones of social welfare and development.
  1. Education aims at inculcating religious doctrine, and good social customs, working towards strengthening national unity, allegiance to the nation, participation in its construction, and the protection of its environment.

SECTORAL GOALS:

  1. Generalising basic healthcare in terms of health improvement, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in all parts of the country.
  1. Decreasing the causes of child mortality to less than 2%.
  1. Generalising maternal care programs all over the country and the improvement of their quality.
  1. Eradicating chronic and contaigous diseases resulting from malnutrition.
  1. Promoting the environment, its protection and the prevention of its pollution.
  1. Generalising vaccination to attain 100%.
  1. Rehabilitating hospitals, raising their capabilities and making available hospital beds according to internationally recognized standards ( 3 beds per 1000 persons ) , consolidating medical services to dispense people from the need to be treated abroad.
  1. Decreasing by 20% sick-leave time for workers.
  1. Making medicine easily available.
  1. Establishing medical industries to produce hospital instruments, surgical, medical and laboratory equipment, doubling what is available to attain self-sufficiency in the basic equipment.
  1. Developing human resources : doctors, technicians, assistants and nurses.
  1. Updating health information systems, generalizing them,

and giving attention to health education and health awareness.

  1. MOTHER AND CHILD CARE:

            Mothers and children under 15 years constitute 70% of the population. Statistics show an increase in child and mother disease, in childbirth, as well as in child and mother mortality. They also show an enormous food disparity between various Sudanese regions.

            THE OBJECTIVE:

            Promotion of maternal and child services, and family organization and

generalization of the program to cover the whole country.

            THE PROGRAMS:

  1. Generalizing vaccination to all children of the Sudan under 5 years of age, and to potential mothers to reach 100%.
  1. Decreasing child mortality from 123 per 1000 to 45 per 1000 for children under 5 years old.
  1. Decreasing maternal mortality from 552 per 100000 to

225 per 100000.

  1. Developing the national program for school health to cover the whole country.
  1. Combatting malnutrition diseases, spreading health awareness generally, and nutritional awareness in particular.
  1. Consolidating central technical organs, and regional administrative and organizational structures, for vaccination and nutrition, and combatting diarrhea and

respiratory diseases, in order to carry out their technical and executive role in the best manner.

  1. Modernizing health information collection systems in areas of maternal and child health welfare, and its generalization to ensure appropriate follow-up, supervision and planning of these programs.
  1. CHRONIC, EPIDEMIC AND MALNUTRITION DISEASES:

            The degradation of the environment by nature and man has led to the spread of chronic, epidemic and malnutrition diseases. Aridity, desertification, famine, war, floods, migration from the countryside to the cities, the arrival of asylum seekers from Sudan’s neighbour countries, and the establishment of new projects have contributed to the spread of these diseases. On the other hand, the weakness in preventive awareness has led to the absence of effective efforts to stop environment degradation. Hence these diseases have become widely spread causing the death of those entering hospitals and those visiting health institutions for treatment.

            THE OBJECTIVE:

            Final eradication of chronic, epidemic and malnutrition diseases.

            PROGRAMS:

  1. Eradication of malaria diseases, bilharsia, diarrhea and stomach hemorridge, malnutrition diseases including intestinal worms, and all types of fevers, tuberclosis, lashmaniya, onchocercosis, leprosy, eye diseases, sleeping sickness, leprosy, meningitis, AIDS, and diseases common to human-beings and animals.
  1. Adoption of a multiple method of intervention to combat and eradicate these diseases which shall include:
  1. a) Availability of pure drinking water and improvement of water quality.
  1. b) Protection of the environment, and the rationalization of waste disposal.
  1. c) Enabling the society to participate in planning, executing and evaluating health services.
  1. d) Promoting health-culture and education.
  1. e) Combating disease carriers such as mosquitoes, frogs and flies.
  1. f) Resorting to collective treatment according to the prescribed guidelines.
  1. g) Provision of health welfare : survey, examination and treatment.
  1. h) Making available food and improving its quality.
  1. AIDS:

            Special attention should be given to combatting AIDS, by intensifying health awareness guided by religious teachings, and undertaking field surveys according to organized periodical cycles to determine virus campaigns, obliging all health institutions to examine donated blood to ensure that it is virous-free before its utilization.

  1. Division of the program into stages so that in each stage a certain percentage of the concerned population is covered, in order to achieve 100% by the end of the strategy period.
  1. Establishment of the central technical organ for the eradication of chronic, epidemic and malnutrition diseases.
  1. Incorporating health planning into planning for agricultural and developmental projects.
  1. Evaluation of the combating activity according to specific scientific indicators.
  1. Study of chronic diseases to learn their causes and how they spread and the means of combating them and applying preventive measures to fend against them.
  1. Establishment and consolidation of research organs; making available field, laboratory and clinical research tools, attracting researchers from all specializations-health, economic and social- to ensure a comprehensive approach in research, with special emphasis on health systems, in order to raise the operational efficiency of planning, execution and evaluation of health programs, and the study of the the enviromental and health returns of the economic, industrial and urban development projects, and the preventive means against the ill effects of these projects.

            PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT:

            Accelerated urbanization, the expansion of agriculture  and wild migration led to an abominable degradation of  the environment, resulting in a continuous increase in the rate of contagious diseases and the consumption of medicine. In addition, only 60% of the urban population and 10% of the rural population have access to pure drinking water. As for disposal systems for human, household and dangerous biological waste, they are either very poor or simply non-existant.

            THE OBJECTIVE:

            Protection of the environment and prevention of pollution.

            THE PROGRAMS:

  1. Making available pure drinking water to citizens.
  1. Establishment and consolidation of hygenic drainage systems and ways and means of waste-disposal.
  1. Establishment of health engineering units, and professional health in the wilayas, and the generalization of water and food monitoring laboratories.
  1. Establishment of professional health treatment units in university hospitals.
  1. Establishment of a unit or an administration for dangerous waste in the national health laboratory.
  1. Consolidation of the protection of the environment units.
  1. Emphasis on promoting a health-culture and awareness in the field of environment protection.
  1. Review of environment health laws to guarantee their effectiveness and quick application and impact, the promulgation of new legislation for poisonous and dangerous materials, and the establishment of health centres in commercial quarters.
  1. Establishment of units for health engineering, for the study of poisons and work physiology in universities.
  1. Enlarging the benefit from waste in some industries.
  1. Responsibility of environmental protection is vested in the wilayas. The central technical organ for environmental protection at the federal ministry of health shall undertake the technical supervision, co-ordination, research and training in the field.
  1. TREATMENT SERVICES:

            Health treatment services suffer from clear degradation at all its levels, and a disparity in its distribution in the wilayas.

            THE OBJECTIVE:

            Upgrading the level of health services quantitatively and qualitatively by increasing treatment institutions and the working force making available one general practitioner per 10000 citizens, and one specialist per 50000 citizen, and the improvement of nursing services.

            THE PROGRAM:

            Treatment services shall be given through the following health institutions:

  1. Health centres, rural and provincial hospitals, hospitals of major specializations, hospitals having all specializations, and specialized hospitals. All these institutions provide basic health welfare services all over the Sudan.
  1. Development of dispensaries and first aid units serving 20000 citizens and above into health centres. Those dispensaries that serve fewer people continue providing basic health welfare services, while maintaining a strong link with the health centre to complete providing this welfare. One nurse, at least, trained in basic health welfare services, and qualified to provide these services must be made available.
  1. Each health centre shall have the following personel: a medical doctor or more, and an experienced registrar, an experienced midwife, a senior nurse, qualified nurses, and specialized medical assistants. The health centre shall serve 20000 citizens.
  1. The rural hospital shall be consolidated to serve 40,000 citizens, or the geographically defined area (60,000 beds) according to the definition of the local popular government law, whichever is less, and the following personnel: two general practitioners or more according to the size of the rural hospital, and the quality of the specialized registrars assigned to the health centre is to be at a higher level and grade, an assistant anasthiasist, operation room officers, x-ray technicians, a dentist, senior nurses, midwives, qualified female and male nurses, a health officer, and health assistants and workers.
  1. The rural hospital receives those cases transferred to it from health centres attached to it, and it undertakes technical supervision of these centers in areas of environment protection administration and medical supply including supplies of medication.
  1. Establishment and consolidation of hospitals having the following main specializations: general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and pediatrics. This type of hospital has 120 beds at least and the number of beds is increased if the number of specialists in one branch is increased according to the principle of bed linking. Each hospital includes two doctors specialized in the areas mentioned above, and a registrar in each specialization, two general practitioners, two house officers for each specialization, laboratory services at the level of a laboratory specialist, two x-ray technicians, anasthiatic services at the level of an anasthiasia specialist, two anasthiatic assistants, two operation preparation officers, a dentist or more, and a nutrition officer.
  1. Establishment and support of hospitals with full specialization, including internal medicine and fine specializations therein, general and specialized surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, pediatrics and E.N.T., ophtalmology, dermatology, psychiatry, thorax disease, a pathologist or more, an x-ray specialist and an anasthia specialist. The number of beds in such a hospital shall be 240 beds, and increases according to the bed linkage principle in case of an increase in the number of specialists in any of the specializations mentioned. This hospital shall work with the following personnel: 24 general practitioners or more, 24 senior doctors or more, 6 assistant pathologists and technicians and x-ray technicians, and a nutrition officer. This type of hospital shall be established in the capitals of provinces and in their larger cities.
  1. University hospitals providing services of specialists as well as various specializations to satisfy doctor, medical students and supporting staff teaching and training requirements. These university hospitals are to be established in the

capitals of willayas or where there are medical colleges, with an average of 600 beds, and the medical manpower are to be determined according to the bed linkage principle, so that each specialized unit may have the following cadres: a first and a second grade specialist, a registrar, two general practitioners, and two house officers. It shall also include a central laboratory with all laboratory specializations, technical specialists, diagnosis services, such as x-ray and ultra sound waves.

  1. Specialized hospitals based on one specialization with the objective of providing the most perfect treatment and training.
  1. Establishment of national specialized centres for the purpose of teaching, training and scientific research, ensuring treatment within the country. These are to be in the national capital and include the following specializations: heart disease and surgery, kidney disease and culture, psychiatric diseases and brain and nerve surgery, diseases and surgery of the digestive system, atomic and analytic medicine. Natural treatment and rehabilitation centres shall be established in all capitals of willayas and major cities.
  1. A pharmacist shall be assigned to each hospital that provides services of specialists, whereas technicians and medical pharmacist assistants shall be assigned at the rural hospital level.
  1. Medical supplies shall be centralized.
  1. Introduction of the central pasturization system in specialized national centres and in specialized and university

hospitals.

  1. Priority in the application of the treatment strategy shall go to the least developed regions. The first stage shall start by rehabilitating and improving existing health institutions within a span of three years. The new health institutions shall be constructed during the second stage, and some hospitals shall be raised to the level of university hospitals with the introduction of specialist services in some hospitals.
  1. Availablility of ambulance and emergency capabilities in their various forms and purposes, and improvement of the means of communication and transport.
  1. Continuous evaluation based on the following criteria: percentage of dead, of sick and of bed occupation.

MEDICINE AND MEDICAL SUPPLY:

            Despite the expansion in medical services, medication supply has for more than ten years fallen short of the required level. In 1990 the state has ensured 50% of the urgent needs only, and as for the private sector it ensured only 50% of the list of basic medication.

THE OBJECTIVE:

            Satisfaction of the needs in medication in accordance with the established norms, and the reliance on the list of basic medicines as a general philosophy for medical supply.

THE PROGRAM:

  1. Continuing large quantity and tender import policies.
  1. Support for local pharmaceutical industry to attain self-sufficiency and export by the end of the strategy period.
  1. Giving the necessary attention to human resources in this field.
  1. Establishment of pharmaceutical industries in the various fields, and consolidation of the armed forces factory.
  1. Establishment of 9 pharmaceutical production units in the major hospitals of the capitals of the willayas (3 units yearly).
  1. Creation of an effective distribution system that guarantees delivery of medication direct to health regions.
  1. Development of pharmaceutical statistical units, to determine actual pharmaceutical needs.
  1. Application of the economical medical system in all hospitals, to ensure the medical needs of the poor.
  1. Introduction of the system of the roving medical supply pharmacy to periodically undertake medical inspection.
  1. Increase of the establishment of popular pharmacies

from 66 to 300 all over Sudan.

  1. Establishment of production units in each pharmacy and making available raw packaging materials .
  1. Establishment of scientific and applied studies centres in the field of rationalizing the usage of medicine during the first year of the strategy.
  1. A commitment to periodically revise the Sudanese national medical directory, its publication, distribution and application.
  1. Raising the efficiency of the present pharmaceutical industries, and moving towards the establishment of the approved industries and creation of an industry for raw and packaging materials.
  1. Development of the pharmaceutical control laboratory and the establishment of a laboratory in each willaya.
  1. Extension in the cultivation of medical and aromatic plants, and the creation of a factory for the extraction and industrialization of these materials, and the establishment of treatment units with Sudanese and imported medical plants .
  1. Amendment of the pharmaceutical and poison law so as to take into account the extension of specializations and pharmaceutical materials, thus checking dealings in them.
  1. Making available instruments and medical equipment for all health establishments and ensuring their continuity.
  1. MANPOWER WORKING IN THE FIELD OF HEALTH:

            Development of medical manpower to reach the numbers and the level of qualification and training mentioned in detail in the technical report included in the second part of this strategy.

  1. HEALTH ECONOMICS:

            The decrease in the rate of economic growth and the increase in population has led to a lowering of the contribution of the public sector in health expenditure. It decreased in the Sudan from 5,4% in 1972 to 1,3% in 1983. Studies have shown that the following are the three main reasons for the deterioration of health services: the meagerness of the resources and their bad distribution, the weakness of the preliminary health welfare system, and the high increase in the cost of health welfare.

            Various experiences have been tried to save from the earnings collected from the benificiaries of health services to support the resources of the health system, such as self-help, and fees for dispensary, laboratory and x-ray services, the school health system, and the medical cycle and economic treatment systems. And despite the success of some of these examples they are very weak in comparison to what is spent on health services.

THE OBJECTIVE:

Enable mass participation in financing the medical services that they enjoy.

THE PROGRAM:

  1. Adoption of the family solidarity health card system as a new system that guarantees the saving of an additional financing for health services, and a positive mass participation in policy making, and an equitable distribution of services to all individuals in the society, putting the main emphasis on preventive services and sectoral coordination in a way to achieve basic health services and the periodical evaluation of these activities.
  1. Adoption of a policy that guarantees the exemption of those unable to pay without depriving them from health services.
  1. The aforementioned social financing is to be considered as an additional source, rather than an alternative to governmental contribution which ought to be increased by a specific percentage annually so as to pay for the development and improvement of health services.
  1. Attraction of the support of the Sudanese working abroad to the health services and encouraging their participation in financing them through various channels.
  1. Obliging insurance companies to cover treatment expenses of victims of various accidents such as car, fire or work.
  1. Encouragement of private sector medical and health work as well as investment in the health field.
  1. HEALTH STATISTICS:

            Health information is the basis for good planning for health services, and it is the basis of the indicators used to evaluate all executive activities in the prevention and treatment of the various diseases.

THE OBJECTIVE:

            Development of health statistics organs.

PROGRAMS:

  1. Establishment of the national organism for health information to which shall be attached the national health information data bank.
  1. Support of the health statistics training centre to train those working in this field with an effort to obtain training opportunities in higher studies in health statistics for university graduates.
  1. Generalization of health statistics services in all health establishments and at all levels.
  1. Making available trained personnel for long and short terms.
  1. Making a detailed and continuous inventory of all material and human resources in the health field and the production of indicators thereof to achieve equitable distribution.
  1. Making available basic information about the population and the behavioural patterns of the society and its attitude vis-a-vis health.
  1. Establishing a comprehensive map of chronic and epidemic-type and other diseases, monitoring the variables in this area and specially those resulting from the expansion in agriculture, industry and construction.
  1. Emphasizing health economics by making available the data relevant to health expenditure and the study of the absence of the economic component of the major diseases, and the clear determination of sickleave hours and absence from work because of it.
  1. Placing attention on birth and death registration, generalizing registration to all health units in rural and urban areas, so that registration coverage moves from 25% to 100% by the end of the strategy period.
  1. Improvement of death statistics to include the cause of death in order to be able to measure the level of danger of the various diseases and the efficiency of the projects designed to provide vaccination against them or to combat them.
  1. Monitoring and collection of all statistical periodicals from all health establishments and their distribution to educational institutions in the field of health.

                                    GENERAL EDUCATION STRATEGY

                                                            INTRODUCTION

                        Education is the main and key instrument of social and civilizational change. No wonder then that religion has emphasized the place of education in prayer, life and human interaction. No wonder also that it classifies it among things that God obliges us to do as a must. No wonder finally that it gave the learned the high position of respect and honour they   merit and deserve. The foremost fonction of education is to be the basis of reshaping the individual and society based on faith and patriotism. It is to provide all citizens theoratical and fonctional knowledge, technical and technological knowhow, capabilities, good guidance that enables them to realize the cultural renaissance, and the establishment of the authentic civilizational renaissance that this strategy plans to lay the foundation thereof.

                        The Western system of education inherited from colonialism applied a duality between religious and secular education, making the latter synonymous with the social fonction of education, an intellectually and morally unifying instrument, and a means of social change and promotion. It tried to inculcate noble religious and humanist values to the students equipping them with work techniques and capabilities. However, this system has been responsible for rooting the alienation of the educated from his society, seperating between education and work and production needs, transforming education from beeing a social right to becomming a personal privilege.

                        Education becomes, within the framework of the general education strategy, a right based on a duty, the duty to worship God, enrich the universe and serve the society.  This is only possible by aquiring the necessary educational and operational tools emanating from authentic cultural roots,  and a command of the global theoratical and practical aspects   thereof, so that education becomes useful, an education for life with all its obligations and duties, as well as rights.

                        This strategy basically aims at establishing an authentic educational system, that unites the origins and the goals encompassing all elements of building as perfect a personality as possible, providing it with the spiritual and intellectual abilities capable of handling any new situation thanks to an ever renewed knowledge. This is how the idea of making the coranic schools and nursaries as an authentic part of the educational system. This is also why it was decided that the foundation stage should link theoratical and applied sciences, in order to offer the graduates two alternatives: the first alternative of joining the work market directly, or doing so after a training and an adaptation period, where the trainee undertakes certain productive tasks, benefitting from a variety of continuous education and training programs.

            The second alternative is to continue his/her education in the global secondary school which links education at all stages to the exigencies of the civilizational renaissance and those of global development. All this is to be done in the context of the place given to education, in the religious doctrine,  for doing good rather than doing evil. Furthermore, it is to be emphasized that education as such is the child of a civilizational parentage, and that its benifit and uses are based on a cultural and a social choice.

GUIDELINES:

1) Emphasis of the position of the human being in the social system, and in the overall system of existence, in a way to enlighten the educated  to his rights and duties: religious, social, national and human, and to enable him to be self-reliant in self-education, and the development of his personality to be able to cope with the ever changing needs of his life. It should enable him to accomplish his obligations, the enjoyment of his rights, following in that the judgement of his mind and conscience, and on his working and creative abilities, in the framework of religious beliefs and the society’s noble and superier values.

2) Education should aim at achieving a balance in the sudanese personality between the needs of the body and those of the soul, between the energy of thought and the ability for work. It is to inculcate noble behaviour, love and cooperation, and the effort to do good in the society consolidating its cohesion and strength, enabling it to globally flourish and boom, thus being true and faithful to God’s wish for man’s role on mother earth.

3) Cultivation of the national spirit, giving due attention to that which constitutes the basis of sudanese civilization, raising the awareness about the civilizational historical relations with these societies closely related to the Sudanese Umma, such as African, Arab and Islamic people.

4) Emphasizing the relationships between education and other facets of societal activity, and with development generally.

5) Making of knowledge a method, a substance, an ideology, a practice, and a behaviour, and as part of the general culture, and a basis for life and overall development. Education is to contribute also to laying the foundations for technology in the homeland, as a means of application of science to the various aspects of life, as a basis for its development, and its adaptation to the requirements of global development.

6) Considering work, with its multiple facets, be they intellectual or practical, a cornerstone of education, and a main part of its content and ways. Also, education is to pay attention to link thought with action, and the preparation

of educated people needed as a work and productive force by the society, as well as for its future needs. Relations between education and production centres are to be strengthened, in such a way as to contribute to the global development needs.

7) Seeing to it that self-reliance is deeply rooted in the conscience of each and every individual and in society as a whole to render them independant of the State in catering for their needs.

8) Adoption of the principle of authenticity and renovation in education.

OBJECTIVES:

1)         Inculcating religious doctrine in the young, bringing them up according to its teachings, in such a way that their individual and collective behaviour be religion-inspired. This can help the emergence of social, economic and political values based on upright behaviour, respectful to devine teachings and responsive to the needs of progress.

2)         Availing the minds of the young with exercices, offering them a culture of science and expertise, and the building of their bodies through sports, and the purification of their souls thanks to the noble doctrine, positive customs and conduct, training them how to think deeply, to be economical, have good manners, and good judgement.

3)         Strengthening the spirit of national unity in the young, developping their feeling of allegiance to the group and to the homeland.

4)         Building a society of self-reliance, the unleashing of the moral and material energies, propagating ambition in order to regain our civilizational role as a leading Umma (nation ) with a mission to accomplish.

5)         Development of individual capabilities and talents, facilitating training opportunities on equipments of modern technology, in a way to enable the individuals to put to optimum use their capabilities in the service of global development.

6)         Development of enviromental awareness in the young, making them realize that the elements of the environment such as water, air, and land are gifts of God that must be protected, developped, properly handled to avert drought, desertification, and other environmental calamities, in a manner to safeguarde the interests of present and future generations.

POLICIES:

            An analytic reading of the reality of general education in the Sudan has shown that our educational system suffers from a number of failures. Part of these failures has to do with material resources, and part with the quantity and quality of education.

            The first failure is the non-existence of authentic scientific  strategic planning for this important sector, which led to educational policies that alienated the educated from the society, knowledge from work, and learning from behaviour and practice, leading to the regression of educational methods from coping with the aspirations of the young and of the Umma, and the failure to catch up with the developments of the age of science and technology. This led to the deterioration of the condition of the teacher, and the incompatibility of the abilities of the educated with the needs of the progress of the Umma, and those of the productive sector, economic, social and cultural development. It also exposed the lack of educational opportunities and their inefficient distribution among the nation’s willayas, between the two sexes, between the various types of education, and its tendency for imitation, despite the honourables efforts deployed to achieve the democratization of education and the improvement of its quality.

            Policies of strategic planning for general education and its development stand on a number of basic foundations the realization of which can bring about its real reform, overcomming its failures, and securing the returns expected by the individual, society and the Umma at large. These are:

                        1)Adoption of the principle of scientific educational planning, and the improvement of educational management and means of follow-up and evaluation.

                        2)Generalization of basic education, illiteracy and pre-school education.

                        3)Development and diversification of secondary education, realizing its coverage of theoratical and operational knowledge.

                        4)Development and renovation of educational curricula and educational research to uplift the quality of education in a way to help in the realization of social change and economic development.

                        5)Giving due attention to the teacher, in recruitement, qualification, and training.

                        6)Improvement of publishing and of school text books, generalization of libraries, and the utilization of the third channel and modern teaching techniques.

                        7)Making educational cost a responsability of the whole society, and working to diversify its sources.

MAIN PROGRAMS:

                        In light of the policies of general education based on the above seven pillars, each pillar became a focal point of the strategy, definning its goals, its main programs, and its execution stages.

  1. EDUCATIONAL PLANNING, EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT

                        Educational planning is a federal responsability entrusted to the federal ministry of instruction and education, who thus becomes in charge of making available its necessary resources, its management, and its renovation within the context of the global national strategy.

                        Educational evaluation and management, however, fall within the mandate shared by both the federal educational authorities and those of the willayas, since the school certificate ( secondary school certificate ) is a national certificate. As for the evaluation of educational results at the basic school level, it is the responsability of the educational authorities in thr willayas.

                        Educational planning determines educational orientations and directs them towards the desired goals and purposes, and measuring determines the criteria of learning and hence verify the effectiveness of the educational operation, the quality of education and the scope of its response to society’s needs.

GOALS:

            1.Laying of educational plans, following up of their execution, evaluation, making sure that they are linked to the goals of the global economic and social development.

  1. Carrying out field studies and rendering available statistical data.

            3.Supervision of plan-preparation at the willayas’ level  using zero planning.

  1. Carrying out studies relating to the economics of education.
  1. Setting of criteria and measures and analysis of educational statistics.

            6.Planning projects of educational renovations, their execution and evaluation.

            7.Qualification of specialized technical personnel, and provision of technical consultancies.

PROGRAMS:

  1. Qualification of those working in educational planning and training them at the the district and willaya level.
  1. Making available the equipments necessary for work continuity and efficiecy.
  1. Developping educational documentation that suits strategic planning.
  1. Completion of the foundation of a data base.
  1. Continuing the edition of yearly book of educational statistics.
  1. Completion of the school map and up-dating it.

            7.Establishment of an evaluation and measuring agency in the federal ministry.

            8.Qualification and training of a bigger number of the personnel working in the field of educational evaluation and measurement.

  1. BASIC EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION

                        Basic education is that which every society considers as a citizen’s right, and it is the society’s duty to provide it to him. It represents the essential part of knowledge and of intellectual capabilities, spiritual education, technical competences, and orientations that an individual aught to have at one stage in his life, either as a child or as a young man or as an old man.

                        Basic education aims at enabling the individual to continue his education to higher levels, or joining working life sufficiently equipped to make it, thus participating in the life of his society, and continue his education relying on himself or making use of chances of parallel education, and all types of continuous education.

                        Basic education is caracterized by a number of features and concepts. They include:

  1. It is a complete education: it combines academic theoratical studies, and activities of application and practice to gain manul abilities and productive capabilities, and their development.

            2.It is a comprehensive and ballanced education: it endeavours to develop the various facets of the personality- spiritual, intellectual, physical, social and of the conscience.

            3.It is a diversified education: it meets the student’s needs at the various stages of his growth, in tune with the natural, cultural and social environments, preparing him/her to be ready for serving the global development and the civilizational renaissance.

                        Basic education is divided into the following sections:

  1. Pre-school education (coranic schools and nurseries).
  1. The basic school stage extending for eight continuous years.
  1. Adult education and eradication of illiteracy.
  1. PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION

GOALS:

                        a)Rendering authentic in content and style pre-school education by helping the children memorize and perfect the recitation of the Coran, teach them arabic language, basic mathematics, upright religious upbringing, tying it to their social and natural environment.

                        b)Rendering accessible chances of pre-school education to all children between 4 and 6 years old, and gradually widening them by an annual increase of 10%, up to the end of the global strategy period, with a view to generalizing it, through cooperation and coordination between governmental and civic efforts.

                        c)Working to achieve a comprehensive and ballanceddevelopment of the child, physically, spiritually, mentally, ethically, culturally and socially thus preparing him for school education.

                        d)Designing methods that include various alternatives of educational activities permitting teachers to choose that which suits conditions in the various environments.

                        e)Adoption of methods that leads to lowering expenditure, as far as possible, so as to spread pre-school education easily to cover the urban centres, the rural areas and the country-side. They include:

                        1.Spreading ideas and information about pre-school education through the various ways to explain its importance in child up-bringing.

                        2.Making use of the family resources in child orientation.

                        3.Encouraging local communities to establish coranicschools and kinder gardens and participate in their management.

                        4.Increasing reliance on local materials, experience and technology in the establishment and running of pre-school education institutions.

                        5.Making use of public buildings such as schools, mosques, churches, social and youth centres in welcoming coranic schools and nurseries.

                        6.Encouraging local and foreign investment in establishing factories for the production of educational aids and materials and toys from local raw materials, by offering reasonable facilities and guarantees.

MAIN PROGRAMS

                        1.Amendment of the general education law to include pre-school education as one of the stages of general education, issuing the regulations governing the establishment and progress of its institutions.

                        2.Undertaking a sector survey of all educational institutions involved in pre-school education and their personnel, classifying them according to qualification, training and experience, monitoring the reality of each institution as to its locality, buildings, establishment, finance, investment as well as their administrative and technical base.

                        3.Adopting a programed plan in light of the findings of the survey to qualify and train trainers and workers.

                        4.Consolidation of central, regional and local execution units entrusted with this task, so as to encourage complimentarity and cooperation in carrying out its administrative and technical executive duties.

                        5.Organizing a national mobilization campaign to emphasize the importance of pre-school education, explaining its benifits.

                        6.Developping and experimenting curricula and preparing a trainer’s guide.

                        7.Increase of child intake according to established percentages.

  1. BASIC SCHOOL

 

INTRODUCTION

                        Basic schools have replaced primary and intermediary schools in the new educational plan. The study period is eight instead of nine years. A year is gained by eliminating curricula repetition and shortening school holidays with a view to prolong the study period, thus lengthening the years of productive life.

OBJECTIVES:

The basic education plan aims at:

                        a.Generalizing basic education in the Sudan before the year 2000.

                        b.Reaching the obligatory stage and the promulgation of a law therefore.

                        c.Adoption of the global method that maries between theoratical, applied and training studies.

  1. ERADICATION OF ILLITERACY AND ADULT EDUCATION

 

INTRODUCTION

                        This strategy is built on the mobilization of efforts and the unleashing of potential spiritual and material energies, official and popular, to liberate the sudanese society from illetracy. Emphasis is to be given to the youth and those working in productive sectors as a first priority to eradicate both their literary and civilizational illiteracy, thus enabling them to improve their productive capabilities and their social involvement, in the context of the positive orientations and values.

OBJECTIVES

1)         Helping the student to reach the level of knowledge that enables him to utilize his reading, writing and arithmatic experiences to continue his education, making use of them in his working life, and this corresponds to the sixth grade in basic education.

2)         Eradicating illiteracy of individuals at the age of fourty five and below, and decreasing the illiteracy of those who are beyond that age.

3)         Rendering operational the organizational structures capable of planning and execution at the federal, willaya and local levels.

4)         Realizing the widest popular participation in the eradication of illiteracy.

PRIORITIES

            The priorities that can be determined in light of the campaign

objectives in the choice of the students shall consist of :

            1.Categories of youth who missed education opportunities or who dropped out.

  1. Those woking in official institutions as well as in institutions of the public and private sector ( the military, the police, and large transport institutions).
  1. Huge population conglamorations/gatherings organized in effective and active associations.

            4.Rural population categories in observing:

  1. a) Equilibrium between the nation’s willayas and the available resources in each willaya and province.

            b)Equlibrium in the chances available to males and females.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSIFICATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION

            The strategy aims at bringing about a qualitative revolution in secondary education, by rendering global the secondary school method for academic, religious and all types of technical education, instead of the existing plurality where the ballance tilts in favour of theoratical education. The global secondary school incudes scienific, literary, religious, industrial, commercial, agricultural, animal and general curricula. Thanks to this globality and richness it is possible to attain the objective of raising the level of technical education to 60%, all this being in harmony with the natural and social environment, and satisfying the needs of the global strategy.

THE OBJECTIVES

  1. Making the secondary school a global school for all specializations.

            2.Choice of secondary school curricula according to the needs of the natural and social environment of the school area.

            3.Multiplying by four times admission to secondary schools.

            4.Raising by 60% the percentage of technical education in the global secondary school curriculum.

MAIN PROGRAMS

  1. Generalizing modern secondary school curricula in all specializations.

            2.Equipping existing schools and the establishment of necessary additional classes to increase absorption from local materials, and existing buildings.

  1. Making use of available existing secondary schools.
  1. Establishment of new classes to absorb the annual intake plan.
  1. Making available educational inputs.
  1. EDUCATIONAL CURRICULA AND RESEARCH

INTRODUCTION

            Curricula constitutes the heart and the substance of the educational operation, and the hard core of the qualitative improvement of education as a response to the needs of rendering education authentic, as well as to the ever changing needs of the learner and his society. Educational research helps building the educational operation on scientific basis with regard to statistics, planning, methods, formation of teachers and their training, student’s welfare, guidance and cultural growth, improvement of teaching methods and means, educational economics, rationalization of materials, use of school books, and follow-up and evaluation. This is why curricula development and educational research improvement occupy an important position in the educational strategy, a situation that requires an organ capable of developping educational curricula, research and studies, for which are mobilized high educational qualifications and the most outstanding scientific experiences.

A- THE OBJECTIVES

  1. Reformulation of the programs and the curricula of nursery and coranic schools, the basic school, the secondary school, the training of their teachers, their development and modernization in a way to realize the goals and objectives of the global strategy plan.
  1. Modernization of curricula and programs and the introduction of modern ways to improve the quality of education.
  1. Raising the qualification level for the recruitement of teachers of basic education to the university degree level.
  1. Taking into account the special situation of distinct categories such as women, the talented, the handicapped, making up for the educational gap.
  1. MAIN PROGRAMS
  1. Establishment of the curricula and research organism in the educational institute at Bakht El-Rudda.
  1. Preparation of curricula for pre-school, basic school and improved secondary school education.
  1. Preparation of educational institutes and women teachers colledges curricula.
  1. Preparation of educational leadership training programs.
  1. Preparation of special education programs for women, the gifted, the handicapped and the educational gap.
  1. Productive school associations.
  1. THE TEACHER

INTRODUCTION

            The teacher is the most important input in the educational operation, and that is why he should be selected among the best graduates in religion, knowledge, behaviour and personality.

            He is to undergo formation and training in a way to guarantee him a high degree of scientific, professional and behavioural competence. The teacher’s formation and training is to be assigned to a national organism within the framework of the federal ministry, by providing attractive living and working conditions that guarantee his continuity in the service.

THE OBJECTIVES

  1. Raising the education profession by making the teacher an inspiring example, in his behaviour, his knowledge and his conduct.
  1. Developping and transforming teacher formation and training institutes into university colleges, increasing the number of university education colleges, to guarantee the access of all those working in education to the first university degree at least.
  1. Improvement of teachers’ conditions of service making it one of the attractive professions for the best elements.

MAIN PROGRAMS

  1. Modification of teachers’ remuneration system to suit the level of qualification, resposability, and the standing of the profession, in a manner to ensure the continuity of the open graduation system.
  1. Establishment of teachers’ institutions such as hospitals and economic entities at the federal and willayas level.
  1. Development of teachers’ formation and training institutes to become university colleges specialized in graduating teachers for basic education stage, and the increase of the university education colleges to form and qualify secondary education teachers.
  1. Widenning higher studies opportunities to teachers, qualifying them to take over leadership of educational work in areas of planning, technical orientation, educational administration, and teaching.
  1. PUBLISHING, LIBRARIES, EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUES,

   AND THE THIRD CHANNEL

OBJECTIVES

  1. Making available school text books in sufficient quantities that satisfy students’ needs in all stages of general education, lowering their cost, and improving it in terms of preparation, design and technical production.
  1. Making available supportive cultural books, and educational magazines suitable for the students in the various stages of their studies.
  1. Generalizing school libraries for students and teachers.
  1. Enlarging the utilization of educational techniques and the third channel.
  1. Developping organs working in the area of publishing and educational techniques, raising their efficiency, giving special attention to continuous training of those working in them.
  1. Introducing the third channel ( educational television and radio, and traditional means of communication ), in supporting the role of the educational institutions, and making available chances for open and continuous education.

MAIN PROGRAMS

  1. Development of the educational publishing house, rehabilitating its printing facilities, and training its personnel.
  1. Making available the school text book in an improved quality.
  1. Increasing the production of present periodicals, and production of new cultural magazines and books.
  1. Generalizing school libraries in all schools, and the training of the librairians.
  1. Educational industries project ( exercice books, pencils, ink, laboratory equipments, ateliers, chalks, and school furnitures)
  1. Development of the national centre for educational techniques, providing it with modern equipments, generalizing that to schools, and training those specialized in this field.
  1. Making use of the third channel project ( educational television, radio, traditional means of communication, etc), and the training of those working in them.
  1. GENERAL EDUCATION STRATEGY FINANCING SOURCES
  1. THE GOVERNMENTAL SOURCE

            It includes that which is allotted for general education in the federal state, willayas and local government councils’ budgets.

  1. THE POPULAR EFFORT

            Popular effort in the Sudan has made a big contribution in the creation of schools, their maintenance, protection, supervision, administration and financing. It also contributed in the preparation of educational plans and programs, before the country’s independence. No wonder then that the nationalist movement considered education as a key to liberation and construction.  This strategy aims at the continuation of this heritage in popular effort in the field of education so that its contribution, and specially in generalizing basic education, in tune with the objectives of the strategy in the area of the indepenence of the society and its ability to be self-sufficient, in catering for its needs, from the state. This is to be achieved through the establishment of coranic schools and nurseries, their administration and meeting their running expenses, emphasizing their link to society and its service.

  1. EDUCATION FUND

            This fund has been established after the adoption of the general educational law, and it will receive the following financial flows, from sources other than the general budgets. These are:

  1. a) Citizens’ and national foundations donations/contributions.
  1. b) Assistance from international and regional organizations and from sisterly and friendly states.
  1. c) Income from education tax.
  1. d) Returns from investment buildings attached to schools.
  1. e) Local fees collected for education.
  1. f) State allottment in support of the fund.
  1. INVESTMENTS OF ECONOMIC EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

They include:

  1. a) Returns of the educational publishing house.
  1. b) Factories of school products: chalk and laboratory equipments.
  1. c) Productive school associations.
  1. d) Any other investments.

THE STAGE-BY-STAGE PROGRAM

THE FIRST STAGE ( 3 YEARS )

  1. Starting a formation program for personnel in the areas of planning, measurment and educational evaluation.
  1. Making available the equipments.
  1. Completion of the establishment of the data bank.
  1. Developping educational documentation.

5.Issuing the educational statistics yearly book.

  1. Continuing work in the school map.
  1. Establishing an evaluation and measuring agency in the federal ministry.
  1. Amendment of the general education law to include pre-school education as one of the stages of general education, issuing the regulations that govern its evolution.
  1. Carrying out a sectoral survey of institutions concerned with pre-school aged children.
  1. Organizing a campaign for national mobilization to emphasize the importance of pre-school education, explaining its benefits.
  1. Increasing child intake at the rate of 10% annually.
  1. Admittance of all children applying to join the basic school.
  1. Assigning the first year to the national illiteracy campaign,

and that includes a complete inventory of all illiterates at the State and willayas’ level, a conscientisation and mobilization campaign, preparation of illitracy eradication curricula, programs, books and guides. Moreover, it includes the elaboration and execution of campaign personnel ( teachers, organizers, instructors, trainers ) training programs, specifying the role of each of these actors in the campaign.

  1. Starting the execution of the national illiteracy eradication campaign.
  1. Raising secondary school intake percentage starting from the year 1992/93 to 1994/95 by 10% making use of present capabilities;
  1. Establishment of the educational curricula and research unit at the educational institute of Bakht El-Rudda.
  1. Monitoring and making an inventory of the fields of educational research, and working out a priority plan for them.
  1. Preparation of the basic stage, pre-school education, teacher training institutes and colleges, and the secondary school stage curricula, and the beginning of their application.
  1. Improvement, evaluation, and modification of present curricula, thus starting to construct the united national curriculum.
  1. Raising the percentage of practical application and training at the basic stage to 25% of the study plan.
  1. Evaluation of present environment, population, health and food education curricula, generalizing them to all schools at the basic education stage.
  1. Preparation of a united curriculum for educational institutes that qualifies students to the intermediate diploma and university degree level, and its experimentation in big educational institutes.
  1. Preparation of curricula to raise the efficiency of educational institutes’ personnel, improving their expertise, and polishing their talents in cooperation with universities.
  1. Raising the percentage of practical and applied studies at the secondary school level to 40% of the schooling program.
  1. Addition of some scientific technical programs at the secondary stage, equipping existing schools by establishing laboratories and workshops that suit the the new curriculum.
  1. Examination of the present situation of coranic schools and nurseries, evaluating their programs and the basis of the education they provide, classifying the qualifications and the capacities of those in charge.
  1. Creation of new programs for the modernised coranic schools and nurseies.
  1. Creation of training curricula and programs for instructors of coranic schools and nurseries.
  1. Experimentation of modernization programs of coranic schools and nurseries in a divesified number of coranic schools and nurseries.
  1. Study of the reality of the school text book and its problems in the Sudan, taking into account earlier studies and recommendations on the subject, and the experiences of other countries in its preparation and handling, and specially the arab, islamic and african experiences.
  1. Preparation of choices and altrnatives for present school text books, and the application and generalization of the result of the study in the new curricula books.
  1. Preparation of studies for the establishment of productive school associations and the determination of areas of possible production in different environments, carrying out feasibility and cost studies of various models of projects for basic or secondary schools.
  1. Preperation of guidelines and regulations for productive school associations.
  1. Experimentation of selected models of productive school associations from different environments ( 4 models per province, including elementary and basic stages, spread between boys and girls schools ).
  1. Evaluation of women-related curricula and family sciences (such as house-keeping, home economics and knitting etc.) making sure that they satisfy woman’s needs in all her roles, and in her development.
  1. Introduction of materials that take into consideration woman specificity in the curricula of education institutions and in women teacher colleges, and the training in women teaching.
  1. Organization of training cycles for the formation of women teachers to teach programs designed to cater for women specificity.
  1. Setting the criteria and the specifications to identify the talented, discover the gifted and the genious.
  1. Setting programs and guidelines to help families and schools discover the gifted, giving them material and moral support to cater for the development of their talents.
  1. Setting programs and curricula for the welfare of the gifted inside the schools that provide them with the right environment capable of nourishing their interest and developping their inclination.
  1. Setting programs and curricula for scientific and technological clubs, preparing them to welcome the talented, and their abilities to provide incentives to encourage creative abilities, and genuine competition.
  1. Monitoring and studying handicapped cases among the people, and evaluating programs, curricula and studies given by the various associations and foundations for the handicapped, and coordination among all institutions working in this fields.
  1. Elaboration of flexible programs and curricula to realize the educational objectives for the welfare of the handicapped.
  1. Qualifying those working in the field of training and teaching of the handicapped, and raising their level through more education.
  1. Undertaking a scientific study to introduce computer and computer training in the multi-purposed secondary school curricula, designing the curricula relevant to computer training.
  1. Training teachers on the computer, and giving them the necessary qualifications to teach lessons pertaining to the introduction of the computer in the general education curricula.
  1. Starting the introduction of the computer in selected schools, seeing to it that they are picked in all willyas.
  1. Establishment of a national council for industrial education. 49. Monitoring and making statistics and classification of the loss in education, and the evaluation of the studies, programs, and curricula experiences and the centres and the foundations working in this area and their unification.
  1. Qualifying the trainers and the supervisors of the educational loss rehabilitation centres in the various areas of curriculum and their training.
  1. Continuation of the experiments of the literacy of the young and their training.
  1. Preparation of gradual curricula that take into account the types and levels of educational loss for both women and men, availing them the basic knowledge and know-how for the handicrafts pertinent to the local environment and the needs of handicrafts and rural development, and the starting of their application.
  1. Setting programs and curricula for the training of educational leaders in the areas of educational planning, guidance, training, school educational administration, student guidance, and continuous self cultivation for teachers and those working in the general educational and pedagogical institutions.
  1. Starting the training of educational leaders according to the prepared programs.
  1. Completion of the amendment of the teachers’ salary system and the beginning of its application.
  1. Establishment of a teacher’s hospital.
  1. Establishment of a techer’s economic foundation.
  1. Preparation of feasibility studies for a teacher’s bank.
  1. Starting the rehabilitation of teacher training institutes to become in the level of university colleges for teacher formation at the initial stage.
  1. Continuation of the preparation and rehabilitation of secondary stage teachers in the teacher training colleges.
  1. Enlarging a higher studies opportunities for teachers.
  1. Rehabilitating the printing capabilities of the educational printing foundations.
  1. Rehabilitation and training of those working in the areas of educational technologies and the third channel.
  1. Starting the project of making available the school text book and improving its level.
  1. Starting in the generalization of the school library.
  1. Preparation of studies to start the project of educational industries.
  1. Consolidation of the third channel program.
  1. Developping the national educationl technologies centre, equipping it with the necessary materials and instruments.

SECOND STAGE (4 YEARS)

  1. Continuation of the program of the qualification of those working in the field of educational planning, evaluation and measurment.
  1. Making available the necessary equipment and instruments.
  1. Developping a data base.
  1. Developping educational documentation.
  1. Issuing the annual educational statistics book.
  1. Completion of the work on the school map.
  1. Enlarging child intake in coranic and other schools according to the approved percentage.
  1. Absorbing all children of educational age and issuing the law of obligatory basic education. Special emphasis should be put on the remote and nomadic areas, which have traditional economic activities, are not aware of the importance of education. Those executing educational programs should apply all means that can help the spread of schools and the exploitation of all possible alternatives such as:

– Adoption of a half year or cycle admittance system in sparsely populated areas.

– Application of the one class school system.

– Complimentary school -in coranic schools for exemple-.

– Nomads school system.

– Making use of local materials for constructing low cost schools.

– Starting a school by any available number of pupils.

  1. Continuation of the national literacy campaign to eradicate the illiteracy of 7,935,536 illiterates.
  1. Absorption of all those who succeed in the basic education stage certificate as of the school year 1995-1996.
  1. Evaluation of the general education curricula that were prepared in the first stage and their development.
  1. Continuation of the execution of the educational research plan projects ( preperation of 80 educational researches and the production of 30 issues of the educational research magazine ).
  1. Completion of the application of the national curricula of the basic and secondary stages, and completion of the school text books.
  1. Improving the practical and applied component at the basic level to reach 50% of the teaching plan.
  1. Evaluation of the curricula and the generalization of their experiment to all educational and pedagogical institutions of both male and female teachers.
  1. Evaluation of the curricula, studies and training cycles for the improvement of the efficiency of those working in education and the updating of their experiences.
  1. Creation of 1000 productive school associations of different types and fields and the evaluation of their experience.
  1. Generalization of curricula teaching in all schools and to all stages;
  1. Qualifying of top quality specialists in the field pertaining to the specificity of women destined to work in teaching institutes, and the organism for the development of curricula in this field.
  1. Organizing training cycles for the preperation of women teachers to teach programs that take into account women specificity and the improvement of their performance.
  1. Continuation of the programs for the welfare of the gifted, the bright and the genius, making use of their talents in innovation, and the improvement of the society’s performance, to attain the objectives of the civilizational renaissance.
  1. Introduction of the computer in secondary schools in areas having access to electrical power.
  1. Generalization of literacy and training programs for the adolescents.
  1. Generalization of curricula for training cycles of educational leaders and their improvement.
  1. Creation of a unit in the curriccula and research organism to cultivate teachers providing them by the authentic and the modern, encouraging them to study and carry out scientific research, making availabe for them the resources necessary for their cultural well being.
  1. Issuing of a teachers’ periodical.
  1. Creation of scientific and educational mailing libraries to provide teachers by books and periodicals;
  1. Issuing of information bulletines on available educational researches and periodicals.
  1. Provision of guidance offices by reference and basic books.
  1. Opening branches of the teachers economic institutions in the willayas.
  1. Establishment of the teacher’s bank.
  1. Completion of the transformation of all teacher training institutes to colleges so that the total number of university colleges attains 22.
  1. Completion of secondary school teacher preparatory programs and teacher formation in university colleges, so that all teachers obtain a university degree.
  1. Continuation of teacher formation programs in higher studies.
  1. Continuation of the formation and training of those working in educational technologies and the third channel.
  1. Continuation of the project aiming at making available the school text book and its improvement.
  1. Generalization of school libraries.
  1. Starting the execution of the educational industries project.
  1. Consolidation of the third channel programs.

THIRD STAGE (3 years)

  1. Generalization of 4 year old child admittance in coranic and nursery schools (100%).
  1. Wiping out all pockets of illiteracy, and continuation of the continuous education program.
  1. Continuation of the policy of absorbing all successful candidates for the basic education certificate up to the end of the plan.
  1. Evaluation of the curriculum and its modifications in light of the experiment.
  1. Generalization of the creation of productives units in all educational establishments.
  1. Continuation of the organization of training cycles for the preparation of women teachers to teach programs that bear in mind women specificity.
  1. Completion of the programs of the generalization of the computer in the secondary schools.
  1. Completion of the creation of teacher economic institutions in all willayas.
  1. Completion of the training of those working in educational technologies and the third channel.
  1. Completion of the project aiming at the availability of the school text book and its improvement.
  1. Improvement of school libraries.
  1. Continuation of the execution of the educational industries projects.
  1. Consolidation of the third channel program.
  1. Completion of all strategy projects, consolidation of general education in all its forms, improvement of its quality and suitability with the developmental gaols, and continuation of the civilizational renaissance that the global national strategy aims at.
  1. Carrying out the final evaluation of the strategy plan.

                                                HIGHER EDUCATION STRATEGY

 

INTRODUCTION

            Higher education, in as far as it constitutes the apex of the education pyramid, shoulders the responsibility of social advancement, by supplying it with intellectual, cultural, professional, technical, organizational and administrative leadership, over and above its task in forming succeeding generations that can have their positive contribution in various aspects of life. Higher education has become one of the social institutions that has the biggest impact on all the achievements of human history and specially the victorious discoveries of the mysteries of the universe, probing its rules, domesticating its resources, and constructing the military, political and economic might, in bringing about social change, and in organizing human relations and activities at their various levels, internationally, regionally, nationally and locally, in all facets of human life. And although the higher education system borrowed from the western colonial states, has created a rift between the students and their cultural, civilizational and religious roots, thus creating intellectually dependant elites, thus separating them from their societies and these societies’ legitimate right in authentithity and progress, the higher education strategy aims at domesticating and rendering more nationalistic the higher education system, and enhance making it more susceptible to renewal and effective contribution in the desired civilizational renaissance. The first priorities of the higher education strategy should be that the higher education system, as a concept, reflect the country’s specific social, civilizational and cultural roots, and in the light of this, the necessary reforms of the objectives, the substance, the organization and the administration should be undertaken. It should emphasize, on the other hand, a deepening of the scientific methodology, and the critical vision as necessary tools for the understanding of modern knowledge and sciences, their development, taking them from the stage of knowledge copying to that of knowledhe production and creation, putting it at the service of the community in a way that does not put a barrier between those who have knowledge and society, thus avoiding alienation while endeavouring to promote shura and objective scientific dialogue providing it with the specialized technical expertises, in a way that facilitates society’s march towards its cultural, social and civilizational progress.

GUIDELINES

The higher education strategy is based on the following guidelines :

  1. The effective contribution in the foundation of the global civilizational renaissance in the country, with an understanding that the mission of education is to render authentic its civilization in its doctrinal, humanist and constructional dimensions.
  1. The educational operation aims at rendering authentic religious doctrine and good custom, national unity, allegiance to the nation, the contribution in its construction and the protection of its environment.
  1. The continuous qualitative renovation of the educational system making it capable to cater to society’s needs and be in step with the rythm of its pregress.
  1. That education be a national right which should be justly accessible to all.
  1. That the Sudan owns basic capabilities in the field of technologies, sciences, formation and training.

THE OBJECTIVES

            The following are the basic objectives and indicators in the elaboration of a strategic methodology for higher education:

  1. Linking higher education with the country’s developmental orientations.
  1. Reformulation of curricula and subjects to be in tune with the orientation of the state specially in the economic, social and other fields.
  1. Continuation of the renovation of the curricula to keep up with the progress of knowledge and the needs of the society.
  1. Giving necessary importance to the specialization that responds to the needs of willayas.
  1. Giving attention to environmental and family studies in all the fields of higher education.
  1. Authentication of culture and avoidance of alienation, making arabic language the main language for teaching and research, while paying attention to the study of foreign languages and cultures.
  1. Rationalisation of education by making use of available resources, and the adoption of self-reliance.
  1. Paying attention to the training of high quality human power, and the preparation and the training of scientists to lead scientific research who are capable of keeping abreast with the ever renewing and developing knowledge.
  1. Encouraging scientific research, specially collective scientific and multi-disciplinary research linking it to teaching and production, and establishing its roots.
  1. Attention should be given to higher studies, in all universities, specially in the university of Khartoum, in limited numbers.
  1. Encouragement of private higher education according to regulation that guarantees high standards.
  1. Support of higher education establishments with a view to realizing the objectives of the plan and maintaining and developing the dsientific standards with a view to consolidate the suitable specialized patterns of each establishment to solve the society’s problems thus realizing a policy of complementarity of specializations between all universities and avoiding chaotic duplication.
  1. Giving priority to technical education and respecting social and economic values, and linking general higher education withthe developmental needs in an effective way.
  1. Encouraging coordination and cooperation between military, security, and diplomatic educational institutions, ans those of higher eduication.
  1. Development of technological and technical education to be 60% of higher education, making available advanced vocational and handicraft training, in a way to garantee the needs of the global strategy.
  1. Doubling the universities to make room for four times the present students population, thus decrease the number of students studying abroad.

HIGHER EDUCATION POLICIES

THE ACADEMIC POLICY

  1. Admittance policy
  1. Emphasis on the national character of admittance to sudanese higher education institutions and awarding of scholarship given by sisterly and friendly states on a national criteria as well to garantee equitable opportunities for all competing students on the basis of academic capability.
  1. Alloting 20% of the regional universities seats annually to the students of the region. Alloting seats for students coming from the least developed regions in the rare specializations not available at the moments in the universities, such as medicine, dental care, pharmaceutical, engineering and technological studies.
  1. The Sudan school certificate shall be the basis for admittance in the higher education institutions and on it shall be determined by the unified amittance office all other certificates. Admittance to higher education institutions shall in addition be based on the percentage instead of the competitive mark system.
  1. Multiplication of admittance by 100% person in all higher education institutions. It has been doubled in the year 1990-1991 to 11 000 and in the year 1991-1992 to 20 000 students.
  1. The higher education institutions shall commit themselves to execute the decision of out-of-school intake in the higher educational institutions with the aim to increase admittance, and making available continuous education opportunities.

EDONOMIC POLICIES

  1. Rationnalization of the existing system of students board, lodging and transportation, gradually abandonning it. A fund has been established for the welfare of the students for their board, lodging and transportation under the responsibility of a national body that does not depend on higher education.
  1. Development of resources proper to the higher education institutions. This could be through the formation of investment bodies for the higher education institutions, and the creation of a consultancy firm to prepare feasibility studies for this investment, and the maximum utilization of the equipment available in this institution and their rehabilitation.

            Improvement of teachers’ living and scientific conditions, and the study of the possibility of unifying the salary scale for them, and the utilization of available scientific framework outside the higher education centres, in the organs of public service, and private sector institutions, and the temptations of scientists and the encouragement of academicians and lecturers living abroad to return home.

  1. Studying abroad at the expense of the state should be rationalized to suit Sudan’s needs by decreasing theoretical studies laying down priorities scientific and applied studies.
  1. Institutionnal policies for higher education.
  1. Encouragment of the establishment of national as well as foreign higher educational institutions and broadening them according to the criteria determined by the national council of higher education.
  1. Continuation of the creation of national uni versities in all willayas.
  1. Follow-up of the attachment of all institutes and specialized colleges to the suitable universities.

THE PRIORITIES

Priorities in the lifespan of the strategy shall be arranged as follows :

FIRST:Qualifications of lecturers and assistant lecturers inside and outside the country to fill the present gap and meet the future needs.

SECOND: To realize what is mentionned in (first) above consolidation of the Khartoum university college of higher studies, and creation of two higher studies colleges in each of the university of Gezira and the university of Sudan for sciences and technologies provided that the two colleges concentrate on the scientific and applied aspects of education.

THIRD:  There should be enlargement in the fields of studies by the creation of universities and colleges to realize the objective of abosrbing four times the students population of to-day, according to the following priorities:

  1. Engineering, vocational and technological studies.
  1. Medical, vocational and technological studies.
  1. Agricultural, vocational and technological studies.
  1. Veterinary, vocational and technological studies.
  1. Educational, vocational and technological studies;
  1. Humanities.
  1. Administrative studies.
  1. Other technological studies.

MAIN PROGRAMS

  1. IN ENGINEERING STUDIES

Creation of 4 engineering colleges in the first year, and a college every two years. Each college shall include the main engineering units: electrical, mechanical, civil and chemical engineering, in addition to two sections of the other specializations. It should form technicians as it does engineers and technologists.

  1. IN MEDICAL STUDIES
  1. Creation of two medical colleges in the southern provinces in the first half of the strategy period.
  1. Increase of admittance in existing colleges to guarantee the satisfaction of the strategy needs for doctors.
  1. Creation of one college of pharmacology in one of the existing universities during the first half of the strategy period.
  1. Enlarging admittance in the Khartoum University college of pharmacology to reach 300 students by the first half of the strategy period.
  1. Creation of one dental college in one of the existing universities during the first half of the strategy period.
  1. Doubling intake in the Khartoum University dental college by the end of the first half of the strategy period.
  1. In light of the public opinion in favour of dividing Khartoum University into various disciplines(humanities, applied, health etc) to improve its performance in the academic, financial and administrative fields, a wing for colleges of the medical and health professions shall be created(medicine, dental care, health, basic sciences) in the first half of the strategy period.
  1. Creation of medical colleges as subsidiaries from the Khartoum university medical college in the hospitals of Omdurman, Khartoum, Khartoum North and Soba starting from the second year of the plan.
  1. Creation of jobs for the faculty members and the supportive frameworks that meet the needs of starting the colleges with a view to gradual enlargement and emphasis of recruitment of basic sciences lecturers.
  1. The basic sciences lecturers should be trained according to an urgent programme that start in the first year of the strategy to obtain masters degree locally in the higher studies colleges.

AGRICULTURAL STUDIES

  1. Increase of intake existing agricultural colleges to allow for the graduation of 6 115 graduates at the end of the plan in addition to the existing number in order to meet the needs of the strategy of the agricultural sector.
  1. Creation of jobs for faculty members and the supportive frameworks to meet with increase.

VETERINARY STUDIES

  1. Increase of the intake in the university of Khartoum veterinary college to 300 students per year by the end of the plan.
  1. Creation of three veterinary colleges in the first stage of the strategy period (two of which in the universities of the southern provinces).
  1. The programmes of the natural resources colleges in the universities of Gezira, Juba and Kordofan should be reviewed so that emphasis should be made on veterinary studies.
  1. Orientating curricula in veterinary colleges to pay more attention to teaching animal production, animal feed and environmental studies and its global dimensions.
  1. Consolidation of the existing colleges.
  1. Creation of faculty members jobs and supportives frameworks to meet the needs of expansion in the existing colleges and the needs of the new colleges.

PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES

  1. Creation of 8 educational colleges( two of which to be in the southern willayas) in the first stage of the strategy.
  1. These colleges shall form the teachers of the basic and secondary stages.
  1. Promotion of present pedagogical institutes attaching them to universities to form basic school teachers.
  1. Rehabilitation of teaching colleges to engage in formation in all specializations required by the global school with emphasis

on rare subjects( languages, mathematics, physics, islamic education, vocational and applied studies.)

  1. Making available construction, extention and promotion materials.

ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES

Weakness of the administrative capability is one of the most difficult problems that face the realization of desired civilizational renaissance. The country now suffers a deficit of about 12 thousands in higher and middle adminstrative levels in the fields of creation and administration of major developmental and social development projects, which necessitates the preperation of this number and its training in the strategy period. This in turn implies the creation of 5 colleges of administrative sciences in existing universities two of which in the first year and one every three years.

HUMANITIES

Humanities represent an important element in the enrichment of intellectual, cultural and social life. Accordingly intake should be doubled in existing colleges by the end of plan years by a 10% increase. Humanities colleges should emphasize the creation of departments in areas where specializations are rare such as journalism and information, languages and diplomatic studies.

TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION

Priority should be given to technological education until it gets even in its social

and economic values with general, higher and intermediate education above the

secondary stage. The situation requires a rectification of the present weakness in addition to meeting the following needs arising therefrom:

  1. Creation of 25 engineering technology institutes, 7 of which in the first year and 6 every two years that includes specializations in civil, mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineering and any other specializations.
  1. Creation of 25 agricultural technology institutes, 7 of which in the first year and 6 every two years catering for specializations in agriculture, veterinary sciences, forestry and natural resources.
  1. Creation of 15 technological institutes in the health field, 6 of which in the first year and one yearly in health studies.
  1. Creation of 12 commercial technology institutes, 4 in the first year and one each year.
  1. Creation of two institutes along the lines of the extra-mural studies institute of Khartoum University one of which in the southern provinces, one in the first half and the second in the second half.

            The following criteria should be respected in all these institutes:

            – Geographical distribution in all prvinces.

– Minimum intake rate of 500 students.

            – Popular education and big private sector firms open technological studies               institutions, and that the creation of social studies colleges should also be         encouraged.

            – All these institutions created by the state should be part of the universities.

INTERNATIONAL AND CULTURAL COOPERATION

Linking higher education culturally, scientifically and professionally with the international community with emphasis on arab, african and asian states making use of cooperation with international and regional organizations.

EXECUTION MECHANISMS

Execution of matters pertaining to admittance, finance, cultural relations, and general education according to set policies whose implimentation has started shall take place through existing higher education channels.

COORDINATION

Coordination shall be ensured by  the national council of higher education for the execution of the strategy. close coordination with the federal ministry of education and instruction, education ministries of the willayas, research centre and  regional and international organizations should also be maintained.

THE STRATEGY OF URBAN PLANNING AND HOUSING

  1. THE URBAN PLANNING STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            Making available housing is a basic human need for individuals and their families in any human society.  The effort to seek one’s livelihood has to be preceded and consequently followed by that which enables man to renew his energies and to regain his forces and dynamism which are very important to start his effort for toil and work, and the economic and social exchange linked with it. The need for housing in a broader sense has to be preceded by a need for social life in the shape of various urban, rural or nomadic organisations, which means that the strategy of housing has to be handled according to the specific situation,  making available of basic raw materials which are necessary to suit each situation in the framework of a more comprehensive strategy which is the urban and the human settlement strategy.  It is important that as we are aiming at establishing peace in the south of the country, and the return of displaced people and others from the different parts of Sudan to their home bases in the rural areas as well as in the small and intermediary towns, that we be aware of the importance of urban strategy at the willaya level and of levels smaller than the willayas in the administrative and economic divisions.  The need for a long view in the area of urban development does not emanate only from a need to solve problems in the human settlements themselves or from the link between these settlements forming networks of development through the interaction between the different infrastructural networks and the distribution of the population in them,  but rather from the imperatives necessitated by voisinage ‘neighbourliness’ and the exchange of benefits within provinces, political and economic groups in the vicinity, and thus facilitating civil or social as well as cultural interaction with a view to achieving national unity and the desired civil or social renaissance.

GUIDELINES

  1. Establishment of human settlements that cater for the dignified human and life conditions, which realize and protect the spiritual health and the psychological comfort, that holds in high esteem social action which can be an inspiration to orientate productive work, and which also makes available in its complementarity in the urban, rural and nomad housing the happiest and most suitable conditions for all citizens.
  1. Guaranteeing a certain harmony between all human settlements and the natural environment as well as promoting the ecological or the social environment therein.
  1. Development of a traditional pattern of housing especially in the rural areas and in the nomadic life based on the utilisation of the materials of the milieu.
  1. Making the citizens participate in the determination of the planning priorities, the execution of the construction and urbanisation plan, and in the construction of the houses, the health of the environment, the establishment and cleaning of the squares and the parks, making use of the youth energy to the maximum.

STRATEGIC GOALS

  1. Establishing urbanisation all over the Sudan and authenticating diversity in its patterns and complementarity among its different parts linking it with the sports and communications networks as well as providing it with communication and transportation facilities that link the country with neighbouring countries and with the continent.
  1. Basing organisation on the principles of responding to the national aspirations, intentions and objectives, such as the achievement of social peace and national unity, and utilising or employing that to serve the purposes of socio‑ economic development and the realisation of prosperity.
  1. Realisation of urban development through the effective coordination and the complementarity of all internal sectors in the framework of urban development.
  1. Rehabilitation of human settlements to play the role that they are supposed to play in the development of the Sudanese citizen and the elevation of his level intellectually, culturally and in the creative fields.
  1. Bridging the existing civilisational gap between the country-side, the city and the urban centres and between the rural areas and the urban areas and getting rid of the factors that incite people to flee from the rural areas by encouraging factors of attraction to the rural areas.
  1. Rationalising the distribution and consumption of natural resources according to the priorities established by the objectives and goals of the development plan.
  1. Rehabilitation of the natural environment and the urban environment to play an ecological role in the creation of a spiritual and psychological equilibrium in the life of the inhabitants.
  1. Rationalisation of the cost of construction through the authentication of the principles of scientific planning and the utilisation of modern technologies such as data processing and global planning.

POLICIES

  1. Balanced development, reestablishment of equilibrium between urban and rural areas, by regulating the growth of big cities and strengthening the elements of voluntary migration from them, and encouraging the development of the rural areas and the consolidation of the social and economic elements to them and to the small and intermediary cities or towns, and the gradual transformation towards productive centres away from the national capital which must be decreased to an annual percentage of 4.8% as a strategic objective.
  1. Consolidation of the economies of the capitals of greater willayas and the major cities in them as well as of intermediary cities, within the major economic development projects in the country and its support by services so that they become alternative centres of attraction to the capital Khartoum.
  1. The reasonable intervention of the State to curb seasonal migrations through the drawing of policies that achieve a constructive balance between production exigencies and demands and available manpower, and opening gradual chances for the economic factors for distribution of the population and the establishment of new settlements in and around the major production regions as well as a review of villages and small centres of life in the major production and agricultural projects in the country.
  1. Consolidation of the organs of urban planning and housing at the federal and willayas levels.
  1. Complete coordination among the organs of urban planning horizontally and vertically at all levels and the adoption of the curricula of the complete urban planning cycle (from the top to the bottom and from the bottom to the top).
  1. Reviewing of the policies of encouraging industrial investment and the establishment of industries on the basis of global strategy, a complementarity, availability of energy, feeds, inputs, and the utilisation and incentives that encourage the realisation and the execution of these policies.
  1. Rationalisation of the distribution and consumption of energy and fresh water at the national level through the establishment of a better priorities schedule and their distribution based on the percentage of the participation in the gross national product – GNP.
  1. Consolidation of the means of communication and transportation inside the willayas and the orientation towards their capitals as a parallel alternative to the existing national network which is based on the hegemony of the centre in Khartoum.
  1. The development of suitable ports for various purposes (commercial – industrial – fishing – tourism) on the Red Sea and on the rivers, and the encouragement of modern river transport for the human settlements that depend on these ports.
  1. Paying attention to the urban and environmental issues as an integral part of the local, national and continental environmental system. The investment in the improvement and rehabilitation of the natural environment that surrounds the settlement areas and a choice of the best and the most suitable positions for the establishment of new settlements.
  1. The redrawing of a map for the distribution of settlements and utilising it as a basis and a real indicator to the trends in terms of the settlements and the infrastructural network at the national level.
  1. Preparation of guiding plans and maps in the framework of the national strategy plan for global urban development for all major cities in the willayas.
  1. Preparation of plans for all villages that are to be found in major projects with the intention of creating a balance between the settled area and the vital space for production (200 villages).
  1. Commitment to a national urbanisation policy that aims at the achievement of the following:
  1. a) In the urban areas:

                        i)curbing the horizontal spread in the human settlements by reviewing the policies of awarding government land and making it conditional by the financial ability to construct on this land within a specific period as a basic condition to enjoy the right on that plot of land and checking through the central data bank the actual legitimacy of the candidates to such pieces of land by strengthening the supervisory organs of urban planning and development.

                        ii)utilisation of the cost of services as a basic indicator to the urban growth.

                        iii)The adoption of better ratios between the various utilizations of land in the cities and tying that with their functionality and their size.

                        iv)rationalization of the choice of sites for development and urban growth by avoiding the natural water ways, the lands for agricultural use, the flood paths and areas of very high agricultural potential and reorganizing priorities for production utilisation in these areas before other utilizations.

  1. b) In the rural areas:

                        i)Establishing the necessary regulations to check and prevent the onslaught of housing activities on productive agricultural land.

                        ii)Encouragement of research in rural development areas especially in the areas of housing, energy, water and rural environment protection.

                        iii)The establishment of the measures and criteria for urban planning and housing in the rural areas.

  1. THE STRATEGY OF HOUSING

INTRODUCTION:

            The general objective for the housing sector is to make available suitable and healthy living quarters for each family in a good economical and social environment in which there is the minimum of decent life.  With this understanding housing becomes an important national objective and an important factor for social and economic development, and on the basis of this emanates the importance of housing as a right of the citizen.  The State and the society have to endeavour seriously and by all possible means to make this available for the citizen.  As a civil right it helps in the security as well as a suitable atmosphere which is conducive to the best degree of productivity which in turn will help the overall development and prosperity of the society.

THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF THE HOUSING STRATEGY

            The general strategy for housing is summarized in guaranteeing suitable living conditions to all citizens and generalising the urban and village planning in a way to guarantee comfortable lodging as well as social services and to work towards the decrease of construction costs, seeing to it that the architectural design is in harmony with the environment which means:

            a)Meeting the accumulated needs resulting from the natural growth and internal migration.

            b)Meeting the deteriorating condition in the area of housing and lodging by improving the necessary services and by the educational health and security services as well as reviewing the planning and improving of the housing environment.

THE OBJECTIVES

            The accumulated housing needs, and those resulting from bad practices in the housing sector, and of which major important regions in the cities and the villages suffer from shortages that need solutions through the elaboration of a variety of programmes that can extend to the end of the 10 year period.  Here the needs cover the following:

            a)Land preparation, planning and provision by the most important and vital social services.

            b)Making available financial resources for construction of houses, services, and planning and availability of land as well as reviewing the planning of the old and dilapidated areas in big cities and making available construction material in their diverse forms and guaranteeing skilled labour at different levels as well as rehabilitating and training of technical cadres.

            c)Promulgation of laws and establishment of regulations that curb the spread of illegal construction.

PROGRAMMES

            The proposed strategy has to emphasize the following:

FIRSTLY: THE ORGANS AND THE LAWS:

            a)The creation of a national organism that is effective for guaranteeing the good programme execution of the proposed strategy and the plan that has been prepared within it.

            b)Promulgation of a united law of housing and elimination of contradiction in the land and urban planning law.

            c)Speeding the issuance of the orders relating to the establishment of local popular government councils in all big cities so that they can carry on their responsibilities especially in the areas of housing and lodging.

SECONDLY: A COMPREHENSIVE HOUSING PLAN

  1. Preparing a long term housing lodging plan (10 years) opening the way to short term plans that have to be executed according to the following:
  1. a) putting an end to wild unorganized homes and shanty towns.

            b)meeting the accumulated needs in the cities that have populations going beyond 20 000 people.

            c)laying down a good basis for the establishment of an industry for construction material and making use of the important studies that have been done in this domain.

  1. Mobilizing a popular effort to establish through voluntary work and construction, maintaining and improving the infrastructure of the environmental and social services.
  1. Curbing the distribution of land plots for construction of homes through the site and services projects and concentrating on handing citizens already turnkey homes either a complete home or just a home with the basics according to the citizen’s financial ability.
  1. Encouragement of housing savings.

THIRDLY – TRAINING AND FORMATION

  1. Laying the same basis for the establishment of workers training institutions in the area of construction.
  1. Consolidation of post-graduate studies in the universities and the higher institutes and the introduction of university studies or post graduate studies on the problems of housing.

FOURTHLY – CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL AND TECHNIC

  1. Raising the productive capacity of existing industries and encouraging the creation or the production of local building materials that are respectful of the identical measurement system.
  1. Encouragement of integrated housing projects and decreasing individual construction efforts.
  1. Making use of all researches that have been carried out by construction research centres, universities and ministries and their reviewal, documentation and putting together specific programmes for the development of local building materials.
  1. Renovation and development of conventional or traditional building patterns taking into consideration their perfect harmony with the environmental, social and economic values.

FIFTHLY: HOUSING FINANCE POLICIES

            To finance housing programmes that are required by the housing strategy for the coming 10 years it is imperative to abide by the following:

  1. Estimation of the services in a realistic way because the existing estimations reveal a big gap between these estimations and between what is required to be achieved in terms of services which can compromise the execution of the required services.
  1. As regards land for investment a certain percentage should be deducted from the real sale price (and not the basic price that is in vigour) to provide services to the land and utilisation of the surplus in housing or in providing housing to those who have limited incomes.
  1. The creation of a housing bank, and putting the sums of money that are mentioned above in this bank, in addition to part of the pension money and social insurance money and others with the intention of financing housing projects for those with limited income and the provision of services, to reduce before the beginning of the housing projects or the delivering of land to ensure that the increase in costs does not reach a level where it is difficult to provide the services.
  1. Encouragement of housing association establishments among sectors of civil servants and workers.
  1. Encouragement of the idea of low cost housing.
  1. Encouragement of housing savings especially among the civil servants and workers of the state and also those above modest incomes and middle incomes.
  1. Continuation of the existing state policy of establishing privileges as regards to the financial ceiling to support real state investment and the utilisation of the state and its institutions.
  1. Support of the housing of civil servants, workers and the poor through special funds.
  1. Encouragement of construction materials in industries locally and the financing of scientific research for their development.
  1. Supporting of the real state bank, enlarging its capital and generalizing its franchise in the willays.
  1. IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING CHARACTERISTIC PROGRAMMES:

            These programmes aim at the improvement of all the characteristics of housing in their various fields, spiritual value, social and productive, and the consolidation of the individuals, families, social groups and institutional organisations capabilities and talents.  This is the responsibility of the sector which supervises these areas.  The housing strategy emphasises the consolidated efforts of these sectors through its programmes and specially the following:

  1. a) Decrease of the death percentages of the babies who are breast fed, through controlling the causes of these deaths especially those resulting from diseases for which sufficient medicine has been discovered or because of bad habits and traditions that can be fought through programmes of awareness consolidated by the power of law to decrease its present percentage of 89.1 per thousand instead of 220 per thousand by the year 2000.
  1. b) Decrease of the death percentage or death rates of children below 5 using the same means mentioned earlier from the present ratio of 123,000 to 120 in the thousand in 1993, to 200 in the thousand in 1998 and to about 45 in the thousand by the year 2002.
  1. c) The programme for the eradication of alphabetical illiteracy, vocational illiteracy and civil or social illiteracy.  According to what is mentioned in the general education strategy for the eradication of illiteracy and about education so that illiteracy can be eradicated totally by the year 2002.
  1. d) Programmes for the awareness of women and the fight against bad habits:

            1.Developing the information awareness programmes, direct meetings, and the activities of voluntary associations working in this sector.

  1. Promulgation of laws.

            3.Raising the percentage of intake of women or females in the schools and literacy programmes to the level of the males and seeing to it that they continue their schooling by minimising drop-outs in secondary education.

  1. BALANCED HOUSING DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMMES:

            a)Modification of the working structure by decreasing the ratio of those working in marginal non-productive activities.

            b)Redistribution of the housing density through the establishment of new human settlements and the encouragement of settlement in them, with the intention of realising the objectives of the increase of national income bearing in mind the respect of the realisation of unity and national security in a way to include:  5% of the population by the year 1998, 10% of the population by the year 2000.

            c)The adoption of policies in housing and employment and encouragement and motivation in a way that opens the doors of the region and the intensification of human interaction at a national level.

  1. THE ATTRACTION OF BRAINS AND EXPERIENCES PROGRAMME

            These programmes intend to achieve two main objectives.  The first is the accomplishment of the Sudanese civil or social responsibility and mission, and the accomplishment of Sudanese responsibilities emanating from its arabic-african and islamic identity.  Secondly, mobilising the capabilities of these brains and experiences in a consolidation of efforts to execute the strategy which should take place through the realisation of the following steps:

            i)Opening the frontiers and cancelling of visa requirements and facilitating the conditions of stay and the obtaining of Sudanese nationality.

            ii)Offering good remunerated work conditions to scientists, experts and creative people and making available for them a condusive work environment that gives them an incentive to produce and integrate in the society.

            iii)Making known the authentic model of Sudanese civil or social orientation, as well as the immense potential of the Sudan which can be utilised to achieve it, and the need for the efforts of capable partners who believe in the same orientation to contribute in its realisation for the benefit of Sudanese and other people around them starting by the closer ones in the Arab, African and Islamic worlds.

THE STAGE-BY-STAGE PROGRAMME

INTRODUCTION

            The strategy aims at making available suitable housing for all citizens in all parts of the country through the rehabilitation of existing structures of housing in the rural areas as well as in the urban areas and the improvement of the quality of housing as well as executing the completion of the current housing plans, the preparation of more of the housing sites through the provision of important or vital services and the distribution of housing plots which ensures the realisation of this aim.

THE FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

            a)Establishing measurement criteria for urban planning and human settlements and housing.

  1. b) preparation of housing plans and new housing sites.

            c)continuation of a preparation of working forces in this area and their training, in a way that meets the needs of this strategy.

            d)promulgation of legislation that facilitates good housing planning, and preventing the wild appropriation of agricultural land and the protection of the environment.

            e)concentration on research in the areas of rural development especially in the areas of health, housing and environment improvement and the making available of a water and drainage system, energy, and researches in the areas of promoting construction industry, decreasing its costs, and making use of the materials available in the local environments especially.

            f)raising the standards of the services in existing work sites in urban as well as rural areas and applying new planning based on the measurement criteria.

            g)tackling the problem of wild housing and seeing to it that the citizens are housed in planned sites.

            h)executing the completion of the current housing plans (approximately 500 000 new housing units).

THE SECOND STAGE (4 YEARS)

            a)Making available housing to fill the gap between what is available and the increasing demand that is resulting from the natural population growth as well as migration to the cities in the previous period (around 660 000 new housing units of different categories).

            b)Rehabilitation of housing areas and the improvement of the housing quality that has deteriorated and those which no longer meet decent housing criteria and improving their health standards (450,000 housing units).

THE THIRD STAGE (3 YEARS)

            a)Making available the needs for housing resulting from the natural increasing population and migration to the cities in this period (around 440 000 new housing units of different categories).

            b)completion of the rehabilitation of housing areas (450 000 housing units).

STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM

INTRODUCTION

            The importance of the development of tourism responds to a number of factors.  The first one is the encouragement of national tourism, specially among the youth, to know their country and its diverse environments which display various facets of civilizational and cultural expressions, to grow up loving it and being proud of it, establishing on their way elements of unity and in this way, making national tourism a fundamental factor in consolidating national unity.

            Tourism is also a vital economic resource because it attracts foreign currencies.  It is an element of progress and knowledge and interaction with others attracted by the immense touristic potential of our homeland.  In this way, tourism accomplishes two roles.  One is consolidating information about the Sudan, its people, its nature, its civilization and its popular heritage and arts, and the second is that it contributes to our popular diplomacy.

GUIDELINES

            The development of tourism should take into consideration the following:

  1. Tourism is an important means of making the citizen aware of his country’s history, linking it with its heritage, realizing the immense resources that God Almighty has bestowed on us, and a way to inculcate the love of the homeland, taking pride in it, and being attached to its unity, the maintenance of its identity in the souls of the citizens.
  1. Tourism is a social, economic and informative activity, that should be viewed in a fashion which integrates all its functions in society.
  1. Emphasizing and promoting tourism as an economic source, giving it its proper role in the re-equilibrium in the external balance of trade.
  1. Consolidation of tourist information capabilities to familiarize the tourist with the country and its human, natural and economic potentialities.
  1. Tourism is a means to know Creation, and the ability of the Creator.

OBJECTIVES

1.Promotion of internal and external tourism activities and consolidation of its basic infrastructures.

  1. Promotion of tourist education and information.
  1. Attraction of national as well as foreign capital for investment in tourism.
  1. Updating legislations that organize tourism.

5.Development of the tourism organ ensuring close coordination between all parties involved in tourism.

6.Orientation of tourist work to realize the objectives of the global national strategy.

AREAS OF WORK

  1. A global survey of all tourist infrastructures in the country with their different elements:

            a)Natural, including forests, deserts, valleys, mountains, nomadic and marine life.

            b)Monumental, including all monuments, christian and islamic.

            c)Heritage and traditional, churches, mosques, and koranic schools.

            d)Technical, including the various forms of popular folklore, oral and  performed arts, modern art with its various expressions be they painting or theatrical, and the various facets of literary and artistic life, old and new.

            e)Anthropologically, including the various ways of living household utensils, traditional industries, hunting and agricultural instruments, and facets of urban and modern life including projects, factories, dams etc.

  1. Establishment of documentation on the tourist infrastructures of the country, classifying it, issuing dictionaries and tourist brochures and publications, and utilizing all means of information and promotion to familiarize the public with it.
  1. Developing existing museums and creating new museums, generalizing them in all willayas, the general and the specialized among them, enabling them to expose a complete record of Sudanese life through the ages,, modernizing their means of presentation and the establishment of specialized museums.
  1. Paying attention to all tourist sites in all parts of the country and specially monumental sites, natural reserves, water sites, sea and rivers, by protecting, developing, and making them accessible and facilitating the stay of the tourist and the development of the means of transport and communication to these areas.
  1. Creation of more reserves, and open gardens, and the enlargement of the establishment of public gardens, parks, and zoos.
  1. Implementation of the new national zoo project.
  1. Construction of more youth hostels, and generalizing them to the provinces level to facilitate Sudanese youth tourism, and that of visiting youth from abroad.
  1. Encouragement of investment in tourist projects such as hostels, rest houses, tourist services, travel and transport agencies, restaurants and tourist companies.
  1. Improving investment in the development of handicrafts and traditional industries, their promotion and marketing internally and externally, and their introduction to the international market.
  1. Implementation of the Red Sea tourist area project, making it an experiment capable to be generalized to other areas especially to the south of the country.
  1. Paying attention to the training of manpower working in the areas of tourism, administration and activity, so that the new tourist renaissance is established on scientific bases, and high levels of service. It should include all specializations, and should progress gradually from elementary and during in-service training, to studies in specialized schools, higher education by creating  colleges and institutes for tourist studies.
  1. Development of the organism in charge of tourist service to enable it to undertake all the tasks required by this strategy. It should include in its planning leadership all parties that have to do with tourism development, and it should have branches or similar counterparts in all willayas of the country.
  1. Completion and renovation of the legislative framework to realize efficiency and flexibility.
  1. Effective promotion of tourism in the Sudan by the various available and original means, capable of achieving a Sudanese presence in the regional and international tourism markets, by participating in scientific meetings, and in regional, and international organizations, festivals and fairs.

THE STAGE-BY-STAGE PROGRAMME

THE FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

  1. Completion of the legislative framework for tourist development.
  1. Development of the organ in charge of tourist service and improving its efficiency, and the creation of organisms for tourist development in all willayas.
  1. Global survey of all tourist potential in the country, its classification and documentation, and the issuing of tourist dictionaries, guides and brochures.
  1. Starting an active programme for the promotion of tourism in the Sudan inside and outside the country.
  1. Development of existing museums, and the generalization of public and specialized museums at the level of three willayas.
  1. Implementation of the new national zoo project.
  1. Starting the implementation of the tourist model area project in the Red Sea region.
  1. Rendering active investment in the tourist sector, encouraging it by renovating and constructing hotels, rest houses and tourist open-air camps in tourist areas, and developing and extending tourist services.
  1. Development of the tourism training institute enlarging its intake capacity.
  1. Development of Dinder Park to enable it have the means of a model park.
  1. Preparing an active programme to prevent smuggling wildlife wealth.

THE SECOND STAGE (4 YEARS)

  1. Continuation of the programme for documentation of tourist potential.

2.Continuation of the programme for the promotion of tourism in Sudan inside and outside the country.

  1. Creation of public as well as specialized museums in four willayas.
  1. Completion of the model tourist area project in the Red Sea.
  1. Starting the development of the Jabel Mara region as a model tourist area.
  1. Allotting natural reserves in the southern willayas.

7.Inclusion of tourism and hotel management in the existing global secondary school curriculum in areas having tourist potential.

  1. Establishment of a high institute for tourist studies, and a university college.

THE THIRD STAGE (3 YEARS)

  1. Continuation of projects of a continuous nature.
  1. Completion of projects started in the two previous stages.

3.Establishment of public and specialized museums in the remaining two willayas

  1. Establishment of a model tourist region in the south of the country.

                                          SPORTS STRATEGY

            All religions or divine messages and authentic old civilisations did not consider sportss as a pass-time but rather as a basic and an integral part of educational programmes for youth. Our religion has encouraged us to teach our kids how to throw the javelin, to swim and to ride horses.  In addition modern societies do their best to make sportss available as an aspect of social progress.  What we want for sports in our country is that it should be practised in all its facets, be accessible to all citizens, and all ages without discrimination between males and females with the understanding that it is a right for all.  It also has educational, health and defense returns necessary to all contemporary generations.  We like also to orient traditional sportss towards modernisation in their various milieux and see to it that alien types and models are checked and do not find their way to the rural and village environments unless they take into consideration the specific circumstances of these areas.

THE GUIDELINES

  1. Sports is a means of prayer, a means of bringing up strong citizens in their bodies, their moralities and their manners.
  1. Exercising sports is a basic right for all without discrimination or segregation who start its enjoyment from early childhood.
  1. Sports is one of the basic means of general education and is a basic and an important element in the development of cooperation, and the inculcation of collective spirit and knowledge among the people.

4          Sportss activities are a basic element in the affirmation of the Sudan’s presence regionally and internationally.  Sportss is a health imperative as well as a productivity and a defense imperative.  It has its effective role in popular diplomacy, in external information, and it is a basic element in external relations and through it relations could be strengthened with the Arab-African-Islamic friendly States.

THE OBJECTIVES OR GOALS

  1. Realisation of obligatory sportss in the educational curricula for boys and girls.
  1. Generalisation of youth leagues for all types of sportss and in all parts of the country.
  1. Making available the opportunities for sportss, advancement in sportss and competition, and the establishment of able and excellent national teams.
  1. Ensuring the specific means for the realisation of all these objectives or goals.
  1. Generalisation of sportss in all production establishments or institutions.

THE AREAS:

Sports Establishments:  Sports establishments are basic means and there must be sufficient playgrounds, swimming pools, gymnasiums, designed according to the international legal specifications.  To ensure this aspect it is important that :

            1.Specification or allotment of enough land suitable for the purpose in the rural as well as the urban areas and its protection from the new developments in terms of buildings.

            2.Regular maintenance of playgrounds, sportss complexes, and youth hostels and centres.

            3.Rehabilitation of sportss grounds and sportss fields as well as gymnasiums.

            4.Establishment of the Sudan sportss city and its completion by the end of this plan.

  1. Creation of a sportss complex in the capital of each willaya (State).

            6.Creation of sportss multiple purpose complexes at a province level and also popular squares and playgrounds for the sportss activities in their various fields.

  1. Creation of a national centre for sportss medicine and centres in the willayas.

SPORTS AND EDUCATION

            Schools and Universities are institutions for the upbringing and the education of youth which means that they have to generalize sportss in their curricula.  To do this the following steps have to be taken:

            1.Reconstruction of old sportss fields in the universities and those belonging to the universities but falling outside its territory.

            2.The creation of playgrounds for all types of sportss in all new schools and universities.

  1. Creation of an institute for sportss education in each willaya.

            4.Inclusion of sportss in the curricula and in the school schedule for all pupils males and females.

            5.Giving importance to the sportss training cycles in schools, local and national, for the different stages and the enlargement of the participation of the educational institutions in these cycles and in the school cycles regionally and internationally.

REHABILITATION AND TRAINING

            To be able to ensure the availability of scientifically and operationally qualified human resources to meet the needs of sportss and its development, it is imperative that the academic rehabilitation be accompanied by a movement for training in all aspects of sportss and at all levels.  This should be achieved in the following manner:

  1. The adoption of a stable system for training in all aspects and the imperatives of its graduality, through the organisation of middle and advanced training cycles in the areas of administration training, arbitration, sportss information, sportss medicine, playground technicians, and benefitting from the complimentary programmes, the different agreements and the grants from friendly countries.
  1. Giving priority for the needs of the educational sector through its various stages and the needs of the youth groups.

THE YOUNG AND THE BEGINNERS

            The beginner groups or circles are a movement at the base of the civil sector which constitutes in its behaviour with school sportss the sportss basis available to all citizens and that enables them to develop and progress to the levels of competition and excellence.  Since its activity is limited to the exercise of football it is imperative that more programmes of other sportss activities be considered to enlarge and diversify the sportss base so that it includes all types of sportss known internationally and the development of all types of sportss in the authentic national environment.

The Handicapped

            This fragment has a right to practice sportss as other fragments of society which means that sportss institutions specialized for their welfare have to be created to ensure their enjoyment of this right.

National Teams

            Regional and international competitions for national teams and sportss clubs is imperative for an effective presence of Sudan in these activities and for the achievement of honourable results and representation.  It is to begin by concentrating on specific activities and the planning to excel in them starting by preparing the youth and the students to guarantee an effective participation in the regional and international competitions especially the African and the Arabic ones.

Sports Information:

            Sports information is a basis for sports awareness and its importance. It is an important way to critically evaluate the performance of sports. It is an important and an essential basic aspect for sports development. To achieve and guarantee an effective role for sports information it is imperative that :

  1. i) efforts should be made to emphasize the importance of sports for all;

            ii)intensification of the attention of information, the media and the sports critics by all sports activities and opening the way and the door large for sports information programmes in schools, and sports in the work place and in all Willayas;

            iii)importance should be given by sports information to the main problems and issues facing sports, drawing attention to them and helping to find ways of solving them;

            iv)training of information agents, sports officers and critics;

            v)making a documentation for the sports movement;

            vi)seeing to it that by the end of the plan experienced, specialized and scientifically qualified information officers are produced.

The Sports City:

            The establishment of a sports city in the Sudan has been a challenge and a hope since 1968 and the appreciable attention that has been shown by the State vis a vis this projet imposes a special effort to continue in the direction of its achievement before the strategy plan.  It is imperative that the finance of this project becomes a concern for all citizens who should contribute through popular efforts, joining those of the sports movement, which is the back bone for its achievement.

The factory of sports equipment and instruments:

            The achievement of the goal of availing opportunities in sports for all citizens imposes on everybody the attention to make available the sports equipments and instruments necessary for these sports and the efforts to establish national industries for them.  Big strides have been made towards the creation of this industry and the feasibilities have been prepared for the shoe industry, sports garments industry and the necessary finance has been allotted for their creation.  In the framework of sports strategy these industries should be developed to include the sports instruments and equipments.

THE STAGE BY STAGE PROGRAMME

THE FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

  1. Reformulating the legislative framework for sports activity in a way to make it obligatory to apply the requirements of the Federal system.
  1. Completion of the democratisation of the sports movement through the organisation of elections of their leadership.
  1. Undertaking a global sports survey with specific attention to the preschool sports (nurseries and koranic schools), the handicapped and that which suits the conditions of types of sports which also lead to their total integration in that area.
  1. The allotment of sufficient plots of land for the sports grounds or play grounds in the rural as well as the urban areas.
  1. Rehabilitation and maintenance of sports institutions and infrastructure including those in schools, universities and institutes of higher learning.
  1. Creation of sports complexes at the willaya level.
  1. Creation of a national centre for sports medicine in the capital and creation of two such centres in each willaya and one of them in the city of Juba in the south of Sudan.
  1. Preparation for the creation of institutes and colleges for sports education in the willayas.
  1. Preparation and execution of a national awareness or conscientisation campaign on or about sports for the individual and for the society, drawing attention especially to its educational value, educational health productive and defensive value in a way to make the youth able to contribute effectively in the realisation of the objectives of all the sectoral strategies that are included in the global national strategy.
  1. The organisation of a special seminar comprehensive around sports’ information so that it could be founded on scientific basis and built on a very strict commitment to the basis of the sports information charter.
  1. Generalisation of the basic initial education in all willayas and the beginning by intermediary cycles with special attention for the human resources in the area of preschool (nurseries and koranic schools) and the teachers in the various stages and the specialised units.
  1. Inclusion of sports within the official school programmes and within the school schedule, and the enlargement of its role in the school activities.
  1. Consolidation of the administration of the school activities in the Federal Ministry and the creation of school activity units in each willaya.
  1. Establishment of school sportsing and cultural cycles at the local and national levels and at various stages each year and the obligation of all educational institutions to participate in them.
  1. The starting of the diversification of sports through an association for the welfare of the beginners in sports so that they exercise a minimum of three types of sports according to the environment and available resources in the various urban areas.
  1. The development of the national sports teams and their generalisation at the grass roots level to enlarge the chances of success and achievement and to facilitate the selection of the best in the different types of sports andthen form teams in specific areas that have the potential to achieve for the Sudan good results at the regional and international levels. This emphasis should be in the first stage of the strategy on football, basket ball, volley ball, swimming, athletics and table tennis.
  1. Completion of the procedures having to do with the acquisition of the land for the Sudanese sports city and the reviewal of the engineering design and finalising it and then beginning the construction of the city.
  1. Industrialisation of sports shoes and sportswear.
  1. Completion of the feasibility study for the industrialisation of sports equipment starting by balls.
  1. Continuation of the distribution of investment plots of land for sports associations that can give returns to be used for the development of sports.

THE SECOND STAGE (4 YEARS)

  1. Supervision of the next stage for the election of sports associations and groups.
  1. Evaluation of the sports statistics for the first stage of the strategy life, and the follow-up for the survey for the coming stage.
  1. Checking what has been specified as far as sports lands are concerned in all their fields – educational and civil in all willayas and their comparison with what crops up in the second stage.
  1. Review of the investment approvals and the degree of their suitability to the sports movement in terms of its development and its renovation.
  1. Rehabilitation and maintenance of the sports establishments and complexes including those in schools, universities and higher institutions.
  1. Addition of sports fields in the educational and civil fields.
  1. Creation of sports complexes at willayas levels.
  1. Creation of 4 centres for sports medicines in the willayas two of which in the willayas of Upper Nile and Bahr El Ghazal.
  1. The preparation for the creation of institutes and colleges of sports education in the willayas, and the work to make opportunities for higher studies that enable the institutes and the colleges to benefit from the graduates in teaching and in the improvement of sports generally.
  1. Continuing the national sports awareness campaign and organising workshops and conferences specialized in this field at the national and willaya levels.
  1. Generalising the elementary rehabilitation of training of all willayas in the various activities and organizing intermediary and advanced training cycles.
  1. Evaluation of the performance of the first stage of the sports plan in the schools, universities and higher institutes and the administration of sports activities as well as units in the willayas.
  1. Evaluation of sports cultural training cycles in the schools at the local, national, and regional levels.
  1. Ensuring the second stage of the plan and the diversity of sports in the younger welfare association and movement by introducing three additional types.
  1. Continuation of the evaluation and support for the development of the results and the performance of national sports teams as well as the champions of clubs at the level of foreign competition.
  1. Ensuring the participation of the Sudan in Arab, African and international championship competitions in the various sports enlisted in the Olympic programmes as well as in the African games.
  1. Increase of concentration on sports and games that are mentioned in the various stages and with emphasis on new games according to the evolution of the stage.
  1. Continuation of work in the creation of the Sudan sports city.
  1. Starting the export of sports equipment manufactured in the Sudan.

THE THIRD STAGE (3 YEARS)

            Completion of the strategy programmes, as follows:

  1. Organisation of discussion circles concerned with sports statistics and the evaluation of what has been achieved, the extent to which it responds to the needs of the previous two stages, and the preparation for the third stage.
  1. Evaluation of the situation of the investment approvals and their role in the development movement of sports in the two stages.
  1. Rehabilitation and maintenance of remaining sports complexes including those in schools, universities, and higher institutes.
  1. Completion of the lightening of the decided play grounds or sports fields in the willayas including those in schools, universities, and higher institutes.
  1. Creation or establishment of sports complexes at the Federal as well as the willaya and province levels.
  1. Creation of three sports medical centres in the remaining willayas.
  1. Continuation of the creation of institutes and colleges for sports education in the willayas offering opportunities for the pursuit of higher studies.
  1. Continuation of sports awareness campaigns at the levels of the willayas and the provinces.
  1. Generalisation of the elementary training as well as the middle training and advanced training in all willayas and in all diverse sports activities.
  1. Evaluation of the first and second stages in the plan of sports diversification and addition of new types of sports.
  1. Establishment of a sports conference at the end of the comprehensive national strategy period to evaluate what has been achieved in schools at their various stages as well as in Universities and in higher institutes and also the civil and popular activities.
  1. Ensuring the participation at the national level and at the level of clubs and champions externally.
  1. Completion of the final stage of the Sudan sports city.
  1. Continuation of the export of sports equipment after the raising of the standard of efficiency of the sports industries in the country.

                                  ENVIRONMENT STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            Natural environment is a gift of God to His creatures, and the social environment reflects what God has bestowed of His might in the realm of human interaction, and in it comes the power to domesticate nature, investing, protecting, and developing it.  The enrichment of the environment is one of the foundations of the promise that God gave to man to represent Him on earth.

            The moral interaction with the environment imposes on us the protection of each growing plant, and each animal.  The misericord of God that encompasses everything incites its creatures to practice misericord vis a vis all his creation.  We are to strike a balance between the utilization of natural resources, benefitting from them and maintaining and developing them to keep the environmental balance even.  We should avoid replacing that which is good by that which is bad thus causing the fast destruction of the environment.  Equilibrium is also required between the interests of present and future generations.  We should also have a share in the protection of the environment internationally.

            The best resource for all this is the inculcation of love of the environment of the homeland and all its beauty spots, including our historical monuments, our natural environments, wild and domesticated, all forms of expression in the diversity of our life, among youth, making of this a basis of their education and up-bringing.  This should also be part of the people’s culture, and of the social awareness and mobilization programme.

            All of this is consolidated by the development of the economic environment by raising the level of economic performance, through the improvement of the rates of production and the increase of the volume of national production through a sober and sector-balanced investment, as far as possible, developing the social environment and the cultural environment along the lines that this comprehensive national strategy aims at realizing.

GUIDELINES

  1. Protection of the natural environment, its development and putting it to good use, is an authentic part of fulfilling the responsibility of representing God on earth, and the destruction of environment is a manifestation of corruption in the here and now. The preparation of the healthy social environment, its improvement and development is an essential dimension of response to the principal of defending the dignity of mankind.
  1. Every Sudanese citizen has a right to a healthy environment that guarantees health, abundance and prosperity.
  1. The better development is continuous development that caters for the needs of present generations without prejudicing those of future generations in satisfying their basic needs, which necessitates the rational handling of natural resources for the benefit of all generations and the protection of the natural and social environments.
  1. Some environmental problems neither recognize political nor geographical boundaries which necessitates regional and international cooperation for the protection of the environment and its development in respect of international convenants and agreements.

THE OBJECTIVES

  1. A national strategic objective: The protection of environment in the Sudan and its improvement to help in the realization of balanced development.
  1. Qualitative and quantitative environmental improvement for the Sudanese citizen, specially in the rural areas, to a degree that enables him to live in his country with dignity, honour and prosperity.
  1. Waging war on poverty, considered an important factor for the destruction of the environment, in order to cater for the basic needs of the poor.
  1. The reconstruction of the tree covers to maintain the ratio of rainfall, protection of waterfalls, protection of soils against erosion and the prevention of agricultural and human settlements against desertification.
  1. Conservation of a balance and a stability of the basic environmental capabilities (ecosystems) which consolidate the continuous feeding of the earth and the renewable natural resources.
  1. Rationalisation of the exploitation of water, soil, forests, pastures, water and wildlife and their protection from pollution.
  1. Raising the standards of environmental feeling and consciousness, that enables politicians and administrators to adopt the scientific approach that realizes the environmental conservation, and allows citizens and voluntary organisations to take environmental-oriented initiatives and the solution of its problems.
  1. Guaranteeing the sufficiency of supply and utilization of chemicals for various purposes and their safety, thus protecting human and animal health and environmental safety.
  1. Up-lifting the health of the environment.
  1. Raising the standard of the urban environment, protecting it from all types of pollution, and the conservation of animals and their natural environments, developing them in a way that realizes the optimal utilization and the conservation of life diversity.
  1. Safeguard of the environment of the Nile River and other rivers and the Red Sea, and the development of its resources in a way that contributes to the attainment of consolidating development.

POLICIES

  1. Planning of development projects on a basis of its continuous productivity and renewal, making use of local technology in its implementation, and of imported technologies suitable for the local environment and Sudanese life style.
  1. Estimation of the environmental effects for each project in its feasibility study presented by the investor, and this should be supervised by the authority approving the project.
  1. Evaluation of present practices negatively affecting the environment and the existing projects with the intention of rectifying them and fending against their future negative side-effects.
  1. Establishment of a national organism for the protection of the environment with branches at the willayas and province levels to draw policies, propose legislations, supervise and follow-up the implementation of environmental decisions, and undertaking scientific research.
  1. Promulgating the necessary legislations, embodying strong punishments, to guarantee environmental protection.

MAIN PROGRAMMES

  1. Awareness raising, environmental education and guidance in all educational and social institutions, starting by an intensive information campaign aiming at the improvement of the health of the environment and the rationalization of energy consumption among families.
  1. Issuing of an environmental legislation containing all basic principles, general policies, for the protection of the environment and its improvement, that will serve as a guide for all government and popular organisms.
  1. Reconstruction of the areas affected by draught, desertification and soil degradation, and the investment of the civil administration capabilities in the rationalization of the water, pasture, and forest resources, and the protection of the environment.
  1. Making an inventory of all chemicals that entered the country, their utilizations and wastes, and industrial wastes and the way of getting rid of them, with a view to rationalizing their utilization avoiding their ill effects, and the encouragement of the recycling of industrial wastes.
  1. Enlarging the utilization of organic fertilizers instead of industrial chemicals.
  1. Preparation of a quick plan and effective legislation to guarantee the safety of imports, transportsation, storage, and utilization of agricultural chemicals, especially pesticides, and guaranteeing a safe disposal of the surplus and spoiled parts.
  1. Making available the basic prerequisites for the improvement of the health of the environment and that of urban environment, of pure water, guidance, means of collecting and transportsing industrial wastes, and paying attention to urban planning regulating that through a guiding map for each city.
  1. Surveying animals areas across the country, and establishing a quick plan for their protection, and development.
  1. Surveying environmental systems that support river life in the Nile Basin and its branches as well as other rivers, to protect them from exploitation and pollution.
  1. Survey of environmental systems that consolidate marine and coastal life in the Red Sea region (the fjords, marine life, mangrove forests) and that which threatens them. A plan for their protection against bad exploitation, oil, pesticides, ship and city waste pollution should be established.
  1. Accelerating the plan of establishing national specifications for the production and importation of machineries, motor cars, ships, boats, generators, and others in a manner to guarantee the safety of the environment and its protection.
  1. Preparing a comprehensive plan for scientific research in all areas of the environment that can be carried out in the span of the strategy period.

STAGE-BY-STAGE PROGRAMME

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

  1. Starting of national environment sensitization campaigns, concentrating on the health of the environment, and the rationalization of energy consumption among families, and the protection of natural resources.
  1. Introduction of environmental studies in higher education curricula, and the elaboration of a plan of scientific research in the field of the environment.
  1. Completion of the constitutional framework, for the protection of the natural environment, professional health and work environment.
  1. Making an inventory of the types of used chemicals taking the necessary measures for their rational utilization, and disposal of their waste and of industrial waste.
  1. Establishment of national specifications for the production and importation of motor cars, machineries, ships and boats, generators, and other items, that take into consideration the safety of the environment and its protection.
  1. Surveying areas of animal population formulating a plan for their protection and multiplying the creation of natural reserves.
  1. Consolidation of the reconstruction programme of the areas affected by drought and desertification, soil degradation, and the rationalization of pasture exploitation, widening their reconstruction.
  1. Taking the necessary procedures for the implementation of the programme of tree plantation as part of the mechanized agricultural projects in line with the established percentages.
  1. Starting a national project for the greening of the cities and the countryside, and establishing green belts, widening the reconstruction of the areas reserved for forests.
  1. Surveying environmental systems that support river and sea environmental life, identifying factors that threaten them, and laying down plans for their protection against pollution and bad exploitation.

SECOND STAGE (4 YEARS)

  1. Continuation of national campaigns for environmental awareness.
  1. Completion of the projects started in the first stage in the field of the reconstruction of the drought and desertification stricken areas.
  1. Preparation and carrying out of a special programme for the development and protection of the environment in the south of the country and in other areas affected by war.
  1. Increasing the utilization of organic fertilizers.
  1. Continuation of the pastures development project.
  1. Continuation of the animal and birds protection projects and the creation of animal reserves.
  1. Intensification of the greening of cities (houses, avenues, squares) and the establishment of tree belts, and forest cultivation.
  1. Continuation of the marine and river environment protection programme.

THIRD STAGE (3 YEARS)

            Completion of the programmes started in the second stage, and the elaboration of new projects to fill the gaps that become apparent as a result of the execution of the projects in the first and the second stages.

                     THE SECTOR OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF

                             HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. POPULATION STRATEGY
  3. PUBLIC SERVICE STRATEGY
  4. TRAINING STRATEGY
  5. STATISTICS STRATEGY.

        THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            It is now common knowledge, in the developmental literature, and in the general civilisational wisdom, as has been in the origin of religious understanding, that development in essence is human development, it is not just constructing things, developing things and promoting things.  It does not limit itself to a concept of developing human work force through the necessary education and training to prepare qualified human resources to meet the needs of economic development.  Rather it aims at building human beings who are capable of undertaking basic developmental responsibilities that can lay the foundations for civil or social renaissance, continuing its development and promotion to new horizons that bring humans closer to the realisation of national objectives in a quick manner.  This should go side by side with the invention of institutional formula for social organisation that facilitate the employment of the energies of these people in carrying out these responsibilities efficiently and with utmost capability.  It also includes the doctrine that enriches their souls and stimulates their administrative and leadership qualities as well as the styles, ways and means of social mobilisation, the extent of their participation in the developmental effort, and in civil or social renaissance.  Efficient social organisation is a basis for the development of human resources because  unorganized human capabilities, regardless of the degree of achievement of its members, remain a potential that is not well invested and it is difficult to imagine the capacity of individual capabilities in a society which has weak social organisation and which is cut off from its authentic roots.  Effective social organisation is capable of developing a societal asset in knowledge capabilities and qualifications and orientations of its members in a positive way towards life and existence and transforming them to elements of progress and prosperity through the effective participation in the social, economic and political activities.  We have seen cases where effective social organisation has used human resources instead of financial investment in areas of certain developmental activities for example: literacy campaigns, protection of the environment and the eradication of diseases.

            Human development is a long term educational operation in many of its facets, because it is based on the radical development in the characteristics of human beings and their abilities, and this does not happen in the short term, although it is possible to achieve some important beginnings and even a leap forward, in specific and suitable historical moments.  Human development extends to all facets of social, economic and social organisation since it is organically connected with the comprehensive development of the society.  Man is its effective instrument according to the fact that man has been created by God and

has been given by God the inheritance and the responsibility over the land.  Man is considered as he inherited land and the earth from God and his noblest goal is that he should wisely domesticate nature.  God has given man the possibility to domesticate nature, and hence the role of the human being becomes greater in effecting and bringing about development and the enjoyment of the fruits of this development.  Man should therefore be in charge of the protection of his rights and the carrying out of his obligations, responsibilities and duties, meeting his basic needs and enlarging the possible choices that lay before him in a long life that is healthy, that allows chances to have access to knowledge, enjoy a dignified living through the opportunities of productive and remunerative work and an effective participation in the life of the society in all its new aspects.

            The development of human resources is a responsibility of all sectors, and this strategy underlines a specialisation but not a monopoly on certain dimensions or aspects that have to be clarified without neglecting their interaction with other aspects on which are based the other sectors especially the social development sector.  It aims at population, public service, and training which comes as a complementary aspect of formation on which is based the education sector.  It also underlies statistics as a tool to comprehend reality with all its potentialities and that helps in drawing future trends of what we want.

POPULATION STRATEGY

GOALS:

            Decision 1410 of the Command Council of the National Salvation Revolution Council and the Council of Ministers of 1990 has summed up the population policy and population strategic orientation as regards the population problem in the Sudan in the three following main areas:

  1. The discrepancy between economic development and rapid population growth.
  1. Decreasing population characteristics.
  1. Unbalanced population distribution.

            Goals have to address the solution of these three problems and accordingly the comprehensive national strategy has determined the objectives of the population sector according to the following:

  1. The realisation of a global population census in the first year of the strategy life span.
  1. Harmonization between economic development and population growth.
  1. Redistribution of the population in a way to achieve development, consolidate national security, and rationalize internal as well as external migration.
  1. Elevation of population characteristics and the safeguarding of population growth rates that suit the geographic space and dimension of the Sudan and that responds to the requirements of the strategy.
  1. Opening the door for immigrants to attract brains, experiences, and energies especially from Arab, African and Islamic countries in a way to deepen the authentic relations of Sudan, consolidate collective self-reliance, and realise the benefits from these brains and experiences in the realisation of the objectives of the global strategy.

MAIN PROGRAMMES:

  1. Global population census:  Making sure that the information required in the statistic forms responds to the needs of all economic, social, political and security sectors and that the Federal Statistics Organism coordinates all the stages of the preparation of the census with all sectors and all willayas in order to avoid missing any needs of this basic national effort, making of it a comprehensive movement for all the citizens and organisations especially for the sectors of youth, students and women organisations.
  1. Harmonisation between economic development and population growth:  The objective of this programme is to make economic growth responsive to the population needs of a growing number of people. The programme includes the following subsidiary programmes:

            a)Monitoring the rate of population change with regard to birth and death fertility etc and orientating it as well as filling the gaps in a periodical way.

            b)Using the rates of economic growth to realise the strategy objectives.  This can be brought about through the execution of the programmes of many sectors especially the economic and productive sectors, the sector of foreign relations and the social sectors with the concentration on the development of family awareness programmes that concentrate on the following:

  1. Encouraging breast feeding of mothers to the newly born to continue for 2 years as is mentioned in the Holy Koran. It is to be noted that 93% of the Sudanese mothers continue to be committed to breast feeding though only 41% among them do it for a period between 21 and 24 months.  The objective is to generalize natural breast feeding and make it grow according to the following percentage:

                                                The year 1993  – 50%

                                                The year 1998  – 65%

                                                The year 2000  – 85%

That is through the consolidation of the abilities of the families paying attention to mothers’nutrition, and the organisation of holidays for working mothers and the spreading of nurseries in the work sites and close to mothers’ housing to enable them to breast-feed their children in specific periods.

  1. Generalising information regarding the means of family organisation according to religion and good and wise social custom, that prevent child killing because of need or poverty.
  1. About the means of other legitimate family organisation among the married making it accessible to them to benefit from it. All this is done in commitment to the teachings of religion and the respect of the positive social conventions that do not allow for the killing of children because of need or fear.

PUBLIC SERVICES STRATEGY

THE STRATEGIC GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES:

  1. Reconstruction of the State structures on scientific and nationalistic basis that make it more capable of meeting the requirements of the civil or social renaissance that form the national objective of this strategy.
  1. That the administrative construction be based on an understanding of the public service that is efficient, capable, able to take initiatives, and up-to-date, that aims at the realisation of the highest goals and that is based on its Islamic orientations, its strategic plans and its system.

            The development of the public service shall take place through the following:

  1. i) The values and the behaviour.
  2. ii) Organisation and technology.

            iii)        The human factor and leadership.

  1. iv) The work environment – natural and moral.

FIRST, THE VALUES AND THE BEHAVIOURS:

            The absence of a philosophical guiding framework within the boundaries of which public service is carried out leads either to the deterioration of the work or to the failure in achieving its goals, contrasts with the value of a framework that is based on religious belief and doctrine and that emphasizes the social value system and the positive authentic cultural values that determine the visions and the attitudes of the individuals and the groups towards carrying out public duty.  In the first case, a lot of negative and bad phenomena such as absence from work, lack of respect of time, nepotism, the exploitation of the public position for personal gain, giving away the secrets of work, stealing from public funds and public money and the weak integration into the job and the lack of respect of the citizen as well as lack or weakness in the commitment to the duties of the public position develop and curb the efficiency of public service.

THE GOAL:

            The intention is to put forward and to inculcate good values that are inspired by religion in the conduct of those working in the public service such as love of work and its perfection, honesty, sincerity, the value of time, the consideration of work as a prayer, cooperation, mutual respect, leadership, good example, and competition in doing good.

THE MEANS

  1. Revival of good religious values drawn from religion by including them in the school curricula, and the curricula of training and emphasizing them in the mass media and in publishing as well as in the various seminars and lectures in the various work sites and also in the prayer sites through the preachers and the parents.
  1. Choice of the best leaders possible so that they can give a good example for all those working around them and putting the right person in the right place.
  1. Achieving discipline in the performance of duties in behaviour and dress and imposing on working people that they take an oath that confirms their keenness to do the duties bestowed upon them with sincerity, perfection and honesty and a consolidation of the means of censorship, accountability and responsibility. The means of monitoring accountability and responsibility.
  1. Selection of an elite of leaders, their training and formation in administrative political and social fields putting them in a unified list to make use of them in various sites and continuously following up and evaluating their performance. This programme should start in the first year of the strategy and should continue along all its years until it reaches it apex at the end of the strategy.

SECONDLY – ORGANISATION AND TECHNOLOGY

            a)Organization:

            This aims at the reorganisation of the structural and legal executive organ and at the federal willayas and local levels according to the federal orientation and the work to establish a public service that is complete in the willayas making available all equipments and selection as well as training and organisation.

  1. b) The means that could be used to realise organisation:

            i)Complementarity and coordination among the public and the private sector and the cooperation between cooperative, private, and public sectors or between public, private, and cooperative sectors, so that  each one plays its role in the developmental efforts.

            ii)The clear determination of the objectives of the public sector in a way that achieves a comprehensive development and service of the citizens.

            iii)Codification of the organisational structures making clear specific areas of concerns and the attributes of the different functions in a way that clarifies the border lines of responsibility and that prevents conflict and excess.

            iv)Completion of the legislative framework that governs public service and its performance.

            v)Ordering of the coordination, censorship and administrative development organs for their importance in this stage.

            vi)Preparation and issuance of organisational and procedural proofs and  guidelines and the job description to all the organs and at the various levels of government in the framework of the reorganisation of all the organs of the service.

            vii)Giving priority in the reorganisation of the executive structure to the organs that have to do with the human resources and administrative development and those supervising the economic sector at the top of which are the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, because of the impact they have on the other organisms since it is in charge with public finance and hence its very close link with all the sectors, provided that this is done in the first three years of the programme and an emphasis on the first year on the organs that are supervising leadership of the public service in terms of development, evaluation and coordination.

  1. TECHNOLOGY AND MODERNISATION:

THE GOAL

            The development of performance through the utilisation of the means and ways of modern work.

THE MEANS:

  1. The establishment of administrative services unit, establishment of administrative and organisation work units, the means of work in the governmental organs in the centre, in the willayas and in the local government organs as well as in the institutions and establishments and the public and private sector companies.
  1. Introduction of the word-processors systems as a means of modern typing and for storing and obtaining access to data.
  1. Utilising the computer in the areas of production and services in the Ministries and establishments.
  1. Rationalisation, utilisation and the maintenance of equipments and their storage.
  1. Establishment of the national network of database with its branches in the willayas.

            The establishment of the administrative services unit starts from the first year until the third year, and also the rationalisation, maintenance and storage of  equipment and instruments.  The introduction of some modern inexpensive means could start in the first year until the third year such as means of modern printing, the personal computer, data banks and this should be followed by the establishment of the national computer system after preparations for it during the first year of the plan so that it could be achieved in the third year, and that its branches start to extend starting from the fifth year to include the willayas.

THIRDLY: THE HUMAN FACTOR:

THE GOAL

            Improvement of the performance of the human work force that is represented by the work force and its leadership in the public service for the the realisation of the objectives of the comprehensive national strategy within the framework of the Islamic orientation and the federal system through the selection, nomination and administrative training, performance evaluation, the creation of the good work and the improvement of working conditions as well as providing job security.

THE MEANS

  1. The best utilisation of the work force in all the sectors and its redistribution and training in a way to have an impact in the productive sectors and that the state organisms should only employ the necessary number to meet its duties and possibilities through a comprehensive national plan based on the effective needs of the various sectors and institutions at the federal, willaya and local levels for each stage of the strategy according to its plans and programmes.
  1. Creating a healthy work environment that motivates workers to give the best as regards rules, regulations, and the creation of an atmosphere and a spirit of love and organic integration in the institution, giving due care to the work site and its physical conditions in a way to create physical rest, mental, and psychological harmony of the working people, in a way that leads to higher rates of productivity, simplifying the procedures according to modern administration technique.
  1. Re-evaluation of the living conditions of the workers in accordance with the terms of service which should be flexible and which should respond to the necessities of life and which caters for a reasonable and dignified standard of living for them.
  1. Review of the basis on which is carried out the evaluation of the work force to be sure that it leads to the choice of the best elements to supervise and to lead and who are capable of spreading a spirit of competition, creativity, inventiveness and the development of performance and achievement.

FOURTHLY: THE WORK ENVIRONMENT:

THE GOAL:

            The creation of a work environment conducive to the realisation of stability improvement of performance, and increase of productivity;

THE MEANS

  1. Attention to the natural work environment by making available the suitable work place and atmosphere.
  1. Paying attention to the social and cultural activities and the revitalisation of the role of the public.
  1. Review of the working conditions of the work force and doing away with discrepancies to achieve justice.
  1. Realisation of job, psychological and social security in a way to guarantee the future of the families of the workers.
  1. Making available the ingredients of stability and job security, reasonable job security, fending against arbitrariness, personal likes and dislikes and social pressures be they individual or collective.

EXECUTION STAGES:

            Execution takes place in three stages the first stage starts from the first year to the third year, the second stage from the fourth to the seventh year, and the third stage from the eighth to the tenth year according to the following division and detailed programme:

THE FIRST STAGE:

  1. Beginning the intensive execution of the programme dealing with values and behaviours.
  1. Review of the organisational structures and laws that govern the service and the determination of the goals and the specific objectives of the units, the issuance of guidelines, the preparation of job description of the various organs that enable them to do their job in the most efficient manner and the choice of the elements and talents required for the job, as well as the determination of the surplus reorienting it to the productive sectors.
  1. Beginning the establishment of the national data bank network through the collection of data, its classification and its preservation.
  1. The review of salary scales so as to make them attractive to the able and qualified people, paying them the remuneration that is suitable to their qualification and their performance.
  1. Paying attention to cooperatives and the housing for employees programmes.
  1. Paying attention to the work environment and the creation of a permanent committee emanating from the administrative reform council that is to be charged of the work environment and a follow-up of its improvement.

THE SECOND STAGE – (4-6):

  1. Extension of the national data bank network to the willayas.
  1. Introduction of the use of technology in work modernisation and in data preservation.

THE THIRD STAGE (7-10)

  1. a) The completion of the projects that have started.
  1. b) The continuation of the programme of housing for the employees.

TRAINING STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION:

            The development of the human resources is an essential aspect in the realisation of the objectives of the comprehensive strategy.  Training is the cornerstone in the development of the individual who is the key of success in the realisation of the strategy objectives.  Training in short means the development of the skills of the work force with a view to improving their efficiency and the quality of their performance, through the development of their capabilities and behaviour, and the creation of effective organisations of a praftical nature, mobilized towards specific and fine goals, towards the realisation of which all energies or all work is channelled.  Consequently, earning must be linked with the comprehensive strategy, and it should be oriented towards the service of the strategy’s objectives.

TRAINING GUIDELINES:

  1. It is impossible to achieve the strategy except through the human element who believes in it, who is able, capable, and morally prepared, professionally qualified according to the actual needs determined by the strategy, its plans and its goal.
  1. The administration of the execution of the strategy is one of the most important elements in the realisation of the strategy which is led by superior and middle administrations which imposed their provision with administrative preparation as a top priority.
  1. The set strategy is an ambitious strategy, that requires the participation of huge numbers of citizens, and consequently, it is imperative to strengthen and to consolidate the organs in charge of the planning of the work force, and of training, to enable them to achieve their responsibilities at their best.

TRAINING POLICIES

            Strategic objectives for training during the coming ten-year period is the preparation of a trained committed and dynamic work force.  The realisation of that in all sectors of the strategy which requires the adoption of specific policies for this goal amongst which are:

            1.Planning for continuous training linking it with appropriate technology, the increase of productivity, and the needs of the work market.

            2.Exploitation of all training centres with their diverse nature at their maximum capacity starting by the first year of the plan.

  1. Enlarging technical education, vocational and artisanal training.

            4.Orienting training during the strategy period to the new areas that the country needs as it prepares itself to enter the stage of economic take-off, and that is in accordance with the indicators of the strategy, the introduction of training in new essential fields such as the computer and the data banks.

            5.Generalisation of vocational and artisanal training centres in the willayas with an emphasis on the productive training, investing parts of the returns from it into the development of training centres.

            6.Paying attention to training in the rural areas through the establishment of specialized vocational and artisanal training centres, and the attention of training on new activities such as poultry, fish and food preservation and industry as well as the utilisation of technological inputs.

            7.Coming up with new patterns of training to be employed in the area of educational waste.

            8.Paying attention to the training of specific groups: (women, youth, the handicapped and the elderly).

TRAINING IN THE INSTITUTIONS

  1. Rehabilitation of training institutions and centres, bridging the gaps between them and developing them in a way to make them meet the required training needs for the execution of the strategy, making available the resources necessary for that.
  1. Realising total coordination among the training institutions on the one hand and the State units and productive projects at the federal level as well as the willayas level on the other hand, with the aim of linking the training needs to the capabilities of the national training institutions.
  1. The innovation of additional financing ways and the consolidation of the national training institutions and the encouragement of the private sector to contribute in the rehabilitation of these institutions and the establishment of training institutions that can cater for its needs.

THE OBJECTIVES AND THE PRIORITIES:

THE GOAL

  1. The development of the human resources, the improvement of the work force, increasing it ten folds, improving its efficiency and making available productive work opportunities and creating just work relations to suit them.
  1. The utilisation of modern technology in the various training fields in a way that enables its utilisation in all productive and artisanal sectors, and its introduction in the educational and guidance curricula.
  1. The development of technical education to reach 60% of the general education with an emphasis on the education curricula of the scientific and applied studies.
  1. Making available vocational and artisanal training in a way to meet the needs of the global national strategy.
  1. Generalisation and improvement of the continuous training during the service of the workers in the public, private, and cooperative sectors, and that training should be linked with the actual needs, with an emphasis on practical and applied training, to the development and improvement of performance, linking gradual employment to reaching certain levels of training.
  1. Rehabilitation and training workers in the leading agricultural sectors at all levels and the increase of those qualified in agriculture, in a way to suite the state policy in realising food security, exporting food crops and dwelling in food industrialisation.
  1. Consolidation of agricultural scientific research, its institutions and its institutes.
  1. Preparation and qualification of engineers according to higher education strategy, technicians and skilled labour to reach ten-fold their present number.
  1. Giving attention to training on the new fields such as petrol discovery, extraction, and treatment and the establishment of petro-chemical industries.
  1. Preparation and training of doctors and helping cadres to generalize basic health welfare and the production and industrialisation of medical needs.

PRIORITIES

  1. Tying training with the local environment. In the context of the efforts of the revolution which aims at realising justice and wealth distribution and attention to the rural areas, it is imperative that training should be linked with the local environment at the level of basic education, that guarantees the contribution of the enormous numbers graduating from this stage, who do not continue their education, to dwell into the employment market and the participation in the development of their region.
  1. Laying down clear policies of coordination between education, training utilisation and the strict commitment to its execution.
  1. Surveying the training needs during the first year of the strategy life, at the central and regional levels, with a view to establishing realistic short and long term training plans in all the institutions, and the establishments and their organisations.
  1. The establishment of training units in all institutions and organisations.
  1. Paying attention to the training of trainers and the establishment of a national centre for the preparation and training of trainers.
  1. The establishment of the national council of training with the objective of setting and carrying out general training policies and the coordination of the dispersed efforts of various training institutions as a response to the development of the global national strategy needs.

STATISTICS STRATEGY

            In the forework of the comprehensive strategy statistics form a scientific basis on which the programmes and projects are built, and according to which evaluation and review is undertaken.  The execution of the strategy in the area of statistics at a sectoral and national level, for the production of various statistical information, be it through the census exercises or the current surveys in the various fields, is done in order to benefit all the concerned sectors during the comprehensive national strategy and on this basis the statistics strategy aims to achieve the following:

            1.In the area of agricultural statistics with its two dimensions animal and plant:

                        Within the framework of the comprehensive national strategy the agricultural sector is the leading sector of the economy.  It constitutes 36% of the total local output and it includes 75% of the work force.  This is why the basic information about this sector has utmost priority.  It is important to speed up organising a comprehensive agricultural, animal wealth, forestry, fish wealth census and periodical surveys that bridge the existing gap in our statistical information.

  1. THE ECONOMIC STATISTICS:

            The following statistics should be carried out in the first period of the strategy:

  1. In the area of national income.
  2. Industrial statistics
  3. Energy and Mining statistics.
  4. Construction and building statistics
  5. Transports statistics
  6. Services statistics
  7. Foreign trade statistics
  8. Family budget statistics
  9. Loans and grants statistics.
  1. POPULATION AND SOCIAL STATISTICS
  1. a) Carrying out a comprehensive housing statistics in the first year of the strategy.  The carrying out of a census of the inhabitants and housing that should take place in 1993, bearing in mind while designing this census to make available the following information:
  1. The volume and the growth of the inhabitants.

            2.The volume of the family and its geographical distribution as well as its livelihood pattern.

  1. Internal and external migration.
  1. The work power volume and its distribution.

            5.Demographical information (education, health, basic services, food and drinking water).

            b)Carrying out statistics for the real and moral phenomena through questionnaires, public opinion polls and general and specialized surveys, in such a way as to include all prayer areas (cult practices), and the social (the volume of voluntary spending, marriage outside the ethnic circle, hospitality) which enables to measure the extent of progress in the execution of the strategy in all its areas.

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE STATISTICAL INFORMATION AND DATA:

            To make available the basic data for the various sectors a national data network is to be established on the basis of the information available in all units and structures, by coordination among them, and the central statistics organism as well as the national data centre.

  1. DESIGNING OF STATISTICS CRITERIA AND MEASURES

            The technical bodies are to create the statistical criteria and measures as well as the quantitative and qualitative mathematical ones on the basis of which work could be continued and performance could be measured and evaluated in other sectors of the comprehensive strategy.

          INFORMATION AND CULTURAL SECTOR STRATEGY

  1. CULTURAL RADIATION AND RENAISSANCE STRATEGY.
  1. INFORMATION STRATEGY.

       CULTURAL RADIATION AND RENAISSANCE STRATEGY

THE GUIDELINES

  1. The Sudanese society in its spiritual and intellectual basis is a society which believes in one God, and Islam has given it, through periods of time, the virtue of a peaceful dialogue among all its cultural and ethnic components. On this are based the characteristics of the Sudanese civilisational personality.
  1. The elaboration of cultural concepts for a Sudanese nation capable and generous, enjoying harmony with the soul, cannot be achieved away from religion, custom and good traditions of the people and its values in liberty, justice, equality and shura (consultation), righteousness and answering the call of the needy, all these to be implied for ensuring the basis for the unity of the creator.
  1. The cultural identity of the Sudanese people is a product of diversity and interaction between its Islamic, Arabic and African origins. The Arabic origin of the Sudanese people is apparent in its religion, language, custom and fabric; and the African origin of the Sudanese people is apparent in the presence of all the people of the continent in the Sudan with the diversity of their national and ethnic origins, beliefs, languages and cultures.  As regards the Islamic origin of the Sudanese people its reflected in the openness and the tolerance that gives them the greatest opportunities for interaction and unity, and that encourages them towards universality and wider worlds and bigger power.
  1. The Sudan in its federal system is committed to a concept of a national culture and the effectiveness of this concept in giving and taking without being chauvinistic or regionally introvert to create from its diversity and interaction one unified Sudanese culture.

THE GOALS

            The noblest goal for the cultural radiation and renaissance strategy is the creation of a comprehensive cultural revolution, aiming at a civilisational change and giving new objectives and goals.  It takes inspiration in its globality from all the characteristics of the society and its cultural infrastructures, ways of its performance, its social behaviour, affecting all contemporary generations.  These noblest goals to be achieved need the realisation of the following subsidiary objectives:

  1. Rendering authentic cultural life on the authentic civilisational and cultural roots of the Sudanese people.

            2          Renovation of the Sudanese culture in all its aspects, intellectual, behavioral, creative, popular and contemporary performance applied in the arts and renaissance of the civilisational mission of the Sudan.

  1. The protection of the Sudanese personality and the cultural component of the Sudanese society from alienation and the realisation of its cultural security.
  1. Adoption of the spirit of constructive cultural dialogue between all sectors and entities and generations and creative producers of culture in the Sudanese society.
  1. Being wisely open to international culture and the fruits of human intellectual effort.
  1. Making culture accessible to all citizens and encouraging them to participate in its creation and its dynamics.
  1. Making available the prerequisites for cultural creativity and productivity through its basic infrastructures.
  1. The welfare of the creators and the protection of their copy rights, literary rights, and copy rights.
  1. The development of publishing industry in such a way as to make the book, the periodical, the magazine and the newspaper available for the citizens in all parts of the homeland.  Making of Sudan an international centre for publishing and for cultural renaissance.

THE STRATEGIC INFRASTRUCTURES AND TOOLS FOR CULTURAL WORK

            Basic infrastructures and tools have to be made available to guarantee the realisation of the strategy objectives and these are:

  1. The central house for publishing, distributing and advertisement.
  1. A Sudanese cultural production house.
  1. Centre for the registration and documentation of Sudanese life.
  1. Professional centre.
  1. A national library and the public library network.
  1. The national theatre troup.
  1. The national troup for singing and music.
  1. Specialized periodicals and general cultural magazines.
  1. The national theatre.
  1. The national film centre.

            These institutions work each in its area of activity and in total harmony amongst them channelling various aspects of cultural activity through the support of the individual, collective and popular initiatives and the welfare of talents and creative endeavours avoiding the bureaucratic practices in cultural work as a supportive framework for the activation of a cultural movement free from official chains.

            A national foundation for culture and the arts will be in charge of executing the cultural radiation and renaissance strategy and will be entrusted to mobilize both official and popular effort for that purpose.

THE AREAS

LITERATURE AND THE HUMANITIES:

Cultural Policy:

            1.Rendering authentic Sudanese literature and linking it to Islamic values.

            2.Employing the intellectual effort and, ideology and literature for defending the assets of the Sudanese people and civilisational acquisitions.

            3.Safeguarding of the Arab Islamic heritage.

            4.Protection of the national heritage from the dangers of corruption and distortion.

            5.Creation of the national library and the public libraries in the capitals of the willayas, cities, big villages and spreading mobile libraries.

ACTIVITIES:

            a).The daily cultural renaissance programmes across the homeland. (34,000 activities in 10 years).

            b).Cultural caravans (60 caravans within 10 years across the Federal Sudan).

            c).Permanent programmes.  These include conferences and local, regional and international festivals. (180 cultural activities, festivals, encounters, conferences, workshops, etc.).

FINE ARTS

Cultural Policy

  1. Development of the fine arts life to be able to express the spiritual, social and material aspirations of the Sudanese people and to firmly establish its civilisational identity and to enhance its efforts for comprehensive development.

            2.Improving public taste linking it to the righteous formation of the Sudanese personality.

            3.Making known the artistic heritage of the Islamic civilisation.

            4.Making known the African artistic heritage and African traditions in the arts.

            5.Establishment of a Sudanese house for cultural production which will act as an all-encompassing exhibition hall.

THE ACTIVITIES:

            a).The daily cultural renaissance programmes across the homeland (10 000 activity in the fine arts within 10 years).

            b).Permanent programmes: national, regional, international exhibitions, conferences and intellectual encounters and get togethers, applied school cycles, debates, lectures (180 within 10 years).

            c).Activities at the Federal Willayas level:  (160 exhibitions in the willayas within 10 years, 80 exhibitions from the willayas to the centre within 10 years).

MUSICAL AND SINGING ARTS:

Cultural Policy:

            Rendering more important the social and cultural role for singing and music in a way to serve the objectives of the civilisational orientation of the Sudanese people.

ACTIVITIES

            a)Daily cultural renaissance across the homeland (10,000 activity in 10 years).

            b)Permanent programmes:  conferences, festivals, local debates, regional and international, (100 activities in 10 years).

            c)Programmes of activities at the federal willayas level: (360 activities in 10 years.

  1. d) Publication and issuing of specialized music and singing magazines.
  1. e) Establishment of a prize for cultural renaissance music and singing.

THE THEATRE AND FOLKLORIC ARTS:

Cultural Policy:

            Redesigning of theatrical life and improvement of the theatrical arts and exhibition linking it with religious values and authentic Sudanese traditions.

THE ACTIVITIES:

            a)The daily cultural renaissance programmes across the homeland (10 000 activity in 10 years).

  1. b) Permanent programming : (60 activity in ten years).
  1. c) Establishment of a cultural renaissance prize for the theatre.
  1. d) Issuing a specialized theatre magazine.

            e)The theatrical, cultural renaissance programmes, 160 theatrical work in the willayas and the willaya of Khartoum, 80 theatrical work from the willayas to Khartoum and between the willayas themselves.

CHILD CULTURE:

Cultural Policy:

  1. Rendering authentic the cultural identity for the Sudanese child and the elaboration of a national policy in the field of child culture.
  1. Enriching child culture with the meanings derived from religious values and authentic Sudanese values and deepening the noble meanings of love of the homeland.
  1. Raising the child on nature and enlarging his abilities and knowledge and rendering sophisticated his inclinations and his interests, development of his skills and consolidation of his contact with his social environment.

THE ACTIVITIES:

  1. Encouraging writing in the area of children’s literature and culture and cultivating their creative ability.
  1. Organising artistic competitions for children in fine arts and in folklore dance, performance art, etc.
  1. Organisation of exhibitions for child culture, and participation in international and regional exhibitions.
  1. Keenness to establish children’s corners in public libraries.
  1. Establishment of libraries specialized  for children, enriching koranic schools and nurseries with children’s books.

RECORDING AND DOCUMENTATION OF SUDANESE LIFE:

Cultural Policy:

  1. Monitoring and documenting the contemporary Sudanese intellectual and creative movement which can provide basic material for research and planning in a way to improve Sudanese life in all its aspects.
  1. Monitoring and documenting contemporary Sudanese life in all its social, political and economic activities and fields.
  1. Completion of the documentation of the literary, scientific and artistic Sudanese cultural heritage and maintenance.
  1. Documentation of the popular heritage.

ACTIVITIES:

  1. Issuing the cultural register that monitors all the results of the intellectual and creative movement in the homeland through its critic and analysis.
  1. Studying the progress of the creative elements in the homeland and the autobiographies of the creative citizens and publishing and issuing a Who is Who for the literary people, the writers, the artists and other creative people.
  1. Production of visual magazines on the various aspects of popular heritage.

CINEMA

Cultural Policy:

            1.Construction of a national cinema renaissance that is to be inspired by the national heritage and the civilisational orientations of the Sudanese people.

            2.Promotion of the professional technical and technological level of the various fields of cinematographic and video production.

            3.Publishing cinematographic knowledge and rendering familiar the function of the film and the video as a cultural, social and economic tool.

            a).A production of 50 short and long creative films within ten years.

            b).Production of 100 documentary films documenting Sudanese life within ten years.

PUBLISHING AND DISTRIBUTION:

Cultural Policy:

            1.Printing of books and studies on the civilisational heritage of the Sudanese people, and their publication.

            2.Printing the indepth studies of the horizons of national integration and interaction.

            3.Printing and publishing of the cultural output in the theatre, in fine arts, in music and songs and the organisation of books’ and publications’ exhibitions.

            4.Commercial cultural investment and the importation of printing and cultural production inputs and the distribution of publications and foreign journals in the Sudan.

            5.Printing the best works of Sudanese literature and intellectual effort and authentic books in all fields of knowledge and also books of general knowledge.

            6.Authentication of the original books of knowledge and of heritage and their publication.

            7.Giving due attention to scientific publishing and developing it.

            8.Rendering active the publishers union and establishing the charter for the ethics of the profession.

            9.Issuing and generalising the popular book.

            10.Giving special attention to the publication of children’s books.

            11.Developing the arts of publishing, giving them attention as a specialisation in the areas of formation and training.

            12.Giving preferential treatment in terms of customs rates of production and taxes to the cultural production inputs and cultural instruments.

ACTIVITIES:

  1. A book exhibition in the willaya of Khartoum every four months.
  1. A book exhibition in each willaya every year.
  1. Publication of 1000 Sudanese publications in ten years.

CULTURAL LEGISLATION:

            Issuing of the following legislation in the first stage of the strategy.

  1. Creators welfare law.
  1. Law for the organisation of the artistic professions.
  1. The law for the federal cultural councils.
  1. Federal cultural groupings law.
  1. National library and public libraries law.
  1. A superior council for industries and heritage skills law.

THE AREA OF EDUCATION:

  1. The adoption of educational beauty in all stages of education.
  1. Establishment of the Sudanese Academy of Arts.

            3.Completion of the national museum to include the Islamic heritage and monuments.

IN THE AREA OF URBAN PLANNING:

            1.Adoption of areas in the city planning of the construction of national cultural centres and locations.

            2.Paying attention to rendering beautiful Sudanese cities and villages.

THE SOCIAL EFFECTS FOR THE CULTURAL STRATEGY:

            That which is spent on cultural development is an investment in the Sudanese human being, which is the goal of every development endeavour and its noblest intention, and the execution of cultural strategies will lead to:

  1. The establishment of a modern state, since cultural work is an authentic dimension in the State, and culture is the essence of the national entity and the resources in times of need.
  1. Promotion of the social and contractual life, the protection of the social fabric of the Sudanese people from deformation, vision, and cultivating creative initiative in the Sudanese individual.
  1. Making people aware of the civilisational foundation of their Umma, making of it a source of respect and pride of the citizens and especially the youths, and the process of civilisational interaction in the Sudan in a way to complete the unity of the people and to accelerate the reconstruction of the homeland.
  1. Rendering alive the mission of the Sudan at the regional and international levels.

COORDINATION WITH OTHER ORGANS

            This shall be done through the coordination organism with the other relevant authorities or organisms such as the establishment of education, guidance, culture, religious guidance, information, finance, the United Nations and the networks of the regional and international voluntary organisations.

                                                 INFORMATION STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            Communication has become, in the contemporary world, a formidable weapon in the struggle between ideologies, cultures and interests. The information  responsibility has thus become a challenge.  The objective of the information strategy does not limit itself to informing or making its message reach the base,  rather it extends to deepening these aims and to consolidate the Islamic orientation.  It shall strive to deepen the principles of Shura (consultation), justice, doing good, equality, forthrightness, advocating good deed, forbidding bad-deed and making familiar the Sudanese national heritage and upholding the superior humanist values and principles and as well as the national political, economic, social and cultural choices, and making available information to the citizens as a necessary condition for their participation in the advent of the radical civilisational change, and the mobilisation of the efforts, the energies, the abilities of all the nation for that goal.

            In the world of today, information has a multi-faced function, it is an industry, it is a science and it is an art which has its rules and its foundations which respond to the changing and renewing situations in a time that sees every morning a new invention, and in an age of the revolution of communication that imposed a race for the acquisition of technology, a race which has even included space for the purpose of information superiority and cultural hegemony.

            The aim of all this is to arrive at the redesigning of the human kind and influencing them through the means of information and communication such as radios, televisions, cinemas, newspapers, theatres,  exhibitions, paintings, publications, records, cassettes, discs, conferences, direct dialogue, publicity and promotion.  This is how information became an important tool of influencing and formulating public opinion, concepts and tendencies, and an effective means in the realisation of social and political change, and a basic factor for the consolidation of social and economic development.

            In a country like Sudan, so wide in its area, where many cultures interact, and many races mix with one another, and which suffers like its sister states in the third world, from the grave gap between the urban centres and the rural areas, information must play a role in cultivating, educating and giving people moments of relaxation and linking the provinces of the land with one another as well as bridging the gaps between the urban and the rural areas.   It should have a performance that is harmonious regionally as well as nationally in such a way as to create a common national awareness.

            In the light of the new situation and developments in this area with respect to coverage, transmission, distribution, reception, redistribution, the strategy aims at the following:

            1.Achievement of the required balance in information production to the country and from the country.

  1. Linking information policy with development.

            3.Working towards the success of the federal system application experiment, familiarising the public with the efforts of the willayas and the programmes for power and wealth distribution, and the linking of the centre with the willayas.

THE SUDAN NEWS AGENCY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:

  1. Communications Network:

            a)The national network that links the agency with the capitals of the willayas and with the communications network to be established in the first year of the strategy.

            b)The regional network which covers the cities within the willaya with the communications materials should be ready in a period that does not go beyond the third year of the strategy.  The two networks shall guarantee the flow of information from all major cities of the Sudan to the capital or from the centre to the cities.

            c)The federal capital network which aims to link the agencies with headquarters with the sites of executive and productive work and the various information organisms, various newspapers and banks etc. to make available to the receiver the information the moment it is received, and this project is to be executed in the first stage of the strategy.

  1. The International Network:

            1.This necessitates rehabilitation of the internal organisms of the Sudan news agency linking it with computer and developing its technical capabilities, the Sudan news agency must catch up with the strides in terms of satellites communications.

            2.Promulgation of the Sudan News Agency Law and that is in the first year of the strategy emphasising its independence, the independence of the agency, financially, administratively and editorially.

            3.Increasing the programmes for the training of the employees of the Agency especially those working in areas of editing and the technical side as well as the other aspects of the agency.

            4.Enlarging the establishment of foreign agency offices in the neighbouring countries and in the capitals that have weight.

            5.The development of the existing information department to transform it to a real data bank.

            6.The introduction of a new generation of computers that can handle all the activities of the agency and all its reserves of editorial, administrative and financial materials and helps in the publication of the Agency’s bulletin and link it with those participating in its services.

THIRDLY: THE AREA OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION

A:        RADIO:

            The strategy aims in this area to spread the national information sovereignty on every metre of the homeland by developing radio transmissions by catering for its needs in the extension of the communications and wire network, availability of energy and finance.

            And this shall be executed according to the following stages:

THE FIRST STAGE:

            It aims at generalising transmission to all corners of the homeland.

THE SECOND STAGE:

            It aims at regional coverage especially of neighbouring States.

THE THIRD STAGE:

            It aims at taking the voice of the Sudan to the whole world, addressing international public opinion, presenting Sudan policy and its civilisational orientation and the characteristics of its culture that is diverse and multiple, and guarantee the

efficiency of this approach it is imperative to make available emitters equipment on short waves and medium waves and other rectified waves, and the establishment of various studios in all the willayas of the Sudan providing them with required equipments and making available to them the means of transmitting programmes to the areas where they can be re-transmitted.

  1. TELEVISION:

            Due to the strong impact of this means of information on all levels of the people and the role it could play in effecting a civilisational and social change it is important that:

  1. Utilisation of all means available now and their improvement to guarantee that television reaches all inhabited regions of the country by the end of the strategy.
  1. Adopting a stage by stage approach to these programmes so that they reach by the end of the first half of the strategy life span from the actual percentage which is 60% to 80%.
  1. Making available sufficient studios and their equipment with recording materials according to the technical specifications known internationally, and a way to make them capable to reviewing and equipping them with recording equipment, review equipment reproduction and modern photography equipment.
  1. Establishment of sufficient information representatives, making available the means for programme transmission and retransmissions in a way to guarantee the coverage of all parts of the country.
  1. Investing the channel in the Arab industrial satellite that enables the television transmission in all parts of the Arab and African homeland, and consolidate radio transmission that facilitates to the Sudan news agency the reception of what the Arab Agencies transmit as well as the transmission of its services to all parts of the Arab homeland. This will enable the newspapers to print their issues inside and outside the country and undertake a feasibility towards the possibility of owning a purely Sudanese industrial satellite.
  1. Reactivating the Sudan Space Committee to look into the possibility of dealing with direct information transmission from outside the frontiers of the Sudan, within the information, political, legal, educational, social, religious and security frameworks, and the improvement of Sudanese production qualitatively and quantitatively so that it can stand against this foreign cultural invasion.

FOURTHLY:

            The Area of Internal and External Information and Artistic Production:

  1. INTERNAL INFORMATION:

            The Sudanese internal front needs various information of all types which is effective and continuous interacting with the citizen to enable him to accomplish his civilisational role and to maintain his values against the ferocious attacks at the Sudan.

            The media shall remain the means of internal information work represented by image, word, cinematographic film, printing material in the form of a book or a poster, a brochure, a tape, an audio video tape with the impact on the conscience of the receiver.

            To realise this it is imperative that the following should be achieved:

  1. Developing of photography and the production of micro films through the utilisation of most modern equipment in order to document all official and popular national activity in the country thus contributing in serving the media and organising photography exhibitions and generalising them in all areas of the country, as well as providing our embassies and our communities in the other countries with materials that link them with their country and enable them to contribute in the information effort of Sudan about Sudan and the defense of its causes as well as reflecting its developmental efforts.
  1. Giving importance to news, documentary and cinematographic play films, making use of them in enlarging the circle of information for conscientisation of the citizens especially in the rural areas, thus linking them with their local communities as well as with national issues in their entirety, and hence leading to the mobilisation of their energies for reconstruction, and this necessitates the support and the development of cinema production.
  1. Development of the Mobile Cinema to achieve a complex role which does not limit itself to projecting films but rather includes complete cultural and information programmes through which books could be distributed and lent, conferences could be given and exhibitions could be organised.
  1. EXTERNAL INFORMATION

            On this vital area depends the task of making the Sudan known internationally and regionally, and clarifying the stands of the Sudan vis à vis the international Islamic, Arabic and African issues.  It has the responsibility of monitoring the foreign information movement vis à vis the country and vis à vis these problems and issues.  It has the task of identifying the friendly establishments and centres as well as the enemy centres to the Sudan, and the basis of the attacks against it, challenging and facing these attacks and information campaigns by clarifying and rectifying wrong and false information and rumours, and the effort to unite the information establishment efforts in the friendly countries as well as the contribution of the genuinely independent information centres, all this taking place in a very objective manner away from emotional reactions, and adopting patience with respect to good work whose results are guaranteed.  And the protection of foreign journalists who are working and residing in the Sudan by providing information facilities for them as well as promulgating laws and regulations that organise their work.

            The effectiveness of this work will have to be based on the following:

  1. Selection of the able human resources, that have vision, and giving them the necessary training and preparation.
  1. Making available the instruments and equipment that mobilize thus administration specialized in this area in its bulletins and publications, facilitating for it the rapidity of communication with the areas and the establishments with which it works.
  1. Making available information and keeping that information as well as facilitating reference to it. This should include sufficient information about friendly and hostile international newspapers, information about famous foreign journalists, people who are interested in the Sudan, the Arab world, the African continent, the Islamic world, and especially the organisms they are working for, and those dealing with these regions or on behalf of them.
  1. The preparation of a complete archive with keenness to developing and modernising it, and making its services available to the concerned quarters in the Sudan as well as friendly quarters.
  1. Employing a dynamic publishing movement that issues information bulletins, books, booklets, newspapers, etc. and other information materials.

            This should be preceded by the following:

            1.The formation of the external information council in which are represented all institutions and organisms that have relationship with foreign information, diplomatic and security work.

            2.Issuing the regulations that organise the work of the foreign correspondents and journalists visiting Sudan.

            3.Making a strong link between the Sudanese Information Representatives working abroad and all the Sudanese embassies.

            4.Making Khartoum a regional information and press centre that is attractive to journalists from all over the world and that has information and means of communication.

            In the area of population development information:

            Information Development and Population Communication Strategy is based on the following:

            1.Raising the standard of consciousness of the citizens with respect to developmental and population issues and encouraging them to participate in their solution.

            2.Coordination and Complementarity between various information organs and the official and popular bodies that are working in the area of comprehensive development in a better way and through a more scientific approach to clarify the efforts deployed in all these areas and thus helping them to achieve their goals.

            3.According women and youth a bigger importance, opening and enlarging opportunities for them in all the mass media and making the best use of them as means of direct and effective communication to consolidate the efforts of the comprehensive development and to increase the awareness of the citizens with the concern of the homeland, its objectives, its aspirations and the necessity of participation in the realisation of these objectives and aspirations.

            4.Close cooperation with similar organs in the sisterly and friendly states and joint production with them to explain the potential of the Sudan and the enormous resources that it has and the various areas of investment and development that it offers.  The exchange of information means messages that consolidate the efforts of peoples and their struggle for the liberation of their will and the realisation of their objectives in a way to strengthen the relations between them and to deepen these relations.

REGIONAL INFORMATION:

FIRSTLY: THE OBJECTIVES:

            In a huge country like the Sudan with diverse regions and cultures and different levels of knowledge, a country that is classified amongst the least developed countries of the world, where 80% of its people live in the rural areas, 88% of its working force works in the agricultural sector, and where illiteracy reaches 75.44% and whose people suffer from social and economic under‑development, foremost of which is poverty and illiteracy in addition to the deterioration of services in all the sectors, a regional information mission acquires a very important role, and assumes grave responsibilities that aim at transforming the general objectives of information to specific regional information duties that can be summarized as follows:

            1.The work to render authentic the Sudanese identity by deepening the beliefs of the Umma and getting aspiration from its heritages, and reaching the various communities of the country with a united position in the major vital issues that face the homeland.

            2.Generating enthusiasm and spirit of jihad (holy struggle) in the members of the society encouraging them to participate in its defence either by joining the armed forces or the popular defence forces and making available moral support for the fighters and the mobilisation of the citizens for greater involvement with them and the provision of support to them.

            3.Giving due attention to the rural issues and exerting efforts to find solutions for them and helping the citizen in the regions to express his problems and his worries to the authorities, thus enabling his voice reach those who make the decisions.

  1. Emphasising the concept of national unity.

            5.Working to emphasize the authentic concepts and values, making the citizens aware of the policies of the State and putting across the message of change that the State is advocating, thus making them aware of their rights and duties in this regard.

            6.Call for self-reliance and rendering authentic the slogan “we eat what we sow and wear what we produce”.

            7.Enable the citizens to have all the facts so as to fight negative and destructive rumours.

            8.Waging war against bad and harmful customs, traditions and practices.

            9.Regional information should give utmost priority to issues of illiteracy, education and information among the citizens.

            10.Realisation of the principle of participation in development projects, and spreading enthusiasm for productivity, emphasising the values of work, and the motivation of the different workers towards more effort in their work.

            11.Making available the necessary information to help the rural societies to develop and improve their behavioral patterns in the areas of consumer, economic, social and health fields.

            12.The preservation of the positive specificities of each and the realisation of a balance between the rural and the urban areas.

SECONDLY:

THE REALITY OF REGIONAL INFORMATION:

            The reality of information work in the regions is that it faces various problems and lots of difficulties and issues that require important efforts, and evaluation and development because of various objective reasons of which we give briefly the following:

            1.Absence of clear information policy and absence of good planning for information work at the long term, the middle term and the short term.

            2.Weakness of the relationship between the central ministry and its establishment and the regional information and its establishment.

  1. Weakness of the infrastructure of information in the regions.

            4.Lack of qualified personnel and weakness of training as well as absence of just opportunities for the regions in terms of internal and external training and thus the improvement of the qualifications.

            5.Absence of a clear job skill which resulted in a lot of discrepancies.

            6.Lack of interest by the national information organs with the problems of regions.

THIRDLY: MAJOR IMPROVEMENTS THAT HAVE TO BE ACHIEVED ARE SUMMARIZED AS FOLLOWS:

1.The information strategy must be translated into stage by stage programmes that give the regions a great attention and that takes into consideration the role of information in ensuring national unity and national orientation.

            2.Completion of the basic information infrastructure in the regions and the mobilisation of popular efforts to contribute in its organisation, in a way to complement the national, regional and popular efforts.

            3.Making available sufficient resources to develop information work and to improve and modernize it.

            4.Application of the radio and television permits system to consolidate the regional information budget giving priority to training of information officials in the regions.

            5.Opening of broader opportunities for regional material in the national information media and the adoption of a style of information export between the centre and the regions through messages, exchange of radio and television programmes, and also between the regions themselves.

            6.Determining the relationship between the regional information departments and organisms and establishments and that which corresponds to it at the national level and making them able to participate in the information operation in terms of conceptualisation, planning, execution and follow up and evaluation and the determination of the relationship with the regional authorities in a way to ensure its welfare and protection of its rights.

INFORMATION TRAINING

            The Information profession is a mixture between knowledge and experience, and its good performance can only be guaranteed by paying great attention to formation and training, before and during the service and all along the active life of the information officer.  This in turn entails that attention must be given to information training and formation establishments.

            This will necessitate the following:

            1.The coordination between the information training organisms and in the information bodies and the universities through the establishment of an information training council in which should be represented all the concerned bodies.

            2.Cooperation with the regional as well as international organisations especially UNESCO and the international programme for the development of communication.

            3.The strict choice of communication technology and the work to establish a national industry for the communication equipments that make available all the preparations and equipments and materials necessary for that.

            4.The choice of an information line and tone suitable for information achievement in accordance with the specific nature of each subject of the topics dealing with information work and the prevailing circumstnces.

            5.Paying attention to scientific research in the various areas of communication making it a base for drawing communications policies and linking it with social, economic, and cultural development.

            6.Establishment of a national documentation and scientific research centre, to provide a basic and important service in research, planning, and documentation, for future programmes that aim at developing information.

GENERAL AND FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Paying attention to all the channels and means of other popular communication and those which give a chance for communication which enjoy consent and acceptability such as places of prayer and to use their platforms in preaching to people useful and positive knowledge and urging them to the values of work and productivity, nobility, charity, excellence, complementarity and social solidarity, saying good things, and doing good deeds as well as the cultural caravans and all popular activities.
  1. Paying attention to educational information and educational programmes through the popular communication intermediaries by allotting more time to them and improving their quality.
  1. Establishment of an organism to measure public opinion according to international scientific methods and specifications that makes it possible to confront various issues and undertake public opinion polls at the best level.
  1. Handling the problems of information in the willayas with the same attention given to national information, solving the problems that could arise among the national organisms and their branches in the willayas through the law.

                        SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY SECTOR STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            Among the major challenges that face developing countries, among which are our Arab homeland, our African continent and our Islamic Umma, and of which our homeland is the heart, is the enormous gap that has resulted from the technological scientific revolution, of which the Arab homeland had been the cradle in the beginning and towards which the Arab Islamic civilisation has contributed by establishing its foundations and basis, upon which the civilized world has achieved its technological and scientific evolution.  The greatest achievement of our contemporary world has enabled those who monopolise it to control enormous capabilities, through what it has availed by its scientific concepts.  Its abilities to invent and produce technologies, and the possibilities of investing those technologies in industry, agriculture, health, education, transportation, communications, and in war and armaments of mass destruction.  This evolution has put in the hands of advanced states, enormous potential in the area of domesticating and controlling nature, investing and controlling its wealth whether on the surface of the earth or under it.  Today these states are actively working in the direction of the depths of the oceans and seas as well as space and what they contain of other bodies broadening their knowledge thereof with a view to controlling, investing and exporting them.

            This gap forms a new challenge based on power, and goodwill, as well as entailing a lot of risks and problems.  This necessitates on us paying attention to this technological scientific revolution from two angles.  The angle of making use of its intellectual and scientific fruits and their applications and the angle of avoiding the evil that their utilisation can bring, to impose on us that which we don’t want or to attack our identity or to tamper with our personality and impede our renaissance.

            The way to enable us to gain modern technological capabilities and to narrow the gap that we suffer in this area depends on the modernisation of the Sudanese mind in such a way as to enable it to absorb the spirit of this age and its positive capabilities with a vision that binds together science and work paying attention to respecting sharp rational methodology and what it produces of very minute technology that can be applied and invested, and between technology and spiritual and noble humanist values and the rational positions and the realistic patterns of behaviour that are effective and aspiring to active work, cooperation, solidarity and complementarity in society.  This in turn entails an openness towards the civilisations and experiences of others with an attitude of give and take.  It also requires the modernisation of the basis of our Arabic, Islamic and African civilisation, and the purification of its channels and from the negative aspects that it has fallen into.  All these with self-consciousness and affirmation of the self on a basis of its civilisational values, spiritual and historical heritage that is capable of renovation, and should construct from its authenticity a wise barrier that guards against its falling into the trap of imitation and automatic copying that leads to the dissolution of civilisational identity.

            The reality of science and technology in the Sudan today and their application in the productive and services sectors, as well as in the scientific research institutions, compared with the average application in the Arab homeland and with those prevailing in the developed countries, reflects the results explained in table 1 below:

            The Low rates in terms of technology and science in the Sudan reflected in this schedule call for the multiplication of these rates to ten-fold at least by the end of the strategy period.

GUIDELINES:

            a)Enabling the Sudan to acquire the means of modern technology and its application in all productive and service sectors.

            b)Introduction of modern technology in the educational and guidance curricula, and the development of scientific research methods.

            c)Spreading science among the citizens and making scientific knowledge as a basic part of the general culture.

            d)Spreading the basis of methodological, scientific thinking in the society.

OBJECTIVES

            a)Preparing a national plan for scientific research in its different fields linked to the priorities of development and the objectives of the global strategy, whose execution should follow the needs of each stage of the strategy.

            b)Development of information centres and scientific research in a way to meet the needs of the strategy, and the establishment of a national information network.

            c)Preparation of the reception of the important technology system modification and its modification to suit the national environment.

            d)Developing the ability to invent technology, to develop its existing types in society, and its application in the artisanal areas inrural industries.

e)The invention of modern technologies that suit our developmental needs.

            f)The multiplication of technology utilization in the Sudan by ten-fold at least by the end of the strategy period.

Table of indicators of the scientific and technological reality in the Sudan (1990)

The material

Electric power

Cement

Computer

Full-time researchers

Expenditure on scientific research

Engineers and Technicians

Average in advanced countries

1500-2000 watts/persons

0.7-1.0 ton/persons

1 in each 50-100,000/persons

70-80 in 10,000

2.8% of GNP

1 to each 50-200/persons

Average in Arab countries

500-4000 watts/person

0.5-2.0 tons/person

1 in each 2.1000/person

1.7 in 10,000

0.2%

1 to each 1,000-2,000

Reality in Sudan

25 watts/persons

025 tons/persons

1 in each 10-20,000/persons

0.15 in 10,000

0.15%

1 to each 3-5,000 persons

The Stages of Strategy Implementation:

            This strategy has adopted the stages proposed in the strategy for the development of science and technology in the Arab world, issued by the Arab Organisation for Education, Science and Culture, and which includes three stages:

            The first stage:The rationalization stage for a 3-year period.

            The second stage:The selective stage for a 6-year period.

            The third stage:The pioneering stage for a 10-year period.

            All three stages begin at the same time in the Sudan, and are completed at different times, within the strategy period.

THE FIRST STAGE:  RATIONALIZATION STAGE

            It aims at rehabilitating the capabilities utilized in the different sectors in a way to rehabilitate the necessary human resources, and making available the citizen’s basic needs in clothing, food, shelter and medicine.  This should be realized during the first three years of the strategy.  The Sudan would have achieved an important aspect in building its basic infrastructure, and thus obtaining the necessary capabilities in the field of science and technology, and completed the promulgation of laws pertaining to the development of science and technology, and a national budget for scientific research.  Work in this stage shall concentrate on the expansion in energy production, computer and data base technology, the introduction of advanced measuring instruments, and supervision of productive operations.

THE SECOND STAGE:  THE SELECTIVE STAGE

            This stage starts with the beginning of the rationalisation stage and finishes in 6 years during which all technologies will be absorbed and scientific production instruments in all sectors shall be made available.  In addition, making available the human resources capable of transferring technology, as well as learning the modern means in the different fields of selected technology for each sector.  Also it will include in this stage advanced programmes in transfer of technology, its application, and enlargement in selected areas in line with the orientations of the comprehensive national strategy that will be based on the following:

  1. a) Energy and its application in the different sectors.
  1. b) Electronic and engineering industries.
  1. c) Industry of chips and the transformation of energy.
  1. d) Mining and petroleum industry.
  2. e) Soil technology, seed and agricultural improvement.
  1. f) Pharmaceutical industries.
  1. g) Light military industries.

            h)Upgrading the standard of the indicators of scientific development to closer percentages to those prevailing in the developed countries according to the following:

  1. Electrical energy: from 25 watt now to 250 watts per person.
  1. Cement: from 0.025 ton to 2.2 ton per person.

            3.Computer: from 1 to every 10-20 000 individual to 1 to every 1  000 individual.

            4.Preparation of full-time researchers: from 0.2 in 10,000 to 10 for every 10,000.

            5.Expenditure in scientific research: from 0.15% to 2% from the gross national product (GNP).

            6.Engineers and Technological officers: from 1 to each 3-5 000 to 1‑500 persons.

THE THIRD STAGE:  THE PIONEERING STAGE:

            This stage starts in the first year of the strategy and extends to the whole period, and it is a stage based on creativity and inventiveness and in fields in which the basic needs are available in the Sudan.  It should be based on the strategy of science and technology in the first two stages.  This stage also aims at the realisation of a revolution and a pioneering achievement in two major fields of the future civilisation that we aim at:

            1.The field of fine electronic technology and new materials, to cope with international progress in terms of industrial intelligence and the technology of information, and the area of new materials to transform solar and nuclear energy to electricity, or any other form among the new forms of producing energy.

            2.The area of engineering technology and bio-technology, to exploit fine living organisms in an advanced way in the industrialisation and fertilisation of land and the cultivation of the desert, in education, and sciences for plant and animal as well as in medicine.

THE STRATEGIC MEANS

            This strategy depends on six means in its execution which are:

  1. Information means.
  2. Research
  3. Institutional
  4. Human
  5. Legislative
  6. Material

            Mentioned below is information about each of these means that were mentioned in the technical report of the sciences and technology committee.

INFORMATION

            a)Legislation:  Making available the legal framework for information so as to fend against its misuse and bad exploitation.

            b)Education:  The introduction of information sciences in the educational curricula starting by the secondary stage at least, the introduction of computer education as an educational material as well as an educational means, enforcing computer studies in Universities and Higher Institutes and spreading its utilisation in all specialities.

            c)Sector Information Centres:  The establishment of information centres in each sector, their development and uniting the systems and means of treating information, and establishing information bases.

            d)Programming:  Encouraging the production of computer programming for local use and for export purposes.

            e)Computers and Communications:  The use of the modern technologies in sending information, linking information and research centres with reasonable means and reasonable costs.

            f)The national information network:  The establishment of national centres in the light of a national information policy.

  1. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

            Development in the economic and social sectors has to be based on a strong and balanced research foundation.  That is, with the motivation to modernize and to attain efficient productivity and performance, the scientific research strategy has been conceived on this understanding and analysis of the orientations and the objectives of the various sectors and their needs to scientific and technological development.  The organs of scientific research in each sector will be in charge of putting together the detailed research programmes as well as their execution.

  1. THE SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES:
  1. AGRICULTURE: The scientific research strategy aims in this sector to support the efforts of increasing the agricultural area and encouraging the achievement of higher productivity of the various crops in the irrigated as well as in the rain-fed agriculture, through the horizontal development method, to bridge the gap in local productivity and the quality and quantity of products in each agricultural environment.
  1. ANIMAL RESOURCES: The strategy aims in this sector to double the animal wealth, to increase its productivity, to eradicate the contagious and chronic diseases and to realise self-sufficiency for basic vaccination and veterinary medical needs.
  1. FISH RESOURCES: The research plan aims at establishing a balance between fishing and fish production.
  1. NATURAL RESOURCES: The scientific research strategy aims at raising the efficiency of water investment, and that there is sufficient water for the irrigation of crop agriculture, increasing the volume of the stored water, and the preservation and protection of the surface and under ground water from pollution.
  1. LAND RESOURCES: The land resources strategy aims at soil protection, maintaining its fertility and protecting it from salt and from desertification, recuperating desertified soil, to use it for agricultural purposes, and developing pastures and forests and their improvement qualitatively, and quantitatively thus reestablishing ecological and environmental balance.

B         THE SECTOR OF INDUSTRY, ENERGY AND MINING

            The scientific research strategy in these sectors aims at undertaking evaluation studies of existing industries and preliminary studies for the establishment of new industries. Also it aims at carrying out scientific and technological researches in the area of solar energy, wind, vital energy and the rationalisation of the consumption of available energy resources, the continuation in the geological exploration researches as well as the determination of the economic feasibility and the completion of the geological and the mining investment map.

  1. THE SECTOR OF TRANSPORT AND CONSTRUCTION

            The strategy aims to carry out research studies in the area of cost alternative transport and various energy sources to transportation.  The identification of suitable local materials for the production of construction materials and putting together suitable designs for buildings in clay soil.

  1. THE HEALTH SECTOR

            The strategy aims to continue the research studies with the objective of eradicating contagious and chronic diseases, fighting poverty, hunger and ignorance, and developing popular medicine researches and the utilisation of medical plants in achieving cure.

  1. THE INSTITUTIONAL MEANS:
  1. The establishment of a national centre for industrial design.

            2.Paying attention to the continuous education, formation and training policies.

            3.Consolidation of research centres and enlargement of these centres with a view to developing local technology and to adapt imported technology.

            4.The establishment of a medium or intermediary institution for the application of research results making use of them concretely and linking the researcher with the designers.

  1. Organisation and regulation of the consultancy organisms.

            6.Adoption of the counter engineering transport policies or undoing the technological knots.

  1. THE HUMAN FACTOR

            It aims at the development of the needed human factor to execute the sciences and technology strategy, through the formation and retraining of the human factors and resources, making use of the national, regional and international expertise to arrive at international recognised standards and introducing emergency programmes according to the complete plans and the tapping of the migrant brains.

  1. LEGISLATION

            a)Promulgation of laws and regulations that create the atmosphere and the environment conducive to research creativity and scientific development.

            b)Promulgation of the laws necessary for the transfer of technology from abroad and putting the necessary regulations to its smooth flow.

  1. THE MATERIAL MEANS
  1. Laying down a national budget for scientific research and technology.
  1. Allotting a certain percentage of the budget of each Ministry, Institution, Developmental Project, for the development of scientific research and technology.
  1. Getting more support for scientific and technological research through the cultural and scientific cooperation agreements with States and making use of the resources of the regional and international organisations.

THE PROGRAMMES

            The strategy contains 7 programmes to be executed through the three stages and whose execution shall start at the same time and intermingling during execution:

FIRST PROGRAMME:  ENSURING THE BASIC NEEDS OF THE CITIZENS.

SECOND PROGRAMME: MODEL SELF-PRODUCTION COMPLEXES.

THIRD PROGRAMME:  THE HORIZONTAL DEVELOPMENT.

FOURTH PROGRAMME: THE COMPUTER.

FIFTH PROGRAMME:  ADVANCED HIGHER TECHNOLOGY LABORATORIES.

SIXTH PROGRAMME:  MOBILIZATION OF SCIENTISTS AND THE PROFESSIONAL                    TECHNOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL FRAMEWORKS.

SEVENTH PROGRAMME: REHABILITATION AND TRAINING.

            The first two programmes are of a rationalization nature, and the third and the fourth programmes emphasize the selectivity and the transfer of modern technology.  As regards the fifth programme its execution shall take place within the framework of the pioneering stage.

            These five programmes will make available the basic infrastructure upon which will be carried out and implemented the comprehensive national strategy.  As regards the three last programmes, they have to do with the development of human resources in this sector in terms of education, training, the attraction of international brains and expertise.

            Following are details of these programmes:

THE FIRST PROGRAMME:  ENSURING BASIC NEEDS OF THE CITIZENS.

            This programme is designed to cater for the basic needs of each citizen, in food, clothing, medecine, shelter and energy, through the productive projects that are attractive to investors, in a way to attain self-sufficiency, in the areas of these needs.

THE SECOND PROGRAMME:  MODEL SELF-PRODUCTION COMPLEXES.

            It is intended that these complexes demonstrate the importance given to the rural areas, and their development, and the call for the return to these areas, and they are designed to achieve a balanced rural and regional development, and to lessen the bottlenecks in the cities.  These complexes shall be established and developed in selected sites in each region, and they will include specimen of scientific and technological research inputs, and training on making use of them to facilitating their generalization in the remaining parts of the region.  These complexes shall generate opportunities for the transfer of the results of the researches carried out in the laboratories to the farms and the factories, and this shall result in vertical and horizontal expansion in the horizontal production and the results of science and technology and scientific research from the laboratories, and will consolidate the principle of self-reliance, especially in the areas of food and alternative energy.  As an example, the following complexes mentioned along with the proposed sites for their establishment:

Complex Proposed Site
Jara and Ghalya

southern darfur.

 

1. Um Safari complexes (A sunny village).

 

2. Irrigation by aeroplane irrigation complexes.

 

(…  …)

 

3.  Irrigation by drops complexes.

 

(…  …)

 

 

4.  Irrigation of … complexes

 

5.  Sunny village complexes.

 

 

6.  Milk products complexes.

 

 

7.  Cattle breeding complexes.

 

8.  Bees complexes.

 

9.  Fish complexes.

 

10. … complexes

 

11. Style complexes

 

12. Carpet industry complexes.

 

 

13.  …. industry complexes.

In the south, Jabal Marra.

 

 

Northern Kordofan.

 

Sleim and Bargeig region.

Wadi El-Magadam.

 

 

Regions of Marwia, Bawga, and Shendi.

 

 

The northern islands (…   …)

 

Tamala – eastern Sudan.

 

Funj, Singa, Roseires and southern Kordofan, Babanusa.

 

Darfur, Kordofan, While Nile, Wadi El-Magadam.

 

Darfur, Nuba mountains, equatoria.

 

Red Sea, Old Wadi Halfa, Kordofan.

 

 

Read sea, the Fung, the northern province.

 

 

Shendi region.

 

Northern Darfu, Northern Kordofan, and the Eastern region.

 

The Northern Region.

            And it is possible to innovate new types of complexes or the addition of other sites to repeat the application of the model societies, in agreement with the organs of the willayas and of local government.

THIRD PROGRAMME:  THE VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT.

            As a lot of resources and production potentialities suffer from wastage and low productivity, the ideal way to make use of the resources and the available potentialities is through the rehabilitation and the development of the priorities presented in all productive sectors, and its incumbent on the sector of science and technology to help in that, with a view to achieving vertical development.  This can be accomplished through the modernization of the administration and the means of production and services, which might require more advanced and suitable technological inputs, and researches in the field of administrative and productive operations with a view to developing them and the proposal of model projects in the various sectors and the utilization of the computer and the micro-processor as well as making use of bio-technology, the introduction of irrigation by aeroplanes and dropping, and other ways of modern technological inputs, each where it is needed in offices, the factories and the fields.

            Among the examples of the sectors that can benefit from this endeavour is the office sector, the supply sector, the agricultural sector, the medical sector, and the sector of telephone and telegraphic communications and the electricity sector.

THE FOURTH PROGRAMME:  THE COMPUTER.

            The strategy aims in this area to multiply the computer centres and networks to 100 times at the least.  And the linkage of all commercial and political centres in the Sudan with computer and data base networks, and this project shall be implemented through three stages:

            a)The first stage aims at establishing a national council for the computer and the increase of the training rates by 50% for the basic studies, 20% in the specialized training, and the introduction of the computer by a rate of 20% in governmental units.

            b)The second stage aims at upgrading in the rate of basic training to 80% and specialized training to 60% of governmental units.  The introduction of the electronic mail by a rate of 60%, and the introduction of the computer in 80% of governmental units.

            c)The third stage aims at upgrading the rate of basic training to 100%, the introduction of the computer in all governmental units, the generalization of electronic mail to 100% and the linking of the national networks with the international information centres.

THE FIFTH PROGRAMME:  THE ADVANCED AND HIGHER TECHNOLOGY                                                  LABORATORIES.

            This programme aims at laying down the technological basis and their solid introduction to expedite development, in a way to cope with the international movement in the technological area and its applications, and its capable of enabling us to move fast towards narrowing the gap between us and the reality in the scientifically and technologically advanced societies.  This requires more opportunities for our youth to study advanced science and technology, and the training in its utilization, to acquire the capability of realizing the civilizational jump that we aspire for to our homeland, enabling it to be in a position of leadership.  To achieve this, it is imperative to establish the following laboratory networks:

  1. Fine electronics laboratories.
  1. Bio-technological and engineering laboratories.

            3New material laboratories.

            It also requires the consolidation of the now existing laboratories:

            1.Data and information laboratories.

  1. Solar energy laboratories.
  1. Nuclear energy technology laboratories.
  1. …. sciences laboratories.

            5.Remote sensing laboratories.

  1. Medical sciences laboratories.

            The proposed laboratories shall be constructed in model science parks.

THE SIXTH PROGRAMME:  THE ATTRACTION AND MOBILIZATION OF SCIENTISTS AND THE PROFESSIONAL, …. AND TECHNICAL FRAMEWORKS:

            This programme aims at identifying and attracting scientists, experts, professionals, technologists, technicians, inside the homeland and in the diaspora, through their professional councils and scientific associations and unions, and through making available better working conditions, and equipment that help and encourage advanced work, as well as a better work environment.

            The success of this programme requires some steps out of which:

            1.Undertaking social, psychological and spiritual studies that help in raising the morale of the people and their civic sense, deepening the work sentiment, and positive trends towards productivity, avoiding all that leads to division and dispersal, tribalism and professional discrimination.

            2.The consolidation of the role of consultancy and advise, their institutions, the technical and technological offices and promulgating the necessary laws for their work.

            3.The consolidation of scientific and professional organisms such as councils and associations and the rationalization of their performance.

            4.Giving incentives to the scientists and inventors, and giving them what they deserve by way of encouragement and recognition and facilitating all that can lead to the unleashing of their intellectual, scientific and productive energies.

            5.Expediting the issuing of the Sudanese expertise guide, to facilitate the exchange of expertise and making use of it in the construction of the homeland, thus consolidating confidence in the national capabilities, and at the same time making them known.

            6.The consolidating of the means of scientific publishing and the expansion of its opportunities, making available scientific information to authors and writers, and simplifying them to be accessible to the people as well as issuing of supportive scientific periodicals that help in the publication of the results of scientific and technological research and the spread of scientific knowledge and facilitating the obtaining of information.

THE SEVENTH PROGRAMME:  REHABILITATION AND TRAINING:

            The execution of all the aforementioned programmes and the upgrading of productivity imposes a concentration on the human development in the area of science and technology, starting by the expansion of the opportunities of basic rehabilitation and training in this field and the intensification of training through the model complexes, the laboratories and the science parks, to all the basic or elementary intermediary and higher frameworks.  Training during the service in these projects should be closely connected with their establishment.  And that this should be consolidated by benefitting from the opportunities of technical assistance coming from regional as well as international sources.

            The effort of the science and technology strategy to consolidate the implementation of the sectoral strategies, included in the comprehensive national strategy, requires the availability of the financing that corresponds to its vital importance, and giving it high priority that makes it reach about 2% of the GNP.

   THE STRATEGY OF THE POLITICS AND THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM SECTOR

INTRODUCTION

  1. The political organisation in the Sudan emanates from being faithful to the oath of man’s inheritance of God on earth, ensuring the sovereignty of a society of faith, through the legislative congresses and the federal system that respects diversity, and that is reinforced by this very diversity on the homeland. It is based on the values of upholding right, liberty and justice, the safeguarding of human rights and human duties. Legal justice is based on the principle of the rule of law and the execution of the law, the independence of the judiciary, its impartiality and its integrity.
  1. The rehabilitation of the political, social and economic infrastructure of the society is a central issue that has to be achieved to bring about the comprehensive renaissance. The strengthening of the society’s institutions so as to spread their authority is a basic step for the realisation of the objective of the independence of the society from political power and political authorities in most of its needs, and this rehabilitation must go beyond the forms of revolutionary and emergency situations, to attain the realisation of the basic freedoms and the application of the law.
  1. The issue of the achievement of justice is one of the most important challenges in the way of the realisation of the strategy objectives be they political, economical or social. Therefore it is imperative that the comprehensive and total strategic movement approaches should enable us to continue the dialogue to achieve a political solution to the conflict, taking the necessary steps to guarantee effective power in the homeland, that can contribute to accelerating the dialogue while maintaining peace.

THE FEDERAL SYSTEM, THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

            To achieve the objective of the completion of the federal government structure and its efficiency, the completion of its consultation, federal and willaya organisms, the local organisms and the specialized organisms, and the organisation of its efficiency, the construction of the federal government will be done according to the two following stages:

FIRSTLY

THE FIRST STAGE (1993-1994)

            This stage is characterized by the concentration of work to complete the federal government structure and to filling the gaps that it suffers from now, according to the following:

            i)THE FEDERAL LEVEL

            The establishment of government organisms according to the political system by the establishment of an elected national council and an executive organ at the federal level, the election of the President of the Republic and the establishment of the organisms for the presidency. Also the establishment of Ministerial organisms that deal with sovereignty matters as well as defence and national security, foreign policy, the public prosecutor and the Ministries of the economic sector and of the strategic services.  All these require their reorganisation and the specification of their areas of competence according to a gradual method.  Also the judicial organism should be established.

  1. ii) THE WILLAYA LEVEL

            This includes three administrative organisational levels as follows:

            (a)The willaya level:  This level is completed by the establishment of a judicial organ at the willaya level (willaya council) and the completion of the executive organ by the election of the Wali and the establishment of the executive organisms of the willaya.

            (b)The province level:  This is constituted by the governor and the council of the province. The governor will be responsible before the government by undertaking honourary security mobilisation and coordination tasks that he undertakes according to what is stipulated in the local government law, and he constitutes the province council which exercises its mandate according to how that mandate is explained by the political system.

            (c)The local level:  This level represents the central point in popular participation in power, the increase of the efficiency of the society as well as its independence from political authority.  This also

represents the basis of the local government and local organisms represented by the city council and city, town and rural councils, and to achieve the desired objectives of that, it is imperative that the following take place:

                        i)the completion of the construction  of the local institutions in a democratic way according to what has been stipulated in the founding statutes and the popular congresses.

                        ii)attachment to the spirit and the objectives of the local government law of 1991 that made the council a moral personality in so far as it spear-heads local development as well as legislation and social mobilisation.

                        iii)a completion of the establishment of the structures of the local councils be they organisational or functional in order to carry out their assignments and mandates as stipulated by law.

                        iv)the sharing of wealth and the undertaking of the responsibility of social development.

            This will come about according to the following priorities:

            a)The redivision of material and human resources between the  levels of the federal government in a just and urgent manner to enable each level to carry out its mandate.

            b)Orienting a percentage of the financial resources to support local government (20%) to guarantee the necessary balance of social development according to specific criteria that takes into consideration the discrepancy in the services of the local council, and the support and the consolidation of the rights of the councils to administer and develop their resources, concentrating on social development as a main objective.

            c)Completion of financial reform in a way to consolidate the abilities at all the levels of federal government to be able to meet their responsibilities.

SECONDLY:

THE SECOND STAGE – (1995-1999)

            This stage is considered the stage of consolidating organisational and functional structures and the promotion of material as well as human resources according to the following method:

  1. i) THE FEDERAL LEVEL

            Consolidation of the organisational and functional structures for the federal ministries and the units emanating from them by transferring the authority to them, giving them more mandate, determining and specifying the tasks of the federal ministries organisms in the sovereign affairs such as defence, foreign affairs, economic and service sectors that have a strategic dimension.  The transfer of central taxation represented by the personal income tax and the taxation of services as well as real state taxation and a percentage of the work taxation in the willayas.

            a)Making sure of the efficiency of the functional structures and the federal organisms to carrying out their mandate and authority, and meeting their responsibilities.

            b)Organising the relationship between the existing national projects in the willayas and investing in them natural resources in a way to guarantee reasonable returns for the willayas from the projects and investments, taking into consideration the circumstances of the least developed willayas.

            c)concentrating on the development and the consolidation of the basic infrastructures of the willayas on a local level in a way to consolidate national integration and to encourage investment.

  1. ii) THE WILLAYA LEVEL:

            That the reorganisation of the last organisational and functional structures should be in line with the volume and the dynamism of the sectoral activities, to avoid repetition, duplication and inflation of personnel in the execution of these tasks and duties and the waste of material resources, the conflict between the administrative as well as the developmental human efforts.  In the area of financial resources and development the situation in the willayas will be towards the beginning of the second stage (1995) as follows:

            a)The awareness of the volume and the sources of the available resources in the willayas and the completion of their administrative and financial relations between the centre and the local levels.

            b)Utilisation of the legislative authority to develop the sources for the financing of the various developmental and administrative activities in the framework of the federal policies.

            c)The completion of the operations and procedures necessary for the development of financial resources, the enlargement of the taxation activity and the intensification of the investment activities in a manner that is acceptable.

            iii)THE LOCAL LEVEL

            With the completion of the organisational and functional structures in the first stage, the local level will be capable of handling the responsibilities of the second stage in the following manner:

            i)The completion of the foundation regulations work and working organisms.

            ii)Support of the financial sources by adding a substantial portion of the willaya sources to the local council sources, in addition to their traditional sources.

            iii)Intensification and concentration of the work of the councils in the development and establishment of infrastructure, giving them percentages in the returns of the national projects that fall in their geographic area and they also should have prerogatives to establish and to administrate local crop markets and thus enlarge their tax returns.  The establishment of investment projects and a specialised bank for local government to provide soft loans to local councils.

THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

            There is a harmony between the structures of the federal government institutions, the administrative structures of the federal government institutions and the construction of the political system.  The initial stage of the establishment of the political system has been completed after the achievement of the following:

            a)The establishment of the secretariat of the national congress will have produced the constitutive system for the popular congresses, the national charter for political work in accordance with guidelines that have been produced by the constituent national congress.  At the same time it undertook the duty of training and mobilisation at the level of the willayas and the provinces.

            b)Issuing of the constitutional decision concerning the establishment of the transitional national council that undertakes the responsibility of censorship, legislation, mobilisation in the transitional stage awaiting the establishment of the elected national council.

            c)The completion of the arrangement for the establishment of the basic congresses, as well as congresses at a higher level through the issuing of the popular committees of law and regulation and the popular congresses regulations formula as well as elections law.

  1. The political system with all its organs shall be completed before the end of the first half of the strategy span, that is during the first five years, and the creation of the congresses should start in early 1992 according to the following stages:
  1. a) THE FIRST STAGE (1992-1993)

            The creation of the political system will be based on the basic congresses, from the basic congress to the willaya congress, including the sectoral congress at the willaya and council levels that are emanating from the willaya level, and councils emanating from these congress to the willaya council and its government.

  1. b) THE SECOND STAGE (1994-1995)

            The meeting of the national congress, in addition to the election of the national council, and the election of the president of the republic.

  1. The political and ideological qualification of the leadership is one of the main and continuous tasks all along the stages of the national strategy for political work. And to achieve that in an effective way, it is imperative that a political academy be established that takes the responsibility of training and formation according to effective methods that include political, organisational, social and cultural issues which will deepen the concepts of popular democracy.  This should be done in the first year of the strategy.
  1. Achieving 80% of popular participation and verifying that through modern means, such as scientific public opinion polls, and achieving the necessary political mobilization to obtain this rate.

TRADE UNION AND TRADE UNION WORK

  1. The main objective in this area is the establishment of Trade Union professional and scientific organisms and utilising them for the service of society, the increase of productivity, the protection of the interests of the working people, and the realisation of the wide participation in them, and the increase of the effectiveness of public service making available its service to the citizens and society. All these could be established by emphasizing the following principles:

            a)Tying work with faith or doctrine, emphasizing its concept as one of the manifestations of prayer of which one aspires for returns in the here-after, this gives work a moral and spiritual commitment like prayer, failure of which is sanctioned by the conscience of the individual before the law.

            b)Emphasizing the spirit of attachment to the profession and the organisation in the comprehensive national framework.

            c)Commitment to the old and new equilibrium between rights and duties vis a vis the workers and the owners in all aspects and levels of work, that is, through the exercise of right as a duty and duty as a right.

  1. THE CREATION OF TRADE UNION ORGANISMS.

            Since the basis of the creation of the political system reposes on the participation of the sectors in the public affairs via the sectoral congresses, it was imperative to undertake the following steps to complete the trade union structure:

            a)The issuing of the new trade union law and regulations inspired by this law before the beginning of 1992.

            b)Undertaking elections for the trade union sectoral and cooperative structures so that their institutions should be complete at the national level during 1993.

            c)Specifying the areas that need professional associations and their formation.

  1. Employing the trade union and professional organisms for the service of the society and the increase of productivity.

            The optimal utilisation of the trade union movement will be achieved by the following means:

            a)Adoption of trade union sectoral and cooperative concepts and attitudes anchoring them in the authentic culture, giving a comprehensive methodology as well as an organised comprehensive mobilisation capability.

            b)The creation of intimate production relations between the working people and the various work administrations.

            c)Representation of workers organisations in the executive boards or in the administrative councils and the drawing of general policies for the public institutions and organisms and the follow up of the execution of their adopted programmes.

            d)Completion of the creation of sectoral cooperatives as well as the workers, consumer associations.

            e)The representation of the workers organisations in the councils dealing with salary issues.

  1. The active contribution to active diplomacy through the following means:

            a)Creating relations with similar organisations abroad such as trade unions and professional and general trade unions.

            b)Representation of the trade union profession and trade union organisations in the specialized agencies such as the International Arab and African Labour Organisations.

            c)Coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Labour and the Council of the International Popular Friendship in the execution of the employment policies and their articulation and support.

  1. Creation of social harmony and abandonment of factors that lead to struggles through the utilisation of the trade union movement to support the orientation of the Umma and the protection of the homeland as well as the enlargement of the trade union sectoral cooperative activity to provide economic and social services.

THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM

  1. The realisation of the effectiveness of the constitution of the rules and laws through their writing, education and the creation of justice organisms according to the criteria of acceptance of the law, and judicial performance are the necessary political objectives for the completion of the national edifice, the realisation of comprehensive renaissance and the commitment to the Islamic Sharia (Islamic law), is the main means and basis for a comprehensive civilisational renaissance that emphasizes the meanings of liberty, shura (consultation) and justice.
  1. For the coming constitution to be a sincere expression of the Umma’s values and a framework governing the state activity we believe it should include the following principles:

            a)Upholding the values of rights, liberty, justice and responsibility.

            b)The protection of the human condition that has been stipulated by the various religions with respect to his freedom, rights, duties and responsibilities.

            c)Emphasize the importance of the rule of law and the application of its authority through the integrity of those applying the law and emphasising the equality before the law and the limitation of immunities.

            d)Guaranteeing the decisions with respect to services and encouraging the spirit of pardon and reconciliation as well as the right of seeking justice and facilitating the means for it.

            e)Guaranteeing the independence of the judiciary and its integrity and organising its relations with other justice organisms.

  1. Reforming the laws and revising them so that they are in harmony with the Islamic Sharia rules and the federal system to guarantee the effectiveness of the organisms, good exploitation of the wealth and resources, the protection of public finance and the consolidation of the means of integrity, purity, discipline in public life and the establishment of a national organism that undertakes the task of legal reform.
  1. Revision of the methods of legal and jurisprudential studies in the universities and higher studies in a way to realise their authenticity as well as the modernisation and diversification linking research with the needs of the state and the society.
  1. The establishment of a national institute for legal formation and training, a higher academy for criminal sciences and the formation of the justice organisms in a way to guarantee the adequate application of the rules of Islamic Sharia as well as custom, providing all working in this organism with adequate spiritual, intellectual and technical education.
  1. The modernisation of all the means in all the justice organisms and their development, enlarging their services in a way to guarantee the spread of justice and the easy access to it by all citizens, enabling the Ministry of Justice as well as the Attorney General to carry out their role of the generalisation of justice and the generalisation of the public prosecutor in all parts of the homeland.
  1. Promotion of the legal profession and the revision of the conditions of the profession, its moral charter, paying attention to the training of those working in it.
  1. The development through preparation and training of Police and Prison organisms in a way that enables them carry out their role in the service of the society and the application of the rules of law.
  1. Realising an effective presence for military justice all in all legal activities for the Armed Forces.
  1. The establishment of a Justice Council that includes justice organisms of planning and coordination amongst them.
  1. Revision of the law for the justice authority in a way to consolidate its independence and organise its administration and its relations.

PEACE

INTRODUCTION

  1. The decisions of the national dialogue congress on peace issues are considered as the main corner stone of peace for the national strategy, and in their framework are specified the objectives for the State forces. The government programme for dialogue and negotiation with the rebel movement, constitutes a summary of the studies, conferences and the efforts to achieve peace and security through the history of the Sudan.  The issue of war and peace is considered a main challenge in the way of achieving the political, economic, and social objectives which requires the choice of a strategy for a movement to continue the dialogue in view of achieving a peaceful solution, that does not compromise the will of the country to foreign domination, or the pressures of the out-laws, taking steps to avoid the war draining the country, before the realisation of peace.

CONFIDENCE BUILDING

  1. Conflicts that continue for a long period of time are usually complex and leave negative effects in the memory of people which encourage doubt, suspicion and lack of confidence so that confidence building becomes one of the difficult issues that needs a lot of patience, perseverance and specific policies. Lots of steps have been taken in the previous stage that need to be developed and consolidated and this could be summarized in the following:

            a)The government has announced, many times since the establishment of the national salvation revolution, cease fire from one side, to affirm that the conflict that is taking place needs a political solution rather than the utilisation of arms and war.

            b)Declaration of a general amnesty which has been renewed and open-ended, and the practical application of this declaration on welcoming the returnees from the operation areas and from neighbouring countries and facilitating their insertion into society.  The policies of inserting the returnees into society need very special attention and comprehensive planning.

            c)Ensuring that the humanitarian aid reaches those who need it is one of the government’s responsibilities.  This has been done in accordance with the agreement with the UN and the donor countries according to a donor programme which includes bringing the aid to those in need and to those areas that are under rebel control via security passages.  However, the issue of humanitarian aid needs to

            be very carefulyl followed-up to avoid its utilisation as a means of endangering the security of the country and the support of the rebels.  The call for a conference of the States of the African horn to discuss the question of humanitarian assistance in all its aspects is a positive step, to overcome foreign pressures and designs to intervene in the affairs of the country, as well as the waging of information war to influence the political decision.

            d)The initiatives to contact the rebel movement, the previous meetings constitute a serious endeavour to open dialogue for achieving peace, building confidence and differences.  Although the government has offered a clear programme for the realisation of peace, the lack of clarity of vision, objectives and late conflicts in the rebel movement requires the elaboration of a flexible and realistic strategy to handle this reality.

THE SOUTHERN INTERNAL FRONT

  1. The unification of the southern internal front is a main objective that has to be achieved by all means because it represents the only guarantee to safeguard the unity of the country and the weakness of the rebel movement. This could be done according to the following procedures:

            a)Enlarging the participation base for the southern leadership and the selection and mobilization of new elements in the framework of the peace programme and through the political organisations guaranteeing their participation in political decision making in the coming stage.

            b)Normal life has to be established in the areas controlled by the government and in the liberated areas through the opening of schools and the provision of health services, administrative and supply services which encourage people to settle down.

            c)Organisation of a basic congress for the political system in the secure areas in order to create leadership at the grassroots level in cities and rural areas that help in the mobilisation of the society in the south, in addition to salvation committees at the willayas level.

            d)Concentrated and intensified information work paying special attention to programmes specially tailored to the south and mobilising local radio stations to that end, fixing a very clear content for information work that includes or contains major orientations.

            e)The effort to apply the recommendations and decisions of the national dialogue conference on peace issues through the application of the federal system to achieve the basic objective for the establishment of executive and legislative organs at all levels with a view to sharing power, mobilizing the material and the human resources and, for the purpose of meeting effectively the requirements and responsibilities of social development with the required efficiency, the consolidation and encouragement of the expression of diversity in the comprehensive national framework.

            f)The establishment of a national foundation to be in charge of the  reconstruction and the development of the southern willayas and the under-developed areas that have been affected by war.  It should start its work immediately in the areas that are under government control, giving a large mandate in the mobilisation and the organisation of official and popular support, and the support of the friendly states and peoples.  This foundation should work to continue the execution of the projects that have been stopped due to war, and to prepare studies for the creation of new projects.  It should supervise their execution in a way that realises a comprehensive development in the southern willayas.

THE VARIOUS PARTIES TO THE REALISATION OF PEACE

  1. The realisation of peace shall proceed through the following five paths:

            a)The first path:  To continue the consolidation of the revolution’s achievements in the way that rehabilitates confidence and efforts to continue dialogue at any given time and place with emphasis on the crucial issues.

            b)The second path:  To continue the rehabilitation of the Armed Forces and its reinforcement so that a basic foundation in the realisation of peace and security is made.  The enlargement of the popular defence activity,  obligatory service and support for the Armed Forces, and the organisation of the popular defense in the areas touching the war zone so that an effective force is formed to face the rebels.

            c)The third path:  Preparation of plans and projects for the resettlement, rehabilitation and absorption in the areas that are under government control, for those returning from the rebel movement and the others who voluntarily return from the north or from the neighbouring States, which should be done through the efforts of the national foundation for development.

            d)The fourth path:  The planning for comprehensive development in the southern willayas, for the reconstruction of the basic infrastructures and the projects that have been destroyed because of war paying special attention to the least developed areas that have suffered from war.

            e)The fifth path:  Pushing and accelerating the process of integration and unity in the Sudanese society through the programming and the projects in the various sectors.  The effort to unify the education curricula and utilise the information potential in a way to help create a united mature Sudanese national conscience.

REHABILITATION, ABSORBTION AND RECONSTRUCTION STRATEGY

  1. This strategy is based on three interrelated stages according to the following:

            a)The first stage:  resettlement and absorption.

            b)The second stage:  reconstruction.

            c)The third stage:  Balanced development and take-off.

  1. RESETTLEMENT: This will be carried out according to the following procedures:

            a)Encouraging the displaced, those who have moved to the northern willayas, the refugees who have moved to the neighbouring States and those in the military operation zone, to return voluntarily and freely.

            b)Absorbing them in the villages of peace (counting and classifying them), and settling them in their original home regions or in areas similar to their original home (through consulting them) or in the production sites provided that the site is secure.

            c)Making available humanitarian assistance and basic services.

            d)Participation of the returnees in the operations of the establishment and the construction of peace villages according to the classification of their skills and abilities and giving them a financial return in money or in kind which is suitable and reasonable.

            e)The quick transformation from the emergency humanitarian assistance stage to a stage of development based on self-reliance in the peace villages by transforming the returnees to productive villagers in the programmes and the projects in the initial or basic self-sufficiency, especially in food, and the mobilisation of the contribution of national funds in a way to consolidate the spirit of national unity and social solidarity.

2.THE HUMAN REHABILITATION OR TRAINING AND HUMAN SERVICE DEVELOPMENTAL REHABILITATION AND FORMATION

            a)Classification of returnees according to their skills and abilities and executing intensive and urgent programmes of short training periods in preparation for their absorption.

            b)Cultural, social and political preparation and formation with a view to bringing about national integration.

            c)The establishment of limited development projects, according to the abilities of the working returnees, quick return to absorb them in agriculture, pastures and fishing, providing them with the inputs and basic tools in the context of a comprehensive social development plan including the productive families programmes.

            d)Quick rehabilitation and formation for basic services with respect to life, health, education, etc.

  1. ABSORBTION: The returnees should be absorbed in the productive life after the classification of their qualifications and skills according to the following:

            a)The farmers, nomads and hunters in the initial self-reliance projects and in social development.

            b)The military in the Armed forces and the other regular forces, etc.

            c)Those who have skills in building, construction, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

            d)Civil service employees in the management of these projects or in the administrations of the provinces and the willayas, or in the private sector.

  1. RECONSTRUCTION

            a)Rehabilitation of the basic infrastructures, especially roads.

            b)Rehabilitation of development projects that have been destroyed or stopped by the war.

            c)The comprehensive rehabilitation of the health educational services.

  1. BALANCED DEVELOPMENT AND THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL TAKE-OFF

            In the framework of the comprehensive national strategy, aiming at a just distribution of national income, the balanced development endeavour to give priority to the least developed areas, especially the southern willayas, that have suffered in its development and progress from war.

                                     SECURITY AND DEFENCE STRATEGY:

THE GUIDELINES AND THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES

INTRODUCTION

            The desired stage by stage national objectives, in the framework of the national goals that have been determined by the comprehensive national strategy, aim in their comprehensiveity to achieve comprehensive national security that safeguards the security of the State, the freedom and security of international and external political work, and the liberty and security of social life with its traditions as well as the liberty and security of economic life together with the strength of the armed forces, their security and their ability to face internal as well as external dangers.

            The word “security” has become of general usage and of a very common expression in political, economic and social speeches, and the achievement of national security, in all its facets, became an existentialist pre-requisite that merits all the efforts and necessary sacrifices.  National security on the other hand does need a cultural and civilisational immunity, and a solid economic base that cannot be guaranteed but by a comprehensive civilisational development, within the framework of a civilisational and cultural liberation, and the realisation of sufficiency of basic needs in a way to liberate the political will and the national decision, the development of productive abilities in all the sectors, and the rationalisation of the investment of the human and natural resources.

            Within the framework of this wide understanding of comprehensive national security it is imperative that special attention be given to the agricultural production and rural development.  The establishment of agriculture-related industries, basic industries, the development of basic infrastructures, and the guaranteeing and  making available their vital elements, such as electrical networks, communications, telephone and radio networks, and transports networks, and activities of scientific formation and practical training, and data base networks.  It is also imperative to pay attention to the realisation of a popular consensus.  The formation of an enlightened public opinion aware of the importance of national security and the consolidation of individual and social security as a basic factor in the protection of the independent civilisational march, the protection of the homeland and the preservation of its civilisational identity.   Realising the liberation of the homeland from foreign intervention and safeguarding it from divisions and rebellion cannot be guaranteed, realised, and continued, without the mobilisation of all the forces of society, and the comprehensiveity of its resources, spiritual, moral and material, and its energies for the realisation of national security in all its forms.  The

commitment to this vital priority, for the preservation of the identity and the safeguarding of the comprehensive civilisational renaissance and development and continued independent development that inspired the comprehensive national strategy, forms a vital factor that determines the success or failure of the strategic orientation in all its dimensions.  It also forms a permanent duty for the protection of the civilisational take-off and the reconstruction of the homeland.  All this requires the continuity and the mobilisation of all the forces of the society in a way that suits the nature of the dangers and the difficulties surrounding us and their severity.  Above all, there should be the awareness and the endeavour to prepare and mobilize the human resources for the purposes of this strategy.

THE GUIDELINES

  1. Security of the homeland and its citizens cannot be guaranteed without the complete belief of the individual and the community so as to achieve harmony between society and the laws of the universe. At the same time, preparing the necessary power to bear any aggression, of the Umma, through liberty and shura (consultation).  Paying allegiance to the unity commitment to the group, solidarity and fraternity, and the protection of individual and collective rights through the fear of God.  Also the avoidance of that which creates division and conflict be it tribalism, self-indulgence and interest, disputes, injustice and partisan monopoly of power.
  1. The defence of the identity of the homeland and its unity, the safety of its land, air and sea is the responsibility of all the Sudanese, through the preparation of the armed forces’ ability to perform and carry out, at any given time, its fighting responsibilities and the preparation of the people through the military service and popular defence and the general mobilisation for the armed forces.
  1. Popular forces are responsible for the protection of the security of the citizens, their lives and their properties, the execution of justice, and the protection of the resources of the country. On the other hand the State must do its best to enable them to carry out this task.
  1. The awareness of the mutually supporting relationship between the desired civilisational renaissance and the safeguarding of the security of the nation. Since the national renaissance constitutes the elite society that supports the military defense that consolidates and provides it with human, material and technical resources, and the efficient defense and the appropriate security are the important shields that protect the civilisational renaissance and national construction.

OBJECTIVES

  1. Mobilisation of the national armed forces for the defence of the homeland and the realisation of its security, inspired by faith and heritage, by self-reliance, the liberation of the will of the citizen, the commitment to his identity, the protection of our country and the realisation of its progress. This shall be achieved through a citizen who enjoys self-confidence and faith in his Umma, and who is capable of fighting for it, preparing him, for productivity within the internal front and facing the enemies in the external front.
  1. Training of all those capable of carrying arms.
  1. The perpetual and continuous development of the military capability and resources and its liberation from the reliance on foreign know-how and equipment, in a way that renovates it through national effort, with the abilities of the Arab and African Islamic complementarity which is creative, in existing industries based on collective self-reliance of these forces that have a common destiny.
  1. The preparation and formation of the security forces raising its numerical efficiency, training, in-training, and equipment, in a way that defends the borders of the homeland guaranteeing its unity and its territorial integrity.
  1. The development of security organs through good preparation and their orientation in a way that enables them to protect the country and maintain its commitment towards the society, its values, and its positive principles.
  1. Allotting the various resources for meeting the needs of the national defense and security, including adequate preparation and talents needed for this task, the establishment of military industries that realise self-sufficiency in military equipment, and the improvement of military technology to the best standards possible.
  1. The development of the armed forces role in the promotion of the developmental aspects during the periods of peace in a way that does not conflict with the tasks of its preparation and effective training for its basic mission. At the same time the development and the enlargement of social services that the regular forces can provide to the civilian citizens through its units and specialised branches in this area.
  1. The development of security, military studies, related researches, and the consultation of the research organisms that support decision-making in matters pertaining to national security.

            Since some aspects of security and defense due to their nature and special conditions necessitate a kind of restraint and confidentiality, they will be dealt with in detail in another place, and for this purpose we limit ourselves here to giving the general military and security guidelines and objectives, and shall mention in the Police Strategy more details that will be completed by the technical document that is mentioned in the second part of the comprehensive national strategy document.

THE POLICE STRATEGY

            Security remains the corner stone of the realisation of the comprehensive national strategy.  Because of the importance of this responsibility it has been decided that the security strategy must be based on the following basic principles:

THE BASIC PRINCIPLES

  1. The security of the homeland and its protection from crime and cultural perversion depends on our attachment to Islamic sharia and the spiritual and moral values, the preservation of the family and its protection from dispersal and dislocation, and the keenness on Sudanese heritage and civilisation, fighting the alien and foreign influences that aim at spoiling the authenticity of the homeland and that try to tamper with its essence and its unity.
  1. The security of the homeland and its protection from crime is based on a comprehensive understanding of security.
  1. Security is influenced by the contemporary internal and external changes that face the whole world, foremost of which is the appearance of new forms of crime, that cannot be handled by the police organisms alone, but extends to all the institutions and organs of the State and becomes a national responsibility that requires the coordination of efforts at a national level.
  1. The comprehensive security strategy necessitates the coordination of planning among all the State institutions with an emphasis on the link and the coordination between the security plan and the comprehensive national development plans in all their dimensions.
  1. The necessity of realising a link between the police organs and the popular role in the area of achieving security, fighting crime, facing cultural perversion and working to develop a popular cooperative spirit with the police organs on the basis of an understanding that fighting crime is a comprehensive social responsibility of every citizen and every responsible person in the State.
  1. Adoption of the technological evaluation and the scientific methodology and style in facing security problems and fighting crime through the encouragement of studies, scientific research and the continuous attachment to the realities of technological progress throughout the world.
  1. Consolidation of expenditure in the areas of scientific research related to security and crime, and working to construct police organs on a modern basis, giving the human element within the context of this construction the predominant attention, through careful selection, cultivation of his abilities, the improvement of his conditions and the guaranteeing of his future.
  2. Importance should be given to the role of information in the area of guaranteeing security, order and the fighting of crime, with an emphasis on laying down police information plans that aim at guiding the behaviour of the citizens, encouraging them to face their responsibilities in protecting the peace, security, combatting crime and fighting the outlaws.
  1. Considering the judiciary as an indivisible part of the basic efforts deployed to achieve security and to fight crime with an understanding that the efficiency and the adequacy of the performance of the judicial authority and the rapidity in handling law suits, especially criminal ones, are the real criteria for justice and dissuasion.
  1. The policy of reform and rehabilitation must take into consideration the human realistic view together with its emphasis on punishment and dissuasion.
  1. Consolidation and support for the cooperation at the regional and international levels with the United Nations and the international organisations and associations in the areas of security consolidation, fighting crime with a keenness to support Sudanese participation in these organisations.
  1. Paying attention to the intimate link between economic growth and crime, and that security and fighting crime constitute an economic investment and service and not just a service.
  1. Since man is the centre of every development, the effort of his education, training, guidance, evaluation, reform and cultivation when he commits a crime and enters jail, remains a national objective that the State takes seriously, so that the prisoner returns to the society that has contributed to his development, a better person, and does not go back to crime.
  1. A state of law cannot be established without a modern, capable and efficient police force.
  1. The Police play a vital role in the civil defense activities, the protection of animal wealth, and in consolidation of economic, social and cultural development inside the country and the realisation of political stability.
  1. Narcotics, that is drugs and so on, which destroys the Sudanese society and has a bad impact on national economy and its citizens must be fought not only by the Poice but also by the people.
  1. Human rights have to be conceived according to what is contained in the Islamic sharia and in line with the international and regional criteria. Those waiting trial, and also current prisoners, have a right to be treated in a way that respects the dignity of the human person whom God has bestowed superior qualities.

THE MAIN PROGRAMMES

            For the Police to fulfil its obligations towards society in the protection of its security and stability, and the preservation of its good principles, the following projects are important:

FIRSTLY – THE AREA OF CRIME PREVENTION AND DISCOVERY:

  1. Seeing to it that the Police exist over all of Sudan, generalising the divisions of its services and posts and making units available for the protection and guarding services of the important buildings and resources through various police patrols.
  1. Increasing the Police force at the rate of 3% annually until the end of the strategy period.
  1. Safeguarding the specialized Police services for development sites and projects that need specialized police protection.
  1. Establishment of criminal laboratories in the capitals of the willayas and cities.
  1. Establishment of Police Dog Units at city level.
  1. Decreasing the rate of crime, theft, burglary, smuggling and narcotics, and increasing the percentage of the return of stolen property.
  1. Promoting the police investigation organism, utilizing modern technology in its methods putting an end to public inconvenience when undergoing investigation and inquiries.
  1. Multiplying Police patrol contingency ten-fold.
  1. Development and preparation of Railway Police, river Police, air and sea ports Police, customs officers, and court Police, and raising their efficiency.
  1. Developing the civil order police force, giving it the necessary qualifications to undertake its duty by preserving civil conduct that reflects divine teachings and positive principles.
  1. The development of the central and local police force reserve, enlarging the training of the special forces and raising its efficiency to face emergencies and situations of disorder.
  1. Combatting narcotics at all levels, cultivation, industrialisation, marketing and consumption, treating and rehabilitating addicts and generalising narcotic clinics in the cities.
  1. Achieving international and regional cooperation in the areas of Police work, respecting already existing agreements, and joining and developing these agreements in the police sector.
  1. Generating popular effort for fighting crime and organising popular police force under supervision of the police administration and training and forming voluntary elements which can be used to limit and curb crime.
  1. Encouragement and support of the special effort in the area of protection of properties, the rationalisation of the private security companies, and supervision of its performance, and the development of the rules organising this activity in a way to fend against its utilisation for activities that have nothing to do with its duties.

SECONDLY – THE AREA OF IDENTITY, DOCUMENTATION AND IMMIGRATION:

            By the end of the strategy period it is expected that the population will reach between 33-35 million, and accordingly the number of those registered at the passports department might reach 5 million people.  Hence the number of those unregistered will be around 27 million.  Regarding foreigners, it is estimated that there will be 1 million people, 800 000 of whom without documents.  The strategy aims in this area are as follows:

1.Providing 27 million Sudanese with nationality certificates and personal identity cards.

  1. Providing a passports to all who are qualified for it.

3.Providing 200 000 foreigners with a residence permit according to the type of permit required.

4.Regularisation of the residents or the deportation of 800 000 foreigners who entered the Sudan illegally.

5.Development of issuing identity papers and their availability, alleviating unnecessary inconveniences and delays to the public.

THIRDLY – IN THE AREA OF TRAFFIC AND EMERGENCY

  1. Establishment of a traffic administration in cities and willayas.
  1. Making available driving licences for those who meet the requirements and conditions.
  1. Enlarging the licensing of motor vehicles and providing the services in smaller towns.
  1. Generalising the emergency police services in all the willayas.

FOURTHLY – IN THE AREA OF PUNISHMENT AND REFORM ESTABLISHMENTS

  1. Rehabilitation of general prisons, willayas prisons and the provinces and centres prisons including the camps attached to them so as to enable them to absorb the increasing number of convicts, facilitating their reformation and rehabilitation.
  1. The establishment of the huda city in the west of Omdurman as a highly developed and advanced punishment and reformation foundation, and also as an alternative to existing prisons within the Khartoum willaya, and generalising this system to the rest of the cities of the Sudan in the future.
  1. Changing the sites of prisons that are found now in the centre of the cities and in the population areas to more reasonable sites outside the cities.
  1. The establishment of separate prisons for women in the capitals of the willayas.
  1. The establishment of psychological and neurological disease health centres in the capitals of the willayas to treat those suffering from neurological diseases and mental illnesses, and availing them with suitable conditions in the framework of the health strategy.
  1. Establishment of waiting homes in the capitals of the willayas for the juveniles who are waiting outside the prisons and providing them with a treatment that corresponds to their psychological and social conditions.
  1. Establishment of juvenile educational homes to keep the youth, or juvenile, who are convicted away from prisons to facilitate their reform and their rehabilitation.
  1. The establishment of squares to execute the judgements of Huddud (Islamic sharia judgements like cutting the hand of the thief for example) to the prisons of the willayas and the general prisons.
  1. The establishment of centres for artisanal, general education and for preachers and religious guidance in the reform institutions.
  1. The increase of the productive institutions of the prisons through vertical and horizontal expansion.

FIFTHLY: IN THE AREA OF CIVIL DEFENSE AND FIRE FIGHTING:

  1. Safeguarding all buildings, production sites, industrial sites, and housings from the danger of fire, providing them with suitable fire extinguishing equipment and fire detection systems.
  1. The training of voluntary elements and citizens in civil defense and fire fighting.
  1. The establishment of underground hiding places, warehouses and storage rooms.
  1. Formation of protection teams for the sea, air and rivers and the creation of immediate first aid centres in certain parts of the Sudan.
  1. The execution of international and regional agreements in the area of fire fighting and civil defense.

SIXTHLY: IN THE AREA OF THE PROTECTION OF ANIMAL LIFE

  1. The eradication of illegal hunting and exportation of animals and the promulgation of the legislations that limit unauthorized hunting and the industrialisation of animal organs.
  1. The establishment of new zoos in Khartoum and in the capitals of the southern willayas and cities.
  1. The utilisation of advanced methods to guide and protect tourists.
  1. Giving licences for the establishment of special farms and their supervision.
  1. Increasing the utilisation of scientific research methods in the multiplication of animals. The respect of the international and regional commitments and agreements, and the realisation of cooperation with neighbouring States and international and regional organisations, that have an interest in animal life.

SEVENTHLY: IN THE AREA OF RESEARCH AND FORMATION

  1. The collection of researches that have been carried out in the Police area and their classification.
  1. The collection of Police reference and science books and the enlargement in its appropriation.
  1. The establishment of a complete national criminal museum.
  1. The preservation of the statistics concerning the criminal situation, its study, analysis and updating.
  1. The establishment of a specialised unit for monitoring and interrogation.
  1. The issuance of brochures and booklets in the areas of Police researches.
  1. The coverage of all Police activities by researches that lead to its evaluation and development.
  1. The preparation of researches on social and economic circumstances that affect crime.
  1. The monitoring of the information in the area of Police work via scientific and computer means.
  1. The development of relations with criminal research centres in various countries and in the regional and international centres.

EIGHTHLY: IN THE AREA OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF RELATIONS WITH THE PUBLIC

  1. Provision of health treatment services via the Police treatment institutions for the citizens of the regions and cities in which these establishments or institutions are found.
  1. The development of Police musical troops with respect to its instruments, equipment and enlarging its services for the public.
  1. The promotion of the productive institutions, soap industries, furniture workshops, salt production and bakeries and enlarging their services to the public.
  1. Providing services in the area of beautifying the cities through planting of trees and cleaning of the streets and avenues, and the contribution in harvest activities and other agricultural efforts via the institutions of training and punishment.

NINTHLY: IN THE AREA OF HUMAN RESOURCES

  1. The Police Service is an important humanitarian and national service that must be undertaken by strong and trustworthy people only.
  1. The choice of the individual to join the Police should respond to the criteria that takes into consideration his moral beliefs, attitudes and educational qualifications in a way that guarantees society the preservation of religion, mind and body as well as protecting the honour, wealth, customs and traditions.
  1. The human resources personnel of the Police should have suitable training that enables them to have a clear view of their duties vis à vis the society and the law, and that enables them to undertake that duty with total understanding vis a vis God and the law, and training, cultivating and maintaining their quality throughout their period of service.
  1. The duties undertaken by the Police are vital and diverse, and the existing number does not satisfy the desired need. It is, therefore, imperative to prepare the human resources, in suitable numbers, that take into consideration the population growth rate, investment and human activities.  As a first step the gap should be bridged in the existing need in the Police force especially at the officer and officer soldier level.
  1. In order to be able to attract new numbers with the criteria that meets the duties of the Police, it is important to improve the conditions of service and service benefits, i.e. pensions, etc.
  1. The general appearance of the Police symbolizes the image of the State and the authority of the law therefore it is important to pay attention to this aspect which makes the Police respectable which in turn means paying particular attention to the presentation of the Police, i.e. uniform, etc. with respect to the regulations and the directives of the Police force.
  1. With the increase in crime, armed robbery, problems of security at the frontiers and the rebellion in the south, the armament of the Police, with suitable effective and developed arms is a vital necessity in order to meet the consequent dangers and challenges.
  1. The lack of transportsation represents an impediment to the performance of the Police, and contributes to decreasing respect of the Police by the public. This necessitates the establishment of an administration for central transportsation, which should have the resources enabling it to transports police at any given time to any given situation.

THE PRIORITIES

1.Bridging the existing gap in the ranks of police officers and the policemen in the approved force.

  1. Making available all requirements of the Police.
  1. Making available and modernising the Police arms.
  1. Rehabilitating and improving of the work environment.
  1. Consolidating central collective transportsation.
  1. Reviewing the terms of service and the retirement benefits.
  1. Rehabilitating the police living quarters and the halls in the sections.

8.Consolidating the central cooperative establishment in the Ministry of Interior.

  1. The completion of the Police Central Hospital.

IN THE AREA OF TRAINING

            To make available a modern advanced Police service where training is one of the most important elements in establishing plans and police programmes, aiming at preparing and forming the required elements to execute the operational improvement of the Police service.

            Since the objectives and the goals of the comprehensive national strategy congress are limited in the planning operation and the estimation of the programmes of action through the coming ten years, the Police strategy in the area of training has been conceived as follows:

  1. THE OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING IN THE POLICE
  1. The confirmation of the Police identity in the framework of the identity of the Umma through the application of Islamic methodology.
  1. The preparation and the formation of the force members, be they officers or soldiers, in their behaviour, performance and their knowledge to give a positive swing upwards for the Police service in its different areas and the improvement of the services of the specialized technical police cadres.
  1. Offering the opportunity of higher studies, and inculcating the spirit of competition and scientific research through the Police and educational establishments inside and outside the country.
  1. Consolidating the links of scientific and cultural relations with similar police establishments or institutions at regional and international levels and availing opportunities for visitors from friendly or brotherly countries for training in the area of police work.
  1. The offering of services and consultancies in the areas of police training to the various State organs through the Police and the specialized research Institutes.

            In the light of Police programmes and training, and in the comprehensive strategy plans and programmes, it is possible to realise these objectives through the following means:

FIRSTLY: OFFICER LEVEL

  1. The establishment of the Police Academy, which includes:

A:        BASIC TRAINING

  1. Police College for officer training.
  1. Technical Officer College: for the preparation of specialized technical cadres.

B:        TRAINING DURING SERVICE

  1. Leaders College: To prepare leading cadres (Brigadier and above).
  1. Institute for the Training of Officers of the Basic Cycles (….).

3.College of Higher Studies to prepare for awarding scientific degrees (diploma, masters, doctorate).

  1. Training outside the Police Academy, which includes:

            i).         Training inside in the Universities and Institutes.

            ii).Training outside in Police Universities and Institutes in the friendly and brotherly States.

SECONDLY: RANK OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS LEVEL

  1. Basic Training:

            This is limited to the Police Schools in the Provinces.

  1. Training during service:

            1.At the centre level, through the establishment of the central institute for the rank and the soldiers.

            2.At the level of the headquarters of the willayas through the establishment of training institutes of the willayas.

            3.Training in the Institutes of the State for the preparation of the cadres and the development of their capabilities.

            4.Training outside the Sudan in the Police Institutes in the friendly and brotherly States.

THIRDLY: ADMINISTRATION LEVEL

  1. The training plan gets inspiration from what is mentioned in the guidelines on the completion or bridging of the shortage in the human resources, to the maximum, that the Police training establishments absorbtion capacities can permit.
  1. The plan takes into consideration the raising of the academic level for the soldier so that he reaches a level of those graduating from higher secondary education at the date of his recruitment and the preparation of curricula that are in accordance with the objectives and policies of the State for the creation of a strong and trustworthy person.
  1. Emphasis on internal training, being the most suitable with respect to financial cost and, due to its availability in better conditions.
  1. Training outside either in the brotherly or friendly states or training that is organized by the international or regional organisations, which can provide the exposure to the experiences and agreements of advanced States regionally and internationally.
  1. Training is an investment, its return is an effective security service in all development projects and civilisational progress in the country. The real meaning of security can only be achieved by elements with good qualifications and training.

IN THE AREA OF TECHNICAL INPUT

            The technical input represents for the various Police organs a vital aspect for the improvement of its services which realizes the desired objectives from those services. This paper presents a summary of the present situation and needs of the Police administrations and its priorities.

FIRST: INPUT NEEDS IN TRANSPORTATION

  1. Rehabilitation of the means of existing transportsation and making available the necessary spare parts.
  1. Unifying the sources of importation of the means of transportsation.
  1. Establishment of a modern central workshop for the Police and maintenance workshops in the various willayas.
  1. Determining specifications for the means of transportsation that take into consideration the characteristics of the work of the Police Units and the nature of the country.
  1. Disposing of vehicles that are beyond the age of service reducing the responsibility of maintenance and making use of their return in consolidating the Police car pool.
  1. The rehabilitation of the existing gas stations and establishment of new ones providing them with other services (washing, maintenance, etc.).
  1. Making available the various means of transportsation. In view of the growing need in observation, search, air traffic, and emergency help, two helicopters, three Illushin planes and one rally plane, or suitable alternatives, will be made available every year.

SECOND: INPUT NEEDS IN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION

  1. The rehabilitation of all existing communication equipment by the end of the second stage.
  1. Making available spare parts and organs that provide it with energy.
  1. Making available modern spare parts, taking into consideration the availability of information on their technical specifications which includes the mobile and immobile stations.
  1. The establishment of a central workshop and mobile workshops for maintenance.
  1. Introduction of the telephone in all Police offices.
  1. Introduction of modern data banks, computer equipment, observation equipment, television, listening equipment and television circuits in all areas of the Police.
  1. Making available electronic equipment for observation and photography.
  1. Introducing a network of wireless telephones.

THIRDLY: INPUT NEEDS IN HEALTH CENTRES

  1. The establishment and the development of health centres, (pharmacy, laboratory, and treatment units).
  1. Paying attention to the general services (beds, midwives, and instruments).
  1. Making available inputs for education and formation (photography, enlarging instruments, training).
  1. Making available instruments of psychological treatment.
  1. Providing healthy and proper food for patients (creation of kitchens).
  1. Making available the medicines and appropriate medical materials for curing and preventing illnesses.

FOURTHLY: INPUT NEEDS IN CRIMINAL PROOFS

  1. Photography inputs for the theatre of the crime.
  1. Instruments and equipment of mechanical traces.
  1. Instruments and equipment of biological tests.

4.Instruments and equipment of natural examinations, of forgery fabrication and forgery.

  1. Instruments and equipment of chemical examinations and laboratory tests.
  1. Instruments and equipment of fires and explosives.
  1. Police dogs.
  1. Instruments and equipment of personal identity.

FIFTH: INPUT NEEDS IN PROFESSIONAL REHABILITATION, PRODUCTION AND SOCIAL SERVICES IN PRISONS.

  1. Making available workshop equipment (carpentry ….)
  1. Making available inputs in manual industries.

3.Making available animal and agricultural production inputs (rain agriculture, irrigated agriculture, gardens, fisheries).

  1. Developing the brick industry (introducing industrial bricks).
  1. Developing and introducing some of the light industries (soap, oils, etc).
  1. Developing salt industry.
  1. Making available sports equipment.
  1. Making available pastime and entertainment equipment.
  1. Enlarging the industry of masonry and stone cutting.

10.Making available equipment for religious guidance, moral orientation and construction of mosques.

SIXTH: INPUT NEEDS IN TRAFFIC

  1. Making available equipment, instruments and traffic signs that are clearly visible.
  1. Making available motor cycles for Police patrols that are equipped with help inputs.
  1. Making available equipment for electronic observation.
  1. Introduction of the night search systems for motor vehicles.
  1. Making available warning equipment and loudspeakers.
  1. Introduction of driving licence machines in all willayas and provinces.

SEVENTH: INPUT NEEDS IN INFORMATION PRESERVATION AND REGISTRATION

  1. The establishment of a central computer unit at the Police headquarters.
  1. The establishment of computer stations in the capital and in the willayas.
  1. Making available all technical inputs, workshops and maintenance equipment pertaining to the computer network.
  1. The introduction and the designing of telex and fax equipment.
  1. The establishment of a central division for documentation of micro films and its preparation with the help of helping aids.
  1. The establishment of an offset printing press of all colours for all identification documents and forms.

EIGHTH: AIDS NEEDED IN HUNTING

  1. Aids for the protection of the animals and their domestication (equipment for catching animals etc).
  1. Health aids (helping instruments or inputs) (veterinary and health hospitals, etc.)
  1. Electrical generators, water and petrol pumps.
  1. Complete camping equipment.
  1. Making available various helping inputs for zoos and the modernisation of the zoos.

NINTH: INPUT NEEDS IN CIVIL DEFENSE

  1. Fire fighting units (fire vehicles and rapid intervention vehicles for extinguishing fire and mobile workshops equipped with staircases).
  1. Rescue units (vehicles, cranes, water pumps, rescue boats, rescue equipment, earthquake monitoring and warning signals concerning raids).
  1. Ambulance units composed of ambulance vehicles, artificial-equipment, gas and radiation equipment, bomb detectors and radio-active proof clothing.

TENTH: INPUT NEEDS IN HEALTH SERVICES

  1. The establishment of the central hospital.
  1. Making available the equipments and instruments for analysis laboratories.
  1. Making available anaesthesia equipment and operational equipment.
  1. Establishment of Xray and heart units.
  1. The establishment of psychological and mental diseases clinics in all willayas.
  1. The establishment of hospitals in the willayas.
  1. Making available the treatment equipment.

ELEVENTH: INPUT NEEDS IN BUILDINGS

  1. Preparation of model plans or maps for the various Police divisions that take into consideration the necessary specifications of Police work and the environmental and geographical conditions.
  1. Taking into account Police locations and sites in the prospective housing plan.
  1. The establishment of new buildings to meet the enlargement in the Police force and its activities.
  1. The establishment of national reserves for games and zoos.
  1. The establishment of buildings for the lodging of officers and soldiers and studying the possibility of the use of existing investment locations.

TWELVETH: INPUT NEEDS IN CENTRAL RESERVES

  1. Inputs for the transportsation of soldiers and communication equipment.
  1. Inputs for specialized training.
  1. Inputs for fighting disorder and terrorism.
  1. Inputs for special operations.

THIRTEENTH: INPUT NEEDS IN CRIMES

  1. Questioning and clerical registration.
  1. Photography and recording equipment.
  1. Equipment for the preservation of tools and proofs. (A schedule indicating the various execution stages and financial costs is attached with the Appendices).

PRIORITIES

TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION

  1. Increasing the efficiency of the Police workshops, making available spare parts, rehabilitating broken vehicles and increasing the efficiency of the running vehicles.
  1. Rehabilitating the communication equipment that is available, and making available the spare parts and a central maintenance workshop. Also mobile maintenance workshops that can be in patrol with its redistribution according to the importance of the work.

HEALTH CENTRES AND CLINICS

            Developing the health environment of the sick person and improving social services.

CRIMINAL PROOFS

            The development of the crime theatre units to cover the important events with respect to all proofs and identification of personalities.

PROFESSIONAL REHABILITATION, PRODUCTION AND PRISON SOCIAL SERVICES

            Making available the equipment for the workshops and the industrial inputs for the agricultural and animal production and the equipment for manual industries in the development of soap, brick and food oils production industry.

IN THE ORGANISATION OF TRAFFIC

            Making available motorcycles for patrols and equipment, instruments and traffic signs, especially those which can be reflected in the light to minimize traffic accidents.

IN FORMATION, PRESERVATION AND REGISTRATION

            The introduction of computer and micro film systems in Police work to make use of the computer which is available in the Department of Statistics in the area of hunting guards.  The making available of inputs to protect the reserves and game.

IN CIVIL DEFENSE

            Making available the equipment, instruments and inputs for rescue and first-aid.

IN BUILDINGS

            The maintenance and the rehabilitation of the existing buildings to improve the work environment, providing lodging therein for the Police.

IN HEALTH SERVICES

            The completion of the existing hospital buildings and health centres in the willaya of Khartoum bridging the shortage in equipment and instruments.

IN CENTRAL RESERVES

            Inputs for special operations and fighting disorder.

DETERMINING THE NEEDS OF EXECUTION

            The execution of the programmes and the plans depends on planning administration at Police Headquarters, and its supply with all the means and  equipment including cadres, database and research instruments.  This entails the planning and administering  the work plans and programmes for the specialised administration to carry them out in each special sector.  Also the planning administration shall, through the examination and follow-up organisms, undertake the monitoring of the programmes’ evolution and development and its presentation in time to ascertain the realisation of the plans and programmes and their desired objectives.

COORDINATION

            Coordination within the Police sector is completed and has attained its objective when the Police, with its various security specializations namely: security, judicial, civil defense, the protection of animal life, has become one body. When all its organisms work in concert and in perfect harmony and its coordination has a positive impact at the level of the Police Committee unifying the main basis for work in the area of human resources, training, technical input then it shall succeed in achieving efficiency and low cost performance.

            As regards coordination with other sectors, especially in the production sector and the economic sector generally, it is imperative to take into consideration the security aspect in the establishment of any investment institution, and due to the importance of the security service in the situation which is reflected in what God has taught us in the Coran when he said in the Surat of Quraysh:

            (In the name of God the merciful and the compassionate).

            And then the Surat because of the treaty with Quraysh:  (With respect to the caravan of winter and that of summer, let them worship the Lord of this home: He has nourished them; He has protected them from hunger and famine; and He has saved them from fear) Amen!

                                                 THE ECONOMIC STRATEGY

  1. INTRODUCTION
  1. THE PROGRAMME OF PRIORITIES AND MAIN POLICIES
  1. FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC POLICIES
  1. INVESTMENT
  1. FINANCE
  1. COMMERCE
  1. INSURANCE

                                                    ECONOMIC STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            The overall framework of the economic strategy is based on a number of mutually connected basic guidelines:

FIRST

            Attachment to the methodology of the Supreme Eternal message, and the essence of pure national spirit.  This means upholding meaning of qualitative development, human elevation and the enrichment of the soul by faith.  Before  statistical and arithmetical considerations and meanings, it also means the struggle against authoritarianism and the hegemony of exclusive ownership and accumulation, encouraging the natural and humanist inclination of sympathy, compassion and justice, charity, the spirit of human superiority vis à vis matter and pleasure, and the fear of the day of judgement.

SECOND

            The search of justice and equality, neither in a juridical abstract sense nor a formal equality of opportunity, but by taking the necessary effective arrangements for the redistribution of material and non material wealth which, for the benefit of the Mustadaafines (the excluded, the impoverished and the deprived), avoids having a state only for the rich.  The adoption of effective policies to eradicate injustice and all forms of deprivation and needs so that progress and development does not turn into dispersed islands of wealth encircled by seas of want and misery.  This means carrying out practical procedures to enable those working with their minds and with their hands, to reap the just fruits of their labour and their toil.  In addition, it means the deployment of enormous efforts in the application of long-term economic, social and cultural programmes that will irradicate famine and drought in the Sudan.

THIRD

            Relying on natural resources, spiritual and behavioral capabilities, knowledge and skill, potentials that God has given us without being introvert or isolated, nor giving in to pressures and temptations.

FOURTH

            The adoption of a strategy for economic reform, based on the liberation of the national economy and consolidating  the economic market characterised by equilibrium, liberating expressed potential energies in the national market, reforming all policies, legislations and procedures that destroy market mechanisms, and stifling initiatives which lead to economic distortions, regression and the impoverishment of the homeland.

  1. FIRST PROCEDURES IN LIBERATING THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

a).        The cancelling of the limitations on the external currency operations and  liberating price systems from administrative control enabling them to reflect the economic and social costs.  The balance of supply and demand, on the top of which is expenditure, and the system of pricing agricultural products and the government economic services.  This is followed by the cancellation of the  control systems, privilege support and case by case handling according to the situation, (for example importation without currency, barter, etc.) and the means which include support for the commodities or cash price, or which include a disguised decrease of the currency.  It is important to abandon policies that lead to haphazard consumption, under the guise of protecting those of limited income, because they are more detrimental to them.  In addition, deficit financing of direct and indirect support of commodities leads to pouring of oil in the fire of inflation, deepening the distortion of economic transactions, and it is the poor and the deprived that pay the price.  It is important to adopt policies that lead to liberating the forces of investment, productivity and labour and consolidate the policies of liberating the national currency closing the door in the face of control and limitation systems, and of dubious transactions.

            The strategy calls for the … of the national currency so that its real value is determined by market mechanisms, in the context of a free organized and regulated market governed by production rather than consumption motivation, and free transactions.  A market where the Central Bank plays the role of the regulator of market distortions, the controler of the anarchy of commecial competition, and the consolidator via instantaneous automatic adjustment capabilities to price structures including expenditure prices, and that guarantees relative stability to the elements of economic life.

  1. b) The adoption of policies that allow for the establishment of broad forms of private ownership, which includes the widest of social groups in the economic sectors that are connected with the group, or enjoy special status or strength. It should endeavour to encourage investments in the small size productive projects as well as cooperative ownerships, family ownership and public share establishments, considering them as institutional arrangements for the promotion and the enlargement of ownership among all social categories, bridging the gap between labour and capital, and building a solid civil society.  This vision necessitates the replacement of the State capitalism sector by popular private and individual ownership, in all non-strategic economic sectors, in a socio-economic pattern that is more responsive to the ideals and the needs of liberty and justice.
  1. c) Paying a special attention to the development and enlargement of cooperative ownership, since it is one of the oldest formulae of popular collective ownership in our country, that enables a large number of citizens to participate in the existing economic activity based on participatory democracy, mobilization of small and modest savings, and the elevation of the level of efficiency of this sector in the areas of production, especially agricultural production, and small industries, to liberate it from the consumer partisanship that has characterized its activity, despite ingenious initiatives in the areas of production and services. The encouragement of complementing the areas of contribution of linking production services and consumption,  which helps the efficiency of distribution because of the closeness of the centres and the consumers in their homes and their offices, and thus helping in price stability.
  1. d) A government which has a limited number of personnel more efficient and less extravagant, necessitates a better distribution of responsibilities between the government and the private sector, popular and individual, in the area of commodity production and services. This also necessitates the institutional changes by creating new models of private ownership (restructuring systems) which have responsibility for the production of commodities and services through the efforts of the private sector alone, within different sectors or through common projects  in which the government has shares.  In all circumstances the responsibility of the organisation of production other than the responsibility of production of commodities and services in the hands of society and the government, is not limited or specifically given to one body.  The systems of restructuring include many forms:
  1. (Restructuring of operations)  which entails the transfer of responsibilities of some of the operations such as the general cleaning and waste disposal services, insecticides in banks, the building of the roads, maintenance of buildings and equipment, etc. to the private sector.   It also includes, restructuring operations on the productive side for example, the transfer of some of the production operations to the private sector such as ploughing, airplane insecticides for certain farms by airplane and separating cotton from cotton seeds.
  1. (Restructuring privileges) through the creation of a system that allows the participation of private initiatives in the establishment of public entities and the creation of the basic infrastructure projects be they material or social, which could be handled as private commodities by creating service charges to be collected from specific consumers in a specific way, for example, toll fees on roads and bridges.
  1. (Restructuring includes) finally, the transfer of the ownership of some of the public sector productive establishments, commodities and services to the private sector alone, or jointly with the public sector, calling for the transformation of the public sector establishments such as hotels and other commercial and industrial establishments and the internal transports establishments to the private sector with the exception of strategic industries and establishments.  This calls for the open participation of all the sectors of society in sharing the burden of commodity and service production, in an atmosphere of competition and free choice.

            The government can make available services, without producing them, and economic and social imperatives to necessitate the existence of a public sector in the strategic economic areas while, the private sector, for strictly practical reasons, cannot enter and because of this it is important to apply intensive reform programmes for the public sector facing, with precision, all the forms of loss and waste.  It is also important to better the administration of the public sector, through means of the commercial economic administration, and encouraging potential competitiveness according to the market economies without financial support, be it open or disguised or allowing it benefit from any authority, be it sovereignty or protection through privileged or monopoly rights.  Also it is  important to achieve a mix between the freedom of performance and the respect of public responsibility emanating from public property.  In this way the public  sector institutions and establishments become the example in strictly respecting public interests and enjoying integrity, honesty, and honour in dealings.

            Economic reform necessitates the acceptance and bearing austerity measures and the limitation of consumption.  It is important to undertake strict and clear measures to ensure that the strong assume their fair share, before the weak, of these deprivations and that adequate arrangements are made to alleviate the suffering of those who are deprived and impoverished, helping them to adapt to the difficult circumstances.

            The government should give the example by the strict adoption of all the austerity measures and the limitation of consumption, by a complete control of the administrative expenditure and all types of extravagance and waste.  This necessitates the creation of effective systems to handle the excess in labour and its reorientation to productivity areas, as well as the strict control and the decrease of the expenditures of the use of government vehicles, and increase of real government property and the rent of houses that belong to it.

SECOND PROCEDURES IN LIBERATING THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

            The adoption of clear-cut and frank policies with regard to the role of the various economic sectors in the economic life, that can be summarized as follows:

            Opening the door wide open for private initiative and private ownership in all areas of the national economic life with the exception of those areas that have been excluded, restrained or limited.  Private ownership should, however, be subjected to the imperatives of its social function and the conditions of the devine oath authorizing man that ownership.  Private ownership and private finance is conditional by devine right according to sharia, and cannot transgress sharia interests, or limit the divine oath of delegating ownership, and reception of property and inheritance rights, protection of sharia and society, and they cannot be tampered with (confiscation, decrease, or violation) outside sharia mandate.

  1. A PROGRAMME OF PRIORITIES AND MAIN POLICIES
  1. Drawing up a national programme for investment priorities, which coordinates with the programme and measures of economic reform, and the needs of realizing the performance of the economic objectives and the leading sector strategy in the following way:

            a)Raising the capacity of investment in the agriculture sector, that is in the sector of agricultural industrialisation, to the highest possible level, orienting the greater portion of investment to the production of export products.

            b)Giving absolute priority, in the framework of the leading sector strategy, to the projects of vertical development and rehabilitation, wiping structural distortions, and putting unutilized energies to work.  Also giving priority to basic infrastructure projects.

            c)Giving absolute priority to projects of major establishments and the necessary economic services, power, railways, and ports.

            d)Utilizing credit and loan facilities to allow the free flow of the balance of payment obligations, the investment in rehabilitation projects, solving the structural bottlenecks, and making available production inputs, alleviating the delicate problem of indebtedness.

  1. The increase of the national income twenty fold, requires the investment of enormous resources with their foreign component; and a high level of technological economic standards, and the eradication of structural distortions. It is impossible to obtain these resources in a continuous manner without the multiplication of export returns from the commodities in a dramatic and ascending way which is not possible in a short period without the commercial exploitation of our petroleum resources and wealth.

            This requires enormous efforts, political and diplomatic, to mobilize suitable partners, attracting necessary investments from the international market, sister-states, and development partners across the various continents.

  1. The economic strategy requires the necessity of combatting inflation seriously, limitting its ill effects, not only by controlling monetary offer and curbing public expenditure, but rather by generalizing and applying a number of supportive policies. These are:

FIRST:

            The orientation of credit and bank facilities to successful productive sectors and establishments that are capable of repayment and abstaing from financing wasteful transactions characterized by loss and lack of capacity to deliver.

SECOND:

            Abstaining from  financing non-productive transactions such as land buying and real estate and making profit over buying and selling of foreign currency and all transactions that encourage the storage and accumulation of commodities and the emptying of the market.

THIRD:

            Abstaining from financing the deficit of non-strategic public sector units, and working to get rid of them immediately through selling or liquidation, taking the necessary steps to reform the major strategic establishments radically and profoundly.

FOURTH:

            Inventing major solutions and systems to encourage savings, arriving at ten-fold of the existing levels of investment and saving deposits, orienting it to productive sectors and successful establishments, and taking the necessary steps to establish a savings market and making available capital.

FIFTH:

            a)Strict control of government expenditure and waste of public finance.  And the application of the zero budget system on a gradual basis in the public balance to achieve methodical control on the cost of public expenditure through the budget balance tools, and the optimal utilization of the systems of analysis of the cost return in all public institutions.

            b)Working to regain the internal and external balance and the rectification of economic balances generally preparing the ground for proper investment in accordance with successive stage by stage programmes.

            c)Creation of a national project to combat unemployment and especially unemployment of graduates for whom it is difficult to find automatic jobs in the unorganised labour market and whose unemployment lead to social gruntling.  The project aims especially at absorbing graduates in the industrial and agricultural private sector and the consolidation of productive self-employment opportunities by inventing ways and means of support and motivation, expediting educational reform that leads to the acquisition of skills that facilitate productive and remunerative work.

            d)The creation of a national programme for maintenance, repair and rehabilitation, whose objective is to give maximum priority to repair of equipment and spoilt instruments projects, the maintenance of roads and buildings, destroyed government offices and their renovation and the rehabilitation of the enormous national wealth that is untapped in the government departments and the establishments of the public sector.

            e)The creation of a national programme to make an inventory of government stores, equipment and belongings that are untapped and are rotting in the stores, in all branches of government and the public sector, and their sale through public auctions, thus catering for market needs for those items, utilizing their returns in financing the national programme for maintenance, repair and rehabilitation.

THE OBJECTIVES OF THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

  1. The multiplication of the national income twenty-fold.
  1. Realisation of justice in the distribution of income and living.

3.Realisation of the stability of the national monetary value internally and externally.

4.The increase of the volume of internal commercial exchange and facilitating the flow of commodities between the willayas.

5.Increase of exports by a rate that is in harmony with the realisation of the desired national income growth, that guarantees the financing of imports for purposes of investment and consumption.

6.The increase in the investment rate by a percentage that is in harmony with the desired national income growth and the increase in the rate of the contribution of the local capital in the financing of the required investments.

  1. The financing of the government expenditure in a way that is in harmony with the two objectives of economic growth, financial stability and combatting inflation.
  1. Doubling the checks of the banking units fifty-fold.
  1. Increasing the volume of insurance, ten-fold.

10.Collection of zatka from all who are eligible, doubling the resources of the official and private insurance and solidarity funds on the ratio of doubling of the income.

  1. The doubling of the investment and savings deposits fifty fold.

THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC POLICIES

  1. The Development Planning Methodology

            1.Development is an overall methodology that deals with all aspects of social progress, spiritually, intellectually, materially, institutionally and scientific learning its effective tool.

            2.Developmental planning is based on considerations and requirements that link work with prayer.

            3.Long-term planning forms the comprehensive basis for the planning stages, and the long-term strategies are realized according to stage by stage plans and programmes whose life spans complement one another in a consecutive manner.

            4.Developmental planning becomes a must with regard to constant features of the comprehensive development strategies, and is indicative on all other aspects of economic and social work.  Planning is also to be undertaken in the context of the liberty of economic work, the liberalisation of market forces, the movement of productive elements as well as motivation of individual energies.

  1. Strategies and the Stage by Stage Policies of Developmental Planning:

            1.Reliance on the strategy of the leaching sector to achieve independent self-development, and the agricultural sector is considered by its plant and animal sides as well as the agricultural industries, the sector that is most qualified for that.

            2.Giving first priority to the development of petrol and mining exploration operations and their investments.

            3.The strategy of labour intensive projects constitutes a corner stone in the realization of independent self-development that is in harmony with the policies of combatting and decreasing unemployment in the public sector.

            4.Planning of the financial and monetary policy on new basis that aim at the reformulation of the existing saving and banking system infrastructure with a view to rehabilitating the independent islamic financial and monetary system.

            5.A strategy of planning international financial cooperation on the basis of finding patterns of dealings with international monetary and financial markets and working to develop the areas of non usury regional cooperation in the financial and monetary areas.

            6.Orienting the planning policies to the realization of bilateral and regional economic complementarity among the Muslim countries, the Arab countries and the African countries.

            7.Orienting the planning policies to realize the balance between the growth of national income, the monetary offer and the acceptance of deficit financing as an exception in the cases of financing of real production able to absorb the monetary surpluses and the unleashing of new productive energies with the intention of controlling production rates.

8.The deepening of the concepts of humanitarian, good doing and solidarity, especially in the area of health, cultural and humanitarian services, and the realization of society, rural and family development including the establishment of financial institutions and funds to deal with it.

9.The realisation of Justice in the distribution of income and reestablishment of population balance between the various willayas.

10.Raising the average rate of the real total gross national product (GNP) in a way to realise the strategy objectives, and raising the national investment and saving rates via the increase of budget cuts or savings, private savings and the transfer of Sudanese abroad, encouraging the return of the immigrating wealth and improving potential investment.

  1. FINANCIAL POLICIES
  1. The present budget reflects the comprehensive programme that includes the economic policies in all areas as an economic portion that aims at the realization of economic, social, political, security and cultural objectives.
  1. The application of effective financial policies that take into consideration, in their entirety, the two aspects of supply and demand and the coordination with the overall economic policies.
  1. Increase of productivity in all the sectors, considering the agricultural sector as the leading sector for the realisation of development and prosperity.
  1. Self-reliance on national resources, and working towards encouraging the investment of foreign resources through exports and loans and foreign aid with acceptable conditions through bilateral cooperation.
  1. Eradication of the total deficit in the public budget, the realisation of annual surpluses and the gradual elimination of subsidies, and the non-financing of the current budget from the banking system except in the limits that are allowed, by law, by the Bank of Sudan.
  1. The financing of development projects from a separate account opened for this purpose, and fed by the public and private sectors both local and foreign.
  1. Decreasing the role of the public sector and managing of all public sector institutions and companies on a sound commercial and economic basis.
  1. Liberation of the national economy and prices from the administrative shackles.
  1. Raising the average percentage of the earnings of the federal government to 25% of the GNP – Gross National Product but expenditure should not exceed 20% of the GNP.
  1. Realization for social justice for the dependents on direct taxation and a decrease of dependents on non-direct taxation.
  1. The enlargement in the areas of non-taxation earnings, and the creation of new earning sources, and the application of the policies of participation in costs and social solidarity.
  1. Stopping extra-budgetary operations and putting together an annual monetary body that takes into consideration the current purchases of the stores.
  1. The economic, financial, monetary and investment policies take wield their strength via federal government determination vis-à-vis the national economy, and its responsibility in planning the national economy.
  1. The willayas will rely on their own earnings, and they will develop their rate in contributing to the GNP and the orientation of the federal financial allocations for the willayas to the purposes of enlarging the earning base and the increase of activity and development projects, as well as the consolidation of the developmental capacities of the local government.
  1. The Ministries of finance and economic planning shall establish, the economic and financial units, in the central ministries and organisms and in other public sector units; and those that are similar to them in the willayas, to follow-up economic and financial performance, and other performances that have to do with public finance.
  1. BUDGET REFORM
  1. The adoption of the performance budget system to ensure that the specific unit expense has a relationship with the corresponding volume of the work decided, needed and executed.
  1. The gradual decrease in the volume of the centralized national budget.
  1. Utilization of monetary budget to distribute liquid assets among the various sectors.
  1. The application of zero budget on a gradual basis to ensure a budget free of accumulations and the erroneous practices of the past.
  1. TAXATION REFORM
  1. Working towards total contribution of all citizens capable of paying taxes which will narrow the scope of tax exemptions and enlarge tax scope.
  1. Increase of the reliance on direct taxation especially multiple ascending taxes and the effort to make taxes on commodities and services more reasonable through the exemption of basic commodities and services.
  1. Modification of taxation rates to encourage local and foreign investment, the development of private savings and encouraging small and intermediary productive categories.
  1. Review of the laws and regulations pertaining to punishments and motivation in the taxation laws to consolidate taxation reform policies.
  1. Development of taxation administration to improve, by meeting its needs, its efficiency and its consolidation.
  1. Carrying out a radical modification in the taxation laws, policies and procedures and in its supervisory and accounting organs, enabling the taxation organism to reach all those capable of paying taxes, thus realizing justice in imposing taxes and improving the efficiency of tax collection.
  1. Giving directives to all government units, establishments and companies to cooperate with the taxation department, providing it with the needed information and the immediate payment of taxation cuts.
  1. CUSTOMS AND PRODUCTION FEES
  1. Review of the rate of the production fee from time to time in accordance with the changes that affect imports and exports.
  1. Enlarging the application of the sales tax.
  1. Protection of local production by raising the percentage of fees on the imported competing commodities.
  1. Simplifying procedures and realising taxation justice.
  1. Developing statistical performance through the introduction of modern technology, the development of technical performance, and making available basic data laws and regulations.
  1. The training of cadres, through internal and external education, and intensifying the contacts with the international institutes and organisations, such as the Council for Tax Cooperation, to make use of their technical assistance.
  1. Consolidation of organisms that fight illegal trade.
  1. The increase of duty-free markets.
  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BUDGET OF THE ZAKA DEPARTMENT AND THE GENERAL BUDGET OF THE STATE
  1. To determine the relationship between the budget of the Zaka and the general budget one has to take into consideration the different basis on which the Zaka budget and the public budget are based and which must be respected.
  1. The Zaka budget must then be included in the general budget for the State strictly for the purpose of balancing the measure of Zaka contribution to the national economy.
  1. The Zaka Department is the Organism that has the authority to manage the Zaka monies in a way that is determined by the sharia (Islamic Law).
  1. Improving the means of the Zaka collection and consolidating the abilities of the Zaka Department enabling it to collect the Zaka from all those eligible, and providing maximum help to those who are needy.
  1. THE FINANCIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND THE WILLAYAS
  1. Federal financial accounting laws and regulations are applicable to the Federal Government and the willayas for the purpose of unifying the classification, the fomulation of the financial and accounting procedures to serve the purposes of financial planning, supervision and financial follow-up by the Federal Government and the willayas.
  1. The budget of the willaya is to be considered as an overall economic programme that works towards the realisation of specific goals within the willaya and the national economy, taking into consideration the financial, monetary, earning and investment policies of the Federal Government.
  1. Linking the growth of the willaya earnings with the national income, and working towards the increase of local earnings through higher rates from the increase of expenditure in the willaya realising the principles of the concept of self-reliance and efficiency of the Federal Government.
  1. The utilisation of shares in the willayas from federal resources for development purposes.
  1. The emphasis on expenditure on local and regional development within the willayas and provinces with the objective of creating a stable economic and productive base.
  1. The invention of new sources of earning in the willayas and in local government organisms.
  1. The review of all percentages of the private rates with respect to tax and non-tax earnings within the willayas which can cope with prices in the national economy and the cost of advanced service.
  1. Consultation and coordination between the Federal Government and the willayas, and among the willayas themselves, for the review and adoption of regional taxes and fees with a common nature safeguarding public interest and avoiding tax duplication.
  1. The Governments of the willayas must seek the opinion of the Federal Ministry of Economic Planning in any decisions, orientations or draft laws that entail financial burdens on the federal public treasury.

INVESTMENT

  1. The mobilization of loans and foreign assistance and their channelling to investment projects in all sectors, especially in agriculture.
  1. Ending taxation duplication and reviewing the taxation, customs and consumer fee policies as well as the sales tax for the productive sectors and exports motivation .
  1. The continuation of the policy of structural adjustment by transferring the ownership of some public sector establishments to the private sector and other sectors as well as channelling the public sectors investments to basic infrastructures and areas that do not attract the private sector.
  1. Opening the country to the world with the intention of regaining the confidence of the foreign investor, and the effective participation in institutions of investment insurance at the international and regional levels and in specialized financial agencies.
  1. Encouragement of small and rural industries and, spare parts and agricultural equipment industries, etc.
  1. Consolidation of the Sudanese private sector’s capability to be dynamic and capable of taking advantage of all possible investment opportunities making the best use of them.
  1. Flexibility in price determination and policies that reflect actual costs which enables the investor make a reasonable profit.
  1. Consolidation of research, consultancy and study centres by modern systems and the State support for them, emphasizing the development of national consultancies including project agreements, conditional on the participation of Sudanese expertise in design, execution, follow-up and evaluation of projects a condition.
  1. The adoption of financial policies that encourage productive investment and increases the confidence of the investor in the national banking system.
  1. Expediting the preparation of the preliminary investment map within a year.
  1. Consolidating and enlarging technical education, professional and administrative training, and obliging the investor to train the employees of the establishments, forming a qualified personnel who are current with the needs of information, database and statistics, guaranteeing constant updating.
  1. Liberation from the shackles of bureaucratic work making investment liberty to dwell on various projects the rule.
  1. The enlargement of the investment activity to cover the whole country and the preparation of areas of growth and development that have the necessary basic services.

FINANCING

            The monetary policy aims within the strategy period to serve the following

general economic objectives:

  1. INTERNAL FIELD

            a)The optimal and total utilisation of available resources.

  1. b) Positive economic development.

            c)Relative stability of the level of prices to fight inflation.

  1. d) Attaining self-sufficiency.
  1. e) Justice in the distribution of national income.
  1. f) Balanced regional development.

            These objectives can be achieved through the following means:

            1.Determination of a comprehensive ceiling to check monetary costs for internal financing.

            2.Determination of sector ceilings providing a priority for productive sectors.

            3.Linking insurance ceilings to the volume of deposits to achieve financing from real resources.

            4.Linking commercial banking capitals to cope with the volume of financing.

            5.Increase the capital of specialized banks providedat the increases are paid from the surplus of the general budget instead of the Bank of Sudan resources to avoid an inflationary side effect.

            6.Allowing specialized banks to sell part of their capital to the public through the offering of shares.

            7.Consolidation of resources of specialized banks by allotting them commodity protocol grants and loans.

            8.Innovating ways to make use of the resources of Insurance Companies.

            9.Encouragement of the establishment of finance companies, and developing finance institutions, and investment banks to enlarge the existing framework and attract more resources.

            10.Innovating banking ways that help the optimum use of available resources to realize the economic objectives of the comprehensive strategy.

  1. EXTERNAL FINANCING

            The monetary policy aims in the external sector to achieve the following objectives:

  1. a) Strengthening the position of the external reserve.
  1. b) Rectifying the discrepancy in our balance of trade.

The two objectives can be realized through the following means:

            1.The adoption of the self-reliance policy as a permanent strategy, and developing relations with foreign countries to work towards the mobilization of foreign capital investments in the Sudan.

            2.Emphasizing the commercial protocols with the States that maintain good relations with the Sudan.

            3.Consolidation of the commercial activity through the preferential trade agreements with the regional areas via the bilateral agreements of payment.

            4.Working towards the mobilization of foreign resources via private establishments such as commercial banks, national and foreign development financial institutions and creating ways to guarantee repayment.

            5.Continuation in the payment of the precarious debts and the debts of the international institutions that will continue its cooperation with the Sudan.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND MODERNISATION OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
  1. The horizontal enlargement, the spread of financial institutions and increase in their branches and agencies, mobile banks, and the creation of new channels to utilize finance.
  1. The creation of financial and monetary organisms that have simple and flexible checking mechanisms and procedures.
  1. The perfectioning of existing financial services horizontally and vertically.
  1. Opening saving and investment awareness in all sectors, utilizing all available means of information and media, both traditional and modern.
  1. The establishment of specialized financial institutions to finance specific sectors or activities.
  1. The establishment of institutions that guarantee deposits.
  1. Organising the use and development of the different formulae, and the innovation of a new formulae to absorb all investment activities.
  1. The establishment of a financial market.
  1. Creation of financial channels for small producers, handicraft industries and professionals.
  1. Adoption of the envelop system and collective financing for the financing of the developmental projects.
  1. Simplifying the administration procedures for all types of insurance, working towards the reduction of fees, and the creation of new insurance patterns.
  1. The encouragement of the creation of producer groupings in the form of unions and cooperative societies, facilitating their financing.
  1. DEEPENING ISLAMIC IDEALS WITHIN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
  1. The execution of the programme of Islamic Ideals within the financial institutions is a task of the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Bank of Sudan.
  1. Elaboration of plans for the training and the employment in the financial institutions.
  1. Review of the methodology of economic, commercial, banking and legal studies in the Universities and Higher Institutions in a way to achieve the comprehensiveity of Islam, which guarantees the formation of banking economists who are aware of Islamic jurisprudence.

COMMERCE

  1. The liberalisation of internal and external trade.
  1. Cancellation or decrease of taxes on export commodities and the liberalisation of the services of supportive sectors in export operations.
  1. The orientation of the insurance policy to finance the export sector and the establishment of an envelop for export.
  1. Paying attention to the operations of industrialisation and finding solutions to the increase in the added value for agricultural produce.
  1. Intensification of efforts in the area of petrol and mining exploration, bringing them to the export stage.
  1. Simplifying and unifying administration procedures for exports and increasing public awareness of the laws and regulations that govern export.
  1. Opening new markets and encouraging commercial information, taking maximum benefit from the international and regional organisations. Also enlarging honourary consulates and economic attachés to Embassies.
  1. Making available, and guaranteeing the quality of the preparation of export preparation needs.
  1. Inviting the private sector to participate in the elaboration and promulgation of laws and policies, and to participate in external delegations and missions.
  1. The establishment of a cattle export room.
  1. Awarding the production and export of gum the privileges and free customs taxation, stipulated in the public investment authority regulations.
  1. Expediting the establishment of the National Cotton Council.
  1. Continuation of the encouragement policy for the extension of rain-fed cotton agriculture.
  1. Establishment of a fund to support exports protecting them from international price fluctuations.
  1. Improving the industrialised commodities, in order to make use of the added value, by concentrating on the experiments that have started such as cotton weaving, hides, tanning and packaging of some commodities.

INSURANCE

  1. Reforming the insurance operations in the Sudan, conceptually and practically, in accordance with Islamic sharia concepts and bringing all dealings in line with Arab concepts.
  1. Presentation of the public authority of censorship, on insurance especially, and in the insurance sector generally on the Councils and the Committees that are designed to look into the issues that concern the Insurance Sector and the consultation with the authority in promulgating laws and regulations that govern the Sudanese Insurance Market.
  1. Rendering active the insurance sector, increasing the quality of insurance coverage as well as the number of the insured by ten fold.
  1. Issuing of required laws, making insurance obligatory in all institutions, companies and authorities in cases required by public interest, the protection of those who suffer, fending against catastrophies for the national economy.
  1. Paying attention to training and introduction of insurance studies as part of the programme in the curriculum in the economic and commercial colleges in the Sudanese Universities.
  1. The establishment of a Sudanese Insurance Institute working towards the establishment of the Arab Insurance Institute.
  1. Increasing the level of protection in the re-insurance agreements to attain 35% of the total volume of insurance instalments.
  1. The development of exchange insurance operations to reach 35% by the end of the strategy period.
  1. The strengthening of the financial capability of Insurance Companies by encouraging investment and revising the percentages of reserves allowed by law.

 THE STRATEGY OF THE AGRICULTURAL

THE ANIMAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES SECTORS

  1. INTRODUCTION
  1. IRRIGATION AND WATER RESOURCES STRATEGY
  1. IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE STRETEGY
  1. RAIN-FED AGRICULTURE STRATEGY
  1. NATURAL RESOURCES STRATEGY
  1. ANIMAL WEALTH AND FISHERIES STRATEGY
  1. DRINKING WATER STRATEGY

          AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            The agricultural sector is the leading sector and the prime mover of all economic activities.  It occupies the leading position in its contribution to the GNP (36%) and absorbs about 75% of the work force, contributing about 95% of the value of exports.  Above all, most of the local industries depend upon it for satisfying their needs in raw materials.

            The agricultural sector includes various side sectors, or branch sectors, whose contributions vary with respect to the GNP, they are inter-connected and complementary in their activities.  These sectors are:

  1. The basic infrastructures for irrigation and water resources.
  1. Irrigated agriculture.
  1. Rain-fed agriculture by its mechanical and traditional side.
  1. The animal wealth and fisheries.
  1. Natural resources.

            Due to the importance of the sector for the national economy it has enjoyed a big percentage of the allotments from the development programme of the public sector, whose annual average reaches around 26% of the total allotments.  The average percentage of these allotments for the side sectors in the period from 1981 to 1991 was as follows:

            -Irrigated agriculture 49.5%

            -Rain-fed agriculture 20.5%

            -Animal wealth and fisheries 10%

            -Natural resources 5%

            -Irrigation and water resources 15%

            From this, it is clear, from this, that the share of the irrigated sector is bigger compared to the other sectors, especially the traditional sector.  This is mainly due to high investment costs in the irrigated sector, and to a view that the traditional sector is inferior, which has not changed, until the recent waves of drought which triggered the interest in this sector and the gradual improvement in channelling more public investments into it, which also led to encouragement by the State to agricultural investment which brought about the attraction of increasing investment from the private sector.

            The period after the national salvation revolution has been characterized by a clear seriouness in achieving food security by increasing the areas of wheat cultivation, emphasising the cultivation of Dura in the irrigated sector to fend against fluctuations of production in the rain-fed sector, and decreasing the cotton cultivated areas in the irrigated sector to leave more room for food crops and the enlargement of their cultivation in the rain-fed sector.   Consequently, the State has declared a number of encouragement policies to enlarge the cultivation of cotton in rain-fed areas.

            This period has also seen the emphasis on small producers as a main pattern for agricultural development, the achievement of justice, and concentration of efforts in the diversification of agricultural products, the introduction of new products such as animal feed sunflower and maize, and these policies have been orientated to give utmost priority to the availability of agricultural inputs and strict commitment to the introduction of animals in the agricultural cycle.

            Financing of public agricultural institutions took place through the central bank, which led to the accumulation of enormous debts on the farmers and the institutions alike.  To find a solution to the situation and to guarantee financing and repayments, the national salvation revolution has invented the commercial banks envelop system which leads to the improvement of the performance and efficiency in this sector.

            The agicultural sector has suffered, especially the traditional side, from a number of problems in finding necessary financing from the commercial and specialized banks.  This made the government issue directives to create 40% of the insurance ceilings of the commercial banks to the financing of agriculture, to increase of the agricultural bank capital opening branches, creating new ways to simplify insurance for small farmers, and establishing agricultural production financing funds and new specialized banks (the Farmers Bank and the Animal Wealth Bank).

            With respect to the taxation policies, the State subsidized the agricultural inputs through transparent and non-transparent (obvious and clear ways, as well as hidden) ways, in addition to the imposition of various taxation fees at the national and the willaya levels.  The period between 1981-1982 to 1990-1991 has seen various fluctuations in market and price policies that was reflected in the monopoly of the public sector companies to the marketing of some of the agricultural produce, especially those for export.  In addition to the interference of the State, in some cases, to protect the consumer or the producer, through fixing the lowest and highest prices, the last period has seen a radical change that is reflected in the decision of the State to liberalize the prices of the agricultural products which guarantees the motivation of the producer and support production.

THE GUIDELINES

            The agricultural sector strategy guidelines can be summarized as follows:

            a)The agricultural sector is to be considered the leading sector of the national economy.

            b)Optimum investment of the available resources.

            c)Maintaining environmental balance by allotting areas of pastures and forests, the two sides of agriculture (plant and animal) and making water available.

            d)Intensification of efforts aiming at increasing productivity through the introduction of advanced technology that is suitable to the elements of production in the following areas:

                        1.Irrigation: Introduction of modern irrigation systems.

                                    2.Soil:  Additional fertilizers and its protection from the wind.

  1. Production:  Improvement of animal breed                                        races.

                                    4.Mechanisation:  The introduction of appropriate suitable mechanisms for the Sudan climate and its type of soil.

            e)Regional specialization, by choice of suitable agricultural products, for each willaya according to the relative peculiarities of each region.

            f)The realisation of a leap forward in production that consolidates the real independence of the country by the realization of its food security, increase in the volume of its exports, their diversification and the improvement of their quality that enable them to compete on the international markets.

            g)Emphasis of support for small producers as a main pattern for agricultural development and achievement of justice.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

            The general objectives of the agricultural sector could be summarized as follows:

  1. Achievement of food security.
  1. Optimum utilisation of available resources in the agricultural sector.

            3.Increase of the share in the agricultural sector with regard to gross local product (GLP) and the increase of the agricultural returns.

            4.Increase in returns from agricultural exports to alleviate the burden on the balance of payments and to reestablish its balance.

            5.The achievement of balanced regional development.

            The following summarizes the objectives of the branch sectors:

                        The objectives of the side agricultural sectors:

                        a)Irrigation and water resources:

                                    1.The complete utilization of the Sudanese share of the Nile waters currently available, and the expected waters available after the completion of the Jonglei canal, and other efforts to increase the waters of the Nile in the upper section of the river.

                                    2.The establishment of dams on the other rivers and on the seasonal Wadis and water ways.

                                    3.Finding a solution to the problem of clay, which is covering some of the dams, the elevation of the level of existing dams and the construction of new dams.

                                    4.The development, modernisation and increase of efficiency of the irrigation systems.

                                    5.The development of underground water resources.

                                    6.Consolidation of the exploitation of resources of rural and urban waters, in a way that will finally solve the problem of thirst, and the generalization of the extension of clean, healthy water to all parts of the country.

                                    7.The development of water technology industry, water digging, pipes, dams and spare parts.

                        b)Irrigated and rain-fed agriculture:

                                    1.The increase of the area of irrigated agriculture by three-fold.

                                    2.The increase of the rain-fed agriculture area by ten-fold.

                                    3.Vertical extension to guarantee the increase of productivity and the realization of the required production rates.

                                    4.The increase of food crop production by at least six-fold and oil crop products by five-fold at least, and the diversification of other products such as medical and aromatic plants, increasing them by at least two-fold.

                                    5.The increase of those qualified in agriculture by five-fold and the consolidation of agricultural scientific research, increasing its institutes and centres.

  1. c) Animal Wealth:

                                    1.Increasing of animal wealth by three-fold.

                                    2.Developing the means of animal breeding and protection, and educating shepherds and cattle owners.

                                    3.Increase animal wealth exports and its products by 20-fold.

                                    4.Eradication of plagues and chronic diseases.

                                    5.Attainment of self-sufficiency in medicines, basic vaccinations and cures.

                                    6.Promotion of the veterinary profession and research.

  1. d) The Fisheries wealth:
  1. Development of the fish industry.

                                    2.Enlarging fish agricultural establishments in the red sea, and fish farms and ponds.

                                    3.The development of the canning and drying industry, making the necessary equipment available.

  1. e) Natural resources:

                                    1.Creating a national map for natural resources and their protection and investment.

                                    2.Preservation of diversity and natural equilibrium.

                                    3.Soil maintenance and protection from deterioration, desertification and chemical pollution.

                                    4.Development of forest and natural pastures preserving them from wild utilization.

  1. f) Drinking water sector:

                                    1.Eradicating thirst for man and animal by the end of the strategy period.

                                    2.Development of water resources and their improvement.

                                    3.Plans for water availability should be linked with the development needs of the productive and population sectors in the willayas and various regions, taking into consideration the desired structural equilibrium among them, and saving the huge efforts deployed by rural and urban people in the search for water.

                                    4.Taking into consideration economic criteria for water exploitation that strike a balance between cost and social and economic return.

                                    5.Making water available should take into consideration the strategy of the State for the tapping of natural resources, their development, preservation, and their protection from natural disasters such as desertification, drought and locust attacks.

                                    6.The respect of the health, ecological and environmental regulations in water purification, and the protection of its sources from pollution.

                      THE STRATEGIES OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTORS

            Within the guideline framework and the commitment to the realization of the strategy objectives, strategies of the branch sectors will be as follows:

IRRIGATION AND WATER RESOURCES STRATEGY

            The percentage of the Sudan share of the Nile waters is now 20.55 billion per year.  The expected additional share in the projects of the increase in the Nile water during the coming 10 years will reach 4.4 X 3 billion  annually.  Waters from the other sources that can be controlled within the coming 10 years is estimated at about 2.8 billion cubic metres annually and the underground waters that are renewable,which may be utilized now, are estimated at 4.9 billion cubic metres per year.  As such, the total available water resource within the coming 10 years will reach 32.65 billion cubic metres annually that can be basically exploited in irrigated agriculture, generation of electric power and other purposes.  The strategy of the exploitation of water resources is based on the following:

  1. Emphasis on gravity irrigation during the period of flood to irrigate the major planes of Kenana, Dindir, the Rahad river, the Gash Delta, the Toker delta and guaranteeing water irrigation to the new Halfa project, considering that a large portion of the needed establishments for these projects can be carried out through local resources.
  1. Rehabilitation of the existing dams: Sennar, the elevation of the Roseires Dam, and the creation of new dams (Hamadab and the Upper reaches of Atbara river as well as Stait) to achieve the horizontal and the vertical expansion in production.
  1. Extension in the utilization of agricultural pumps for the cultivation of winter crops on the white Nile and the Nile proper.
  1. The maximum utilisation of waters from underground water and other water ways by creating dams.
  1. Fending against the deterioration that has bedeviled the storage capacity of the existing dams due to the precipitation of clay through finding appropriate solutions to this problem and the designing of new dams to guarantee against its recurrence.
  1. A local industrialization of all equipment and instruments pertaining to water technology.

STRATEGY OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

  1. Horizontal extension in irrigated agriculture to increase the cultivated areas from 2.8 million fadans annually to 9 million fadans by the end of the plan according to the following:

            a)Concentration on agriculture and its extension in irrigated agricultural areas by making available sufficient and adequate water irrigation.

            b)Establishment of new projects for irrigated agriculture through making use of the Nile’s waters especially in the area of flood irrigation, which helps to tap the Sudanese share of these waters.

            c)Making use of non-Nile surface waters in the cultivation of additional areas through the construction of small dams.

            d)The extension in irrigated agriculture through underground water.

  1. A practical extension in the increase of production, the rehabilitation of the existing production capacity, the creation of suitable technological inputs and the improvement of investment patterns through the encouragement of individual initiatives in productive activities.
  1. Concentration, on a major scale, on resources that are untapped and the multiplication of investments by the extension of the agricultural area, the diversification of crops, the encouragement of big and small investments to absorb the biggest portion of these investments, for securing the stability and the continuity of the availability of food needs, especially from cereals and oil seeds, and the realisation of the desired increase in the revenues of the producers and in the return of the exports.
  1. The realisation of the optimal complementarity between plant and animal in the irrigated agricultural projects.

RAIN-FED AGRICULTURE STRATEGY

            The rain-fed agriculture strategy is based on the following:

  1. Planning anew the agricultural lands that are not included in the planning and rehabilitation scheme.
  1. Planning of new land for the horizontal extension to achieve cultivated area of 51.7 million fadans by the end of the plan, 30 million fadans of which to be mechanized agriculture and 21.7 m fadans to be of traditional rain-fed agriculture.
  1. Increase of productivity through the vertical extension in crops by the utilisation of appropriate technology that is inspired locally or from the outside world in States that have similar climatic conditions.
  1. The realisation of positive complementarity between plant and animal in the rain-fed agriculture projects.

THE NATURAL RESOURCES STRATEGY

            Natural resources constitute immense wealth for the nation and as such preserving and developing them and checking desertification shall be one of the main objectives of the strategy.  This will require the orientation of more investments to the sector, the participation of the local citizens in this effort,  increasing their awareness of the importance of the preservation of natural resources.  The strict application of the resources protection laws, and the prevention of haphazard exploitation of the natural resources via the preparation of an investment map that determines the available resources and the exploited volume of those resources.

First: Soil Protection and its uses

            In the area of soil preservation and its uses the strategy shall proceed along

four main areas:

1.Soil protection south of latitude 14 North, and soil protection and preservation north of this line.

            2.Preparation of natural resources maps, preparation of maps for renewable natural resources and land investment.

            3.Planning for the exploitation of rural waters on scientific basis.

            4.Intensification of researches that have to do with land use and utilization.

Second: The Development of the Plant Cover

            In the context of the development of the plant cover, the strategy is based

on the following:

            1.Bringing the land area that must be reserved as forest and pasture to 25% of the total land area of the country to approximately 150 million fadans.

            2.Making available the needs of Sudan for energy from wood, as well as for industries and circular poles (these are used for telephone and electric wire extension and in construction) and also wood used for the extension of rails.

            3.Realisation of agricultural and forest complementarity through the introduction of the tree in the agricultural cycle by 25% in the irrigated agricultural projects and by 10% in the traditional mechanized rain-fed agricultural projects.

            4.The increase of the production of gum arabic to 60,000 tons annually and the increase of the forest non-wood products.

            5.Reconstruction and maintenance of natural pastures in all provinces of the country.

            6.The achievement of the equilibrium between the animal population and the capacity of the pasture land.

            7.The improvement of the technological means relating to pasture development and the creation of new technologies.

            8.The introduction of the specialized and the periodical pasture system and the protection of the natural pastures from the danger of fires.

Thirdly: Wild Life

            In the area of wild life the strategy is based on the following:

            1.The preservation of wild living natural environments that are not domesticated, their cultivation in the framework of comprehensive environmental models.

            2.The adoption of economic polices that include the attractiveness of the preservation of wild life.

            3.Encouraging the private sector to invest in the wild life.

            4.Strengthening cooperation with neighbourly States in the area of wild life protection.

            5.Improvement of the natural reserves to attract internal as well as external tourism.

  1. Creation of national reserves and protected zones of nature.

            7.Creation of protected areas and new national reserves of nature.

  1. The development of researches in the area of wild life.

ANIMAL AND FISH WEALTH STRATEGY

            The strategy of the development of animal wealth aims basically to improve the living standards and to guarantee food security through making available red meat, and fibres and their products, white meat, eggs etc., and making available huge surpluses of those for export through horizontal extension, by multiplying the production of animal wealth three folds, the multiplication of the export to twenty fold, and by the vertical extension for the increase of the production rate, taking into consideration the preservation of the national population of animals, its protection, and the increase of its productive base in the various sectors.  The most important basis of the strategy for the development of the animal wealth sector resides on the following:

            1.Animal wealth is based on two sectors, traditional and modern, of which the former represents about 85-90%.  The waves of drought and desertification have affected this sector which led to reconsidering reliance on it.  The strategy shall emphasise the extension of the modern sector and the continuation of the consolidation of the traditional sector through the strategy years.

            2.Bringing about a radical change in the systems of animal breeding and production in the various areas of the breeding and production of animal wealth, and the shift from reliance on the traditional sector to the specialised sector, and towards production intensification.

First:

            In the area of cattle raising and production for meat reliance on the traditional sector shall continue, and gradual shift to intensification, especially in the irrigated agricultural areas, and rain-fed areas through the establishment of pasture farms.

Second:

            In the area of lamb and goat production, three fixed and specialised basis shall be established for raising and production of lamb exports as well as the establishment of intensive production areas through gravity irrigation, the construction of dams on the seasonal water ways, and the exploitation of underground water.

Third:

            With respect to camel production the traditional pattern shall continue through the years of the strategy with emphasis on making available veterinary research guidance services.

Fourth:

            Continuation of the extension in animal complementarity in the agricultural cycle and in the irrigated and rain-fed projects.

  1. The animal wealth development depends on the following:

            a)Concentration for direct production on the private sector, leaving the experimental and pioneering side, according to the services, of the public sector.

            b)Providing veterinary health services, general, guidance and research services to producers for money.

            c)Development of the basic infrastructures, improvement of the animal transports to minimize loss, and the organisation of its internal as well as external trade, and the extension in the establishment of ware houses and slaughter houses.

  1. The development of fish resources sector through the following:

            a)Exploitation of natural fishing areas in the rivers and seas.

            b)The extension in the establishment of fish farms in the Red Sea, rivers, ponds and farms.

            c)The development of the means of fishing and their industry.

            d)The increase in the individual’s share in fish consumption.

DRINKING WATER STRATEGY

  1. Rationalisation of the usage of water according to the capacity of the available sources through reasonable prices in a way to obtain sufficient returns to cover the costs of the utilization of water equipment and their maintenance.
  1. The introduction of suitable technology and the encouragement of local industrialization of equipment and instruments and their support and extension in making use of the alternative energies in the extension of water services.
  1. Re construction of existing water stations, surface water reserves, dams, instruments and equipment and their rehabilitation.
  1. Digging wells and constructing surface water reserves as well as dams that can meet the need to eradicate thirst.
  1. Introduction of pumps in all wells that have been dug across the country (600 wells), new wells (1000) and the surface water reserves and dams.
  1. Encouragement of the Sudanese consultants in this area to minimize the cost of inviting foreign expertise, and the improvement of Sudanese efficiency, via the training of those working in the area of water.
  1. The development of researches aiming at the evaluation of water resources the rationalisation of water use, the improvement of water administration, the support of research organisms by human resources, planning experts, and equipment with a view to finding alternatives to decrease the cost of water.

The Policies and the Means of Execution

            The achievement of the desired goals through the plan requires reforms in the policies that affect this sector especially since they are connected directly with the support of productive capabilities.

Irrigation and Water Resources

  1. Consolidation of the existing institutional organisms, administrations, foundations, and establishments. The transformation of the executing establishments to general companies that have the resources, the necessary capabilities, the encouragement of the private sector to establish more companies specialized in execution, through participation with foreign companies, and the encouragement of national investment consultants to cooperate with public sector organisms in studies preparation and the designing of projects.
  1. The development of researches and the utilisation of modern technologies for an optimal exploitation and utilisation of water resources.
  1. Attention should be given to the experiment of alternative and renewable energy utilisation in pumping ground water for agricultural purposes.
  1. Paying attention to the data base centre, its development, the publication of the results of the researches and the studies made to serve the investors.
  1. The preservation of ground water from pollution and unchecked exploitation through the adoption of the ground water law.
  1. The coordination among the States participating in the Great Nile Basin through the exchange of information and experiences and making use of the experiences of other States.
  1. That the planning, designing and operation of Nile water projects should remain under the federal authority, considered as crossing water and coordination should be made with the authorities of the willayas, as regards the development of water projects that are not crossing since this could be done through the institutions of the willayas in coordination with the federal organisms.

Irrigated Agriculture

  1. Orientation of a substantive percentage of credit ceilings to the local banks and the gross agricultural product to support productive investments.
  1. Support for the scientific research organisms that enables them to invent appropriate technologies for the increase of production rates, their maintenance and the support of guidance organisms as well as of agricultural services and their development.
  1. The improvement of performance to the development of skills and the extension of the technological base that help the efficiency of the workforce in the sector.
  1. Working for the creation of the appropriate atmosphere that encourages investment and attracts national and foreign capital to contribute in the development of the productive capacities of the sector.
  1. The continuation of the individual accounts since it has the advantage of motivating the producers to overcome their weak points.
  1. Offering more liberty to the farmer in the choice of all types of contracts with those applying for services in both the public and the private sector.
  1. Continuation in the policy of price liberalisation and the extension to include all crops.
  1. The development of financial and taxation policies that motivate the producer.
  1. Making available of production of inputs at the appropriate time.
  1. Issuing of periodical statistics on the market of agricultural commodities with respect to supply and demand at the national level and at the level of the willayas.
  1. The reduction of the production costs.
  1. The participation of the farmers in the formulation of agricultural policies.

RAIN-FED AGRICULTURE

  1. The establishment of a planning, development follow up and modernisation organism of the rain sector via its two wings, the mechanized and the traditional, and the supervision of the administrative units. working for the creation of the appropriate atmosphere that encourages investment that attracts national and foreign capital, and contributes to the development of the productive capacities of the sector. The supervision of the administrative and agricultural services units in the sector in complete coordination with the Federal bodies.
  1. The creation of supervisory and agricultural services organisms to cover all land-fed agricultural areas through their mechanized and traditional parts, making available the necessary support for them.
  1. Extension in the establishment of agricultural research stations to serve the land-fed agricultural areas and their provision with the capacities that enable them to produce suitable technologies for all environments of the rain-fed sector and thus promote productivity.
  1. The development of the guidance organisms’ capabilities firmly linking them with the agricultural research stations, making available the results of the researches to the producers and helping in their application.
  1. The organisation of out-of-planning agriculture and the establishment of new projects in the sector.
  1. The extension in the introduction of intermediate technology in traditional agriculture.
  1. The extension in cultivating free-belts in the mixed projects and companies’ projects.
  1. The rationalisation of the utilisation and investment of water in seasonal water ways and the digging of wells to make drinking water available for man, animal and traditional irrigation.
  1. The recrutement of qualified agriculturalists to satisfy the needs of the human resources sector.
  1. Making available production inputs at the appropriate time in the needed quantities.
  1. The organisation of land tenure and ownership in the sector through the registration of individuals and groups, and the review of the areas owned.
  1. The elaboration of legislative policies that take into consideration the actual costs of production, international prices and price liberalisation policy.
  1. Review of the taxation policies to encourage the producer.
  1. The improvement of financing systems for the cooperative societies of agricultural graduates exempting these societies from customs and taxes such as profit tax, land tenure, production fees and the equipment tax for a reasonable period.
  1. Paying attention to the small producers and producing families and supporting the programme of social development and complementary rural development.
  1. Increase of rates of the land lease in cases of mechanized agriculture to reflect the actual value of the land and using the returns in the development of agricultural services in the areas of mechanized agriculture.

NATURAL RESOURCES

  1. Preparation of development plans and the designing of projects inspired by a well studied investment map that organizes the utilisation of natural resources.
  1. The protection of natural pastures and the increase of their capacity through the enlargement of pasture cultivation and the preservation of more natural pastures.
  1. Consolidation of organisms working in the field of various natural resources in soil and forest preservation and protection, in pastures, animal and wild life, through the needed resources, to achieve their function in the preservation, protection and maintenance of natural resources.
  1. A survey of the forest and pasture resources, determining the portion consumed from it as well as the needed conservation rate.
  1. A programmed scaling out of rain-fed agriculture in the marginal region.
  1. The obligation of agricultural projects, be they irrigated or rain-fed, to cultivate tree belts.
  1. Promulgation of legislations and laws pertaining to environment protection and the appropriate utilization of natural resources and the strict commitment to their application.
  1. The coordination among the research and guidance organisms linking them, and the consolidation of the applied research units in the organisms working in the field of drought and desertification.
  1. Taking the appropriate measures to extend environmental awareness and the importance of the protection of tree-cover among the citizens.
  1. Encouraging the local populations to participate in the preparation of projects and their execution, and the strengthening of forest, pasture and water education putting it at the disposal of the citizens.
  1. Stopping the lapidation of wild-life wealth, and creating a balance between the agricultural activities and wild-life, allotting the necessary land and water resources to its development.

THE ANIMAL AND FISH WEALTH

  1. The increase of the human resources and training in the animal and fish wealth sector.
  1. The development of the basic infrastructures in the animal wealth sector that enable it to contribute effectively in the performance of the national economy and the realisation of the set goals of the strategy.
  1. The enlargement of financing opportunities from local banks and the emphasis on creating specialized banks for the development of animal wealth.
  1. Making available the requirements of the sector from foreign currencies via allotting it part of the return of exports from the animal wealth.
  1. Review of the laws and regulations that organize the activities of the animal wealth sector in a way that is in harmony with the objectives of the strategy.
  1. Extension in the introduction of the animal to the agricultural cycle and the solid establishment of animal and plant complementary policies in the various branches of the sector achieving the optimal balance.

PRODUCTION AND TARGET RETURN DURING THE YEARS OF THE PLAN

            The agricultural sector strategy, which is the foundation of the national economy and of the leading sector, aims at the realization of a big leap forward achieving the desired growth at the level of the national economy by the following objectives:

First:                Agricultural Production:

            The increase in food crop production represents the basic foundation for food and political security and is a basis for the production of surpluses for export.  To guarantee the achievement of this strategy which aims at multiplying the production of cereals to 6.5 times at a growth rate of 65% and multiplying the oil seeds production four-fold with an annual growth rate of 40% and the multiplication of the production of some other crops such as animal feeds, fruits, sugar and rice 3 to 8 fold.

Second:           Animal Production

            The strategy aims at increasing animal production and exports to 5 times the national herd capacity, meeting local consumption, increasing export of sheep and cattle meat by 12 times, increasing the production of white meat and eggs more than four times with a view to increasing consumption rates, improving food patterns and replacing part of red meat consumption.

Third: Natural Resources

            The strategy has given special attention to the agricultural sector through the protection of natural resources to curb desertification, maintain environmental balance, so as to complete the covering of approximately 15% of the country’s area by forests and natural grazing lands and pastures.  The strategy aims at soil protection through land use development, and improvement of the administration of natural pastures, lands, grazing and the protection of wild animals.

Fourth:            Drinking Water

            Finally, the strategy aims at the eradication of thirst and making available pure healthy drinking water in all parts of the country by the following rates:

-80 litres per person per day in the rural areas which are close to the urban areas, 40 litres per person per day in the stable rural areas, and 20 litres per person per day in the country side.

            With regards to the cities, water shall be made available in the following rates:

-250 litres per person per day in the first category, 150 litres per person per day in the second category and 75 litres per person per day in the third category, in addition to making water available for all animal needs.

Fifth:               Exports

            The country relies on agriculture as its major export and it is expected that this sector continues to support exports during the strategy years.  It is possible to summarize the estimates of the major agricultural exports by the end of the plan as follows:

-10 million tons of cereals and oil seeds, it is expected to export 2,012 million to 2,655 million sacks of cotton, 60,000 tons of gum Arabic.  It is also expected that the gardens’ productions, (vegetables and fruits) contribute approximately 2.2 million tons, and that the animal wealth sector to contribute approximately 1.25 million tons through 11,600 million heads of living animals, cattle, etc. and approximately 1 million pieces of leather.

STAGE BY STAGE PROGRAMME

            A sector plan has been prepared for the coming ten years on the following basis:

  1. The achievement of the strategy goals in all subsidiary sectors.

            2.The knowledge of the volume of resources and exploited resources now available.

            3.The possibility of exploiting the resources that have not been exploited.

            4.Taking into consideration the administrative capacity on the basis of the available human and material resources in each stage of the strategy.

            The implementation of the agricultural sector strategy shall be done according to the comprehensive strategy stages and in accordance with the following subsidiary sectoral programmes:

RAIN-FED SECTOR

  1. The first stage (3 years emphasises the vertical extension in the now-aivailable areas, including lands that are outside the planning of the mechanised agriculture sector, so that land planning outside the planning scheme commences in the first year and continues up to the end of the stage. In addition, preparations for the horizontal extension and additional agricultural areas shall start in the second year and be completed by the end of the third year at the most.
  1. The second stage (4 years), the completion of the planning of the lands outside the planning scheme by the end of the fifth year to coincide with the land preparation for agriculture and the opening of the agricultural plots by the end of the seventh year. Emphasis shall continue on the horizontal extension from the available land.
  1. The third stage (3 years), introduces new areas in the production of agricultural crops, along with present areas, to complete the horizontal extension and to harmonize the various crops to attain the final objectives by the end of the tenth year.

THE IRRIGATED SECTOR

The First Stage (3 Years)

            a)Generalizing the benefits of the present utilizations through the total commitment to applying technological inputs in the irrigated projects, and developing productive activities horizontally and vertically.

            b)Beginning by the establishment of appropriate infrastructures for the utilizations of flood irrigation with respect to the rivers of Dindir, Rahad and the Blue Nile, to absorb the desired extension in the production of food crops and oil seeds, and the opening of the widest scope for mixed agriculture.

            c)Termination of studies pertaining to the exploitation of zonal waters and river waters other than the Nile, and underground waters, estimating what is available for possible usages, and commencing construction of dams on the various water ways.

            d)Beginning huge investments pertaining to the construction and upgrading of dams.

The Second Stage (4 Years)

            Continuation in the application of flood irrigation by allowing greater participation of usage in the sectors, keeping the equilibrium of the utilisation of resources, in addition to realising the stability of the productive activities in the existing projects through support services and improvement of the basic infrastructure to ensure food and export surpluses.

            The extension in productive activities that tend to replace imports and the development of a vegetable and fruit cultivation base and the extension of the agro-industrial base.

            Concentration of investments to develop approved irrigation activities on the water ways, non-Nile rivers and underground waters.

The Third Stage (3 Years)

            Extension in the utilizations of water resources in the water ways and non-Nile rivers as well as the underground waters, and increase of the surpluses of the resources emanating from the completion of the new projects especially after the upgrading of the Roseires Dam and the establishment of new dams.  In addition to establishing the continuous evaluation approach for the utilizations of water resources, under environmental equilibrium and population and agricultural utilizations, etc.

THE NATURAL RESOURCES

The First Stage (3 Years)

            Making an inventory of the available resources and the promulgation of suitable laws for their protection.  The stoppage of wild exploitation, containing of desertification and environmental degradation and the preparation of an investment map that determines the available resources and the volume of what is already exploited of them and proposing future investment trends.  Also in this stage the introduction of the tree in the agricultural cycle should be extended to all the projects in both the irrigated and rain-fed sectors, and the preparation of research plans, train ing and qualification plans for the human resources and the beginning of their application.

THE SECOND STAGE (4 YEARS)

            The continuation in the execution of the planning of about 25% of the land area of the country to be covered by forests and grazing lands in addition to land upgrading and the improvement of the administration of natural pastures and the protection of wild game.  Work will continue in these programmes up to the end of the stage, with the continuation of researches and the qualification of the human cadres.

THE THIRD STAGE (4 YEARS)

            Reaching the final goals by satisfying Sudan’s needs in terms of wood for energy, industries, railways construction and for production of gum arabic.

THE ANIMAL AND FISH WEALTH

THE FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

            Giving priority to the completion of the comprehensive animal statistics and carrying out the necessary studies to the execution of the projects of the second stage.

            In the area of red meats the plan’s emphasis is based, at this stage, on the improvement of the basic infrastructures for the cattle markets and the means of their transportsation.  The beginning of the establishment of collective grazing of pasture farms in addition to the improvement and the extension of sites for the reception of cattle in the ports of export, and the establishment of new and additional such sites.

            In the area of milk, to continue in the introduction of the animal in agricultural cycles in both the irrigated and rain-fed projects, and the support of milk producers around the cities as well as the development of milk cooperatives and goat projects for productive families.

            In the area of chickens, the continuation in the development of chicken farms with emphasis on poultry farming, egg and chicken production for consumption, continuing the development of research units and the identification of chicken diseases in the public and private sectors.  In the area of animal feed, support for animal feed industry in the public and private sectors and maintenance and support of existing projects.  In addition, undertaking the necessary studies for the projects of high concentration animal-feed industry, and support of the working research stations.

            In the area of improving the animal breed and the health of the animal, support of existing research stations, the formation of human cadres in this regard, and the establishment of treatment centres in the willayas and the provinces.  In the area of leather or hides the rehabilitation of slaughter houses at the federal and the willayas levels.  And the beginning in establishing new slaughter houses in the villages and in the markets.  With respect to fish, work should be concentrated, in the first stage, on the rehabilitation and reconstruction of existing fishing infrastructure, in addition to the training of human personnel in this regard.  Finally the extension in the exploitation of the natural fishing areas in the rivers and seas.

THE SECOND STAGE (4 YEARS)

            The completion of that which has not been completed from the projects of the first stage, and the continuation of the establishment of collective pasture projects, and the preparation for the second stage.

            As regards the fishing area, there should be an extension in the establishment of fishing farms in the Red Sea, rivers, lakes and ponds.  In addition to the education and the increase of the awareness of the fishermen and making available fishing inputs to reach the goal of developping fishing methods and industry.  This shall lead to an increase in the individuals consumption of fish.  At this stage, studies pertaining to fish industry (canning etc.) could be carried out.

THE THIRD STAGE (3 YEARS)

            Completion of the execution of animal resources projects to achieve the final objectives of the plan.

DRINKING WATER

THE FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

            1.Reconstruction of drinking water networks and stations to attain maximum capacity in the cities of the Willayas.

            2.Completion of the third and fourth stage of Bahri station Wadi Halfa and Berber, and the construction of stations in each of Kosti, El-Dueim, Jazzira Aba, Rank, and Dammazine.

            3.Completion of the Port Sudan emergency programme, and the construction of the Upper and lower part of the Arbaat dam.

            4.Inclusion of the Azaza dry basin in the Gaddaref network and the study of desalinating Red Sea waters.

            5.Completion of the Nayala and Gineina water project, and the execution of the Zalingei water project.

            6.Reconstruction of water stations and haffirs in the countryside.

            7.Digging of 1100 wells.

            8.Fixing 1,700 wells.

            9.Construction of 450 hafirs and 12 dams.

  1. The construction of 75 water projects on the Nile.
  1. The construction of 60 … on the existing Hafirs and dams.

            12.Continuation of the digging of wells, and the fixing of manual water pumps.

            13.Consolidation of the capabilities of the central workshops at the level of the willayas to meet the requirements of industrialization and maintenance.

            14.Continuation of the programmes of applied research and studies aimed at evaluating water resources, their protection, the rationalization of their use, and the realization of justice in their distribution.

The Second Stage (4 Years)

1.The construction of extensions for the networks and their improvement to extend new housing schemes with water in all the willayas.

2.The construction of the first stage of the Khartoum water station, and the digging of the University of Khartoum wells.

3.The construction of ground and high dams and the extension of their networks to all the willayas.

  1. Making an extension to the Khashm El-Girba new Halfa Stations.
  1. The construction of the Karima Water Station.
  1. The renovation of the El-Obeid water network, second stage.
  1. The beginning of the Fasher Water project.
  1. The construction of an extension to the Juba, Malakal and Waw stations.
  1. Undertaking studies for the Ghadaref waters.
  1. Undertaking and fixing 4,485 wells.
  1. The construction of 600 hafirs and 16 dams.
  1. The construction of 100 projects on the Nile.
  1. The construction of 80 – …. on the existing hafirs and dams.

14.Continuation of the digging of the normal wells and the fixing of the manual water pumps.

15.The development of industrialization operations.

The Third Stage (3 Years)

1.Extension of networks and their improvement to meet the needs of the housing plans in all the willayas.

2.The construction of the second and third stages of the new Khartoum station.

  1. The construction of an extension for Madani and Sennar stations.

4.The beginning in the execution of the Yaï project to provide Port Sudan city with water.

5.The beginning of the execution of the Ghadarif water project after the completion of the study.

  1. The construction of the Atbara and Damer stations.
  1. The construction of the extension of the station of Rahad.

8.The construction of water stations for Rumbeik, Yambio, Aweel, Bor, Yai, and Maridi.

  1. The digging of 3,365 wells.
  1. The construction of 450 hafirs and 12 dams.
  1. The construction of 75 projects on the Nile River.
  1. The construction of 60 … on the existing hafirs and dams.
  1. Continuation of the digging of wells and the fixing of manual water pumps.
  1. Supporting industrialization capabilities.
  1. Continuation of research provided it includes final evaluation.

THE STRATEGY OF MAPS AND LAND DATA

INTRODUCTION

  1. Strategic planning in all aspects of life depends on information. Maps with their different types constitute an important resource of information due to what they contain as facts with regard to the natural and objective realities, whose understanding helps in working out the planning, investment, security, objectives, etc.  Maps also help in the determination and orientations and the paths of progress in all sectors and activities.
  1. The 70s have witnessed an enormous movement forward in the development of the computer system in the storage and the programming of maps and earth information data, due to the modern equipment that this system utilizes, foremost among which are the digital system, the computer, industrial satellites for maps, as well as the collection of information for land which led to a revolution in the information field generally, and the land information field in particular.

GUIDELINES

  1. The earth is the main source of all wealth – agricultural, animal, petroleum, mineral, etc. which necessitates a serious endeavour to explores these resources that God has given us, on the land and in the land with the intention of its development and exploitation and utilization for the service of man, and the realization of the civilizational renaissance that we plan for.
  1. … investment of the earth’s resources necessitates detailed knowledge of its types, positions and quality, and a detailed knowledge of the land on which it is found, and what it has on the surface in natural and industrial forms, and what it contains inside as minerals, petrol, etc.
  1. Among the major matters that concern the State and its effort towards realizing comprehensive development and planning for development, knowledge of land and the preparation of accurate maps, and the collection of necessary land information, as vital instruments to the optimal exploration, planning, investment, execution operations and the optimal exploitation of the available resources.

PRESENT SITUATION OF THE SECTOR

  1. Typographic Maps:

            The Department of Land use has worked since its inception in the issuing of basic maps in the Sudan and has produced a drawing scale of:  1:2,500,000 to cover all the Sudan by 167 maps.  Now maps are produced according to a drawing measure of 1-100,000, and the production of 200 maps have been completed out of a total of 920.

Goals:

1.This sector is pivotal for development planning and the establishment of essential infrastructures for projects and mapping and land use strategies aiming at consolidating land-use capabilities to meet the required services for the extension in the agricultural sector, the protection of natural resources, the rationalization of its investment, and the required land-use works in the housing projects, in addition to catering for the needs of the sectors of industry, energy and mining.

  1. Making available the maps for defence and security.
  1. Making available maps for investment and scientific research.
  1. Making available objective maps for geology, forests and pastures, etc.

5.Covering the whole of Sudan with typographic maps with various drawing measures to meet all planning and security purposes, etc.

6.The establishment of a national centre for maps and land use and information.

7.Making available land use and information through the utilization of the computer to all the Ministries and the governmental units, etc.

8.The utilization and the unification of all the available resources of human talents and equipment to realize the objectives of this strategy.

AREAS:

  1. The area of maps

            Due to the link between maps and developmental and security projects in the various activities of life, the following maps have been chosen as a strategic goal to meet the current developmental and security needs during the ten coming years.

  1. Basic Maps

1.Covering the south of the Sudan with maps adopting the drawing measure of 1:50,000.

2.Completion of the series of map 1:100,000 (611 maps).

  1. Renovation of the maps having the drawing measure 1:250,000.
  1. Detailed Maps

1.Survey and planning of agricultural and housing areas to meet the investment purposes.

  1. Completion of the maps of the capitals of the willayas and the provinces.
  1. Specialized Maps

Coordination with the Ministries and the Corporations in the production of objective maps (foreste, geological pastures, and minerals, etc.)

  1. Maps of International and Regional Frontiers

1.Authentication of regional and international boundaries through comprehensive maps.

  1. Production of mineral petrol maps, etc.
  1. The Area of land use and land survey:

            a)The creation of a national consultative body composed of those who have a relationship with map production and land use.

            b)The creation of a national centre for maps and information.

            c)Completion of the legislative framework for the organization of land use work for the foundations for private establishments and companies.

            d)The creation of a centre for the rehabilitation of the intermediary technical cadres in the field of drawing, printing, photography, and map production, etc.

            e)Rehabilitation of the land use and survey department, meeting its needs for technicians, equipment, and modernizing its printing equipment and its aerial photography laboratory.

            f)Encouragement of the establishment of scientific associations working in the area of land use and land survey.

         THE STRATEGY OF THE INDUSTRY, POWER AND MINING SECTOR

INTRODUCTION

  1. THE STRATEGY OF INDUSTRY
  1. THE STRATEGY OF ENERGY
  1. THE STRATEGY OF MINING

THE STRATEGY OF INDUSTRY

INTRODUCTION

            The nature of the country’s resources, its social realities, and the level of its economic and technological development make the huge agricultural sector (Agriculture, Forests, Grazing land, Animal and Fish Resources, Renewable Resources, Industries and Agricultural Infrastructures) the leading sector and the prime mover for economic and social development in the country.  The industrial sector gets its importance from its developmental role and its strategic importance in its contribution to the huge agricultural renaissance.  The intensification of agriculture is impossible without a wide industrial base, and agricultural products cannot be used for longer periods of time without industrial treatment. Moreover, the industrial operations transform the raw materials and the agricultural domains to thousands of diverse products, of high value and of very specific characteristics, suitable for thousands of intermediary and final utilizations.  Without the industry, a lot of the agricultural products and most of their remains will be condemned to very low value and use, quick rotting and limited productivity.

            In addition to the industrialisation of products and agricultural byproducts industry makes available, on the other hand, and produces agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, insecticides, and a variety of chemicals, agricultural equipment and tools, soil preparation equipment and other materials.  Without this enormous industrial role, agriculture will be relegated to the age of the economy of basic need, to the limitation of the agricultural land area, low productivity and the rotting of agricultural produce, by disease.

            Industries play in the development of the mining sector, a role similar to its role in the agricultural sector, by transforming the mining raw materials to industrial products of high value and specific characteristics, and through the industrialisation of building materials from sand, clay and rock and industrial mining materials, through the production of the equipment necessary for the industrialisation of these products.

            It is expected that the commercial exploitation of petrol will lead to the huge leap forward in agriculture and mining resources, and the intensification of industry in its complementary role in developing the country’s primary agricultural resources first and then the mining resources.

            This social, economic and technological background in its historical perspective determines the requirements of the industrial strategy and its concepts and its link with the comprehensive economic strategy.

            The diverse conditions of the Sudan necessitate a flexible and complex industrial strategy, based on making economic availability of import alternatives, the movement towards the export market in the situations where relative national tools exist, the adoption of labour-intensive investments and suitable intermediate technology, high technology projects, and capital intensive projects in the reasonable areas, all of that at the same time.  The strategy should aim at complex goals that include the intensification and promotion of agricultural production, the development of renewable natural resources, petroleum and mining resources, the broadening of the work horizons, the absorption of the excedent rural work force, making available and catering for the needs of national consumption, and earning of foreign reserve surplus based on efficiency and competence, additional gain, and technological improvement.

            The overall framework of the industrial development strategy is based on the following concepts:

  1. The industrial development strategy is part of the comprehensive economic reform strategy that is based on the liberation of the national economy, the consolidation of the market economies, and the unleashing of the inherent forces and energies imprisoned in the national economy, with a view to creating the economic environment which is more suitable to development on the basis of perfect and positive coordination between the protection and welfare of the State and the freedom of private initiative.
  1. The success of the industrial development strategy is linked intimately with the success of the comprehensive national strategy in all the areas of political, economic, social and cultural life as well as in the area of external relations and national security. New human contemporary experiences have proven that competitive industrial growth does not necessarily depend on the availability of raw materials and energy, but rather it is a product of a situation of political, social, cultural and spiritual well-being, an efficient social mobilisation, the unity of an overall consensual effective national vision, the victory on the crisis of anarchy, confusion, division, waste and strife, and the consensus on strict programmes for national priorities, specifying resources and improving the quality of the human resources.
  1. The comprehensive economic development strategy includes necessities of inter-relations and mutual solidarity among the various economic sectors. Consequently, the industrial development strategy necessitates the determination of the role of the industrial sector, and its potential in the comprehensive development strategy and its relations with the other sectors.
  1. The rectification of the structural distortions, the areas of lack of productivity and incompetence from which suffers the industrial sector since its inception and which accumulated through the years, is a direct goal of the industrial strategy, and this is followed by working out the correct basis for widening and developing Sudanese industry during the strategy decade.

THE GUIDELINES

            In the light of the mentioned strategic considerations the industrial development strategy requires the adoption of a number of guiding policies as follows:

  1. FIRST THE URGENT INITIAL PROGRAMME

            a)Giving utmost priority to the rehabilitation of big industrial regions by making available roads, drainage systems, water, electric power, transportsation, petrol storage, customs services, etc.

            b)Giving utmost priority to putting untapped energies and resources to work in the industrial projects, by providing these operational requirements such as: spare parts, raw materials, energy, etc., and ridding the impediments of productivity, solving the material problems of transportsation, marketing and administration, and achieving effective forms of financing for all operational needs.

            c)Giving suitable priority to the horizontal development projects, the replacement, renewal, and the improvement of quality, productivity and economic self-sufficiency without neglecting the horizontal and quantitative expansion.

            d)The installation of the systems of import licences for raw materials that do not enjoy any exemptions or specific preferential treatment, and cancelling all impediments of their free access, enlarging the systems of customs services, in order to distribute the customs burden to the total production cycle, limiting the administrative intervention in the distribution of industrial products and all that might lead to intervening with its transportsation or its delays in transportsations.

            e)Putting in detailed programmes to salvage the industrial projects that have stopped producing, handling the cause of their deterioration and closure, working towards the improvement of their financial structures, solving their financial problems including their accumulated debts, and reinvigorating them on the legal, organisational, administrative, and financial basis dictated by economic considerations and good management.

  1. THE APPLICATION OF THE REFORM AND ECONOMIC LIBERALISATION POLICIES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT   OPERATIONS

            This will entail:

            a)getting rid of State capitalist projects in the non-strategic areas, the adoption of policies that allow for the opening of a wide area to private initiatives and friendly investments, and the elaboration of broad forms of private property that include the widest of social groups, such as public companies, cooperative institutions, small industrial projects, and family ownership.

            b)liberalising the industrial public sector from the stifling bureaucratic systems, and the adoption of the best means of economic administration enabling it to compete in the environment of the market economy, and facing all forms of loss, bankruptcy or waste.

            c)liberalisation of the prices of the industrial products from the administrative shackles and monopoly pressures, enabling the competition mechanisms and economic considerations to determine the levels of prices and profits, abstaining from giving industrial masques marks to strictly commercial operations, or the misuse of the exemptions and preferential treatment of industrial products.  Consequently, industry should obtain its inputs through market prices without intervention, nor support, be it apparent or disguised, except in emergency situations or for brief periods of time.

            d)enabling industrialists to take the vital decisions in administering their establishments without bureaucratic and arbitrary intervention, and abolishing all limitations with respect to the liberty of sales, mortgage, rent or the admittance of new partners or changing the products and the purposes of the industrial establishments, as a necessary preparation for the formation of industrial establishments to capitalist roots capable of changing hands in a free market for financial purpose or bonds.

            e)guaranteeing freedom in dealing with foreign currency to enable the industrialist to obtain their needs from these currencies through the local and foreign resources.

            f)determining reasonable quotas of commercial protocols and programmes of goods importation, loans and facilities giving the government the ability to achieve the industrial products requirements.

THE POLICIES

  1. Reaching a frontal and rear linkage with the other economic sectors, and especially making available the necessary requirements for agricultural and animal production, and the elementary economic sector in its entirety, i.e.the mining resources sector and the construction and building sector. The tapping of the natural renewable resources (solar energy, wind and water) and the development of the existing agricultural industries based on the industrialisation and transformation of agricultural and animal products, and the development of transforming industries for mining resources and building materials.
  1. Developing the area of industrialising industrial equipment especially small industrial equipment, equipment for various trades, agricultural equipment, rural industrial equipment, engines for the production of building materials, engineering and electronic assembly industries, and the enlargement of the basic industrial infrastructure projects such as iron-ore treatment factories, heavy engineering workshops, and the industries of steel, iron and minerals.
  1. Realising a structural linkage within the industrial sector that leads to the development of secondary industrial projects and the exploitation of industrial remains and production loss, and secondary products for the major operations (industrialisation of …. and molasses in the production of sugar, etc.), developing projects for the production of goods that enter into the production of finished goods (production of pure … for food industries, soda … for the industry of oil and soap) and the industry of spare-parts and production helping equipment.
  1. Enlargement of projects of the small rural and trade industries, relying on the environmental, cultural characteristics and the traditional expertise to make available that which can help them develop, grow and expand to other parts of the country, on which the small industries can realise a social balance between rural and urban areas, by absorbing rural work surplus, enlarging the agricultural production market and making available the needs of local consumption.
  1. Working out programmes related to industries for export, based on the relative national advantages, that can lead to the intensification of the competitive advantage and potential, and characterising it with the model characteristics for sufficiency, and develop industrial dynamism (equality, the exploitation of secondary products, production of the best materials for packaging, utilisation of the proper raw materials, freedom from administrative headaches, and finding a solution to the transports problems). The adoption and the application of the concepts and systems of the free industrial zones to attract capital and technology, intensive industrial investments for export,  and the encouragement of the implantation of banking, financial, insurance, and air and sea transportsation services etc.
  1. Taking the necessary measures to protect industry from an unfair competition, without exaggeration, that can lead to the deterioration of the levels of quality, efficiency, competitive ability and protection of the consumer.
  1. The encouragement of national scientific and technological research, licensing systems and the transfer of technology, to achieve and promote the technology of the national industry, and the progressive building of national technology and expertise which can provide a suitable solution for issues involving the development of our natural resources, and the means of transforming them, giving them greater value. The introduction of modern management systems, and training establishments at all levels to build a national cadre of organisers and industrial inventors, and a big reserve of motivated skilled labour.
  1. The support of the industrial bank enabling it to play its leading and comprehensive role in operating structural adjustments of the industrial sector, making available the total financial and banking services, and the industrial technical services for the establishments of the public and private industrial sector projects. This necessitates the increase in capital and the orientation of some of the loans and facilities of the financial institutions and of the friendly States for that purpose.

            In particular, the strategy calls for enabling the industrial bank to undertake the following responsibilities:

            a)the spread of small industries and rural trades, providing for their needs and the equipment for their work, making available financial and other loans to them, and providing the technical and administrative advice that they need.  The establishment of centres of engineering services, renting of equipment, tools and power generators (compressed air for example, steam etc.) close to the society.

            b)Protection of the establishment of the leading projects for the realisation of a structural linkage within the industrial sector, through the production of intermediary goods and the preparation of production aids, spare parts and industrialisation of secondary products projects, industrial remains projects, or greater industrialisation operations.

            c)The protection of the establishment of leading projects that develop the country’s natural resources and that are based on relative national advantage or that are for export.

THE SECTORAL GOALS

  1. THE FOOD INDUSTRIES

            a)The development of the industry of vegetables and fruits canning.

            b)The development of the dry food industry.

            c)The development of animal feed and food products for export sector.

            d)Self-reliance and exportation of sugar and glucose products.

            e)The development of the meat production sector.

            f)The development of the child-food industry from local products.

            g)Enlargement of cold storage areas and the means of modern storage for agricultural dairy and animal products.

  1. SUGAR INDUSTRY

            a)The establishment of small factories for the production of sugar (175,000 tons) through the strategy years as a first stage.

            b)The establishment of new sugar factories for the production of 2,100 000 tons of sugar for export as a second stage.

            c)The development of the industries of sugar byproducts, such as molasses, paper, … … etc.

  1. ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES

            a)Concentrating on the industrialisation of equipment and tools for small industries.

            b)industrialization of spare-parts for productive sectors.

            c)Self-sufficiency with respect to batteries, welding metal and cooling and gas equipments.

            d)The industrialisation of agricultural tools and irrigation equipment.

            e)The industrialisation of the steel factories sector in the various parts of the Sudan.

            f)Assembly of electronic equipment (radio, telecommunications, and computers).

            g)The industrialisation of electrical equipment such as transmitters and ground cables, aluminium wires, metre reading, and keys.

  1. CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

            a)Self-sufficiency in chemical materials necessary for the sugar, textile, tanning, paint and explosives industry.

            b)Self-sufficiency in fertilizers.

            c)Starting the industrialisation of insecticides.

            d)Industrialisation of perfume materials.

  1. TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

            The Sudan should orientate itself to exporting textile products rather than raw cotton.

  1. LEATHER INDUSTRY

            The industrialisation of all forms of raw leather and the export of ready leather.

  1. INDUSTRIES OF PACKAGING AND PAPER

            a)Achieving self-sufficiency in paper.

            b)Self-sufficiency in plastic.

            c)Self-sufficiency in the production of carton boxes of all types and improving its quality to make it suitable for vegetable and fruit exports.

            d)The production of small containers for the products of medicine and perfume such as small boxes and bottles.

  1. OILS AND SOAP

            a)The industrialisation of oil seeds.

            b)Concentration on the good quality of oil products and their preparation for export.

            c)Concentration on the export of washing and toilet soap.

            d)Treatment of industrial waste.

  1. BUILDING MATERIALS

            a)The development of clay products such as bricks and tiles for ceilings and floors.

            b)Enlargement in the production of ?…

            c)The industrialisation of the products of ?… from local materials.

            d)Enlargement in the production of cement.

            e)The development of export of ?… and granite.

  1. SMALL INDUSTRIES

            a)The support of the basic infrastructure for small industries in the areas of food, textiles, building materials and leather industries, etc.

            b)The development of local production of equipment for small industries.

  1. THE INDUSTRIALISATION OF MEDICINES

            a)Self-sufficiency with respect to the basic medicines (240 medicines) in various pharmaceutical forms, as a first stage, and for export in the second stage.

            b)The establishment of a vaccination and vital products project and the support of scientific research relating to it.

            c)The establishment of units for the production of laboratory needs.

THE STAGE BY STAGE PROGRAMME:

  1. THE FIRST STAGE (1993-1995)

            a)Tapping of all the available working resources to achieve self-sufficiency and export.

            b)The concentration on the improvement of the quality of the industrial products.

            c)The modernisation and replacement of the existing industrial equipments, and the introduction of modern technology to improve quality and the quantity of the level of production.

            d)The extension in industry and the establishment of new industries should be preceded by detailed programmes and plans, and scientific studies with respect to raw materials, and detailed technical and economic feasibility studies.

  1. THE SECOND STAGE (1995-1998)

            a)The removal of the distortion and disequilibrium between the secondary industrial sectors and between the industrial sector and the other productive sectors, through the development of the spare-parts and packaging industries, the industrialisation of substitutes for raw materials (i.e. caustic soda) and service industries important to industry.

            b)The extension in the areas of sugar, textiles, food products, leather products and cement in order to produce a huge surplus for export.

            c)The establishment of new industries, such as the assembly of agricultural equipment, electronic equipment, and the industrialisation of caustic soda, insecticides, petro-chemicals and iron.

  1. THE THIRD STAGE (1999-2000)

            a)Putting to work the basic industries such as iron and petro chemicals.

            b)Completion of the extension in the export industries and the improvement of the quality of the products to be in tune with the international criteria.

            c)The total balance with the productive sectors in agriculture and the services sectors and those of the basic infrastructures, and the sector of science and technology.

 THE ENERGY SECTOR STRATEGY

            The Sudan depends, mainly, on energy supplies of a percentage that is more than 80% of its living mass.   Petrol and hydro-electric water falls constitute the remaining 20%.  The volume of petrol energy supply reached ten million tons in 1990 and despite this volume of supply, the final utilisation does not go beyond 30% of the total of the initial supply which is clear in the following statistics of 1990.

            The initial supply                                                         10 million tons

            That which reaches the consumer                   5 million (50% loss)

            The utilized energy                                         2.5 million (approx.75% loss).

            This reflects the lack of efficiency in energy transfer and energy transformation (wood to charcoal), in addition to the technological loss with respect to generation and transportsation distribution of electricity and petrol, and loss of consumption through the organisms and burning activities which reach in the aggregate more than 50%, and all this makes the overall amount of energy less than 3 million tons (30%).

            The present position of the energy problem requires a comprehensive view, and a thorough planning that aims at the optimal exploitation of all available resources, to feed the energy balance with the local resources in which the country is rich, such as hydro-electric power, the approximate estimation of which is more than 3,OOO mega watts, only 10% of which is exploited now, in addition to petroleum resources which have been discovered in more than one region.  Sudan also has resources of new and renewable energy, which if well exploited could solve the basic problems in rural and remote areas of the Sudan.

            The estimations of the demand on energy are based on the previous studies and the guidelines that were mentioned in the comprehensive strategy.  And the most important guidelines with respect to the estimations of the demand are, the doubling of the electrical production to ten times, and the data pertaining to demands on petroleum products according to the increase rate on demand in all productive and service sectors.

            The demand on electrical power is estimated by the year 2003 to reach 1 million tons of in petrol, on the assumption that water generation will constitute 60% of the input.  The demand on petrol products, according to the present expectations for the year 2003, is about 4 million petroleum tons, to cover the needs of the various sectors.  It is also expected that the demand on energy shall

remain constant in its present quantity, and that the relative contribution of energy shall decrease in the energy balance due to the expected increase in electricity and petrol.  On the basis of what we have just said, the expected total demand on energy by the end of the year 2003 shall be according to the following:

            ?…  ?…                                     9 million tons

            petrol                                                   4 million tons

            electricity                                            1 million tons

            The strategy of the development of the energy sector is inspired in its goals by the economic orientation of the country within the coming ten years with the intention to develop energy sources and the feeding of the productive sectors enabling Sudanese citizens to enjoy the fruits of a society of prosperity and civilisational growth.  These objectives can be detailed as follows:

            a)Making available energy that guarantees continuous development by relying on local energy sources and the exportation of the surplus.

            b)Raising the level of the organisation of the sector, realising the necessary coordination among the productive as well as the consumer sectors, taking into consideration the economy, the national interest, and the nature of exchange with respect to various energy sources.

            c)The protection of the environment through legislation with respect to the exploitation of energy resources, especially forests, and the encouragement of the replanting of trees so that solving the energy problem, should not happen at the expense of combatting desertification and soil productivity.

            d)The development of energy technology especially technology of new and renewable energies, and the energy derived from local sources.

            e)Rationalisation of energy utilisation.

            f)The development and the training of the human resources or the human element to cope with the challenges that face industry.  On the basis of all this, the components of the energy strategy are represented in the following:

IN THE AREA OF PETROL

            The amounts of petrol discovered up to now, according to the technical data, with respect to areas and quantities confirm that what has been discovered represents a very little percentage of the expected quantity, a fact that militates in favour of the intensification of the exploratory work and the development of the discovered quantities and their exploitation, and the development of the appropriate organisms to cope with that, in terms of organisation and legislation.

            Until the Sudanese petrol is extracted and exploited, whose contribution is expected to start before the end of the year 1995, the strategy and the petroleum supply plan is based on the following:

            Reliance on the importation of crude petrol and petrol products to cover the need (approx.2.7 million tons of petrol by the end of 1994) according to the following:

  1. Concentration on bilateral agreements to obtain the biggest possible amounts of loan facilities.
  1. Encouragement of private importation to bridge the gap between supply and demand.

            By the year 1995 it is expected that the Sudanese petrol and natural gas will contribute about 3.5 million tons of petrol and this will cover the demand up to 1997 and then it will be raised to 4.2 million tons through the addition of natural gas from the Red Sea area by the year 2000.  To maintain this level of productivity and the beginning of exportation, it is important to intensify the exploration right away.

IN THE AREA OF ELECTRICITY

            The strategy aims to double electrical production from 500-5000 mega watts through emphasising the utilisation of the water falls in which the country is rich, and the establishment of national transportsation networks to cover most areas of the country, especially the productive areas in the fields of agriculture and industry.  Consequently the electricity sector plan is based on the following:

            a)Continuation in the completion of the existing projects (the fourth and fifth energy projects), the rehabilitation and the improvement of the efficiency of the existing stations (Burri heating station, Bahri heating station, Gas stations in Kuku village, and n°:10, kilos and Burri, and Bahri, and the remote stations in the willayas).

            b)The creation of a number of water produced electricity stations reaching a total of 2000 mega watts (the raising of the Roseires dam, the fixing of three power generation units in Sennar dam, the Hamadab dam, and the installation of turbine units in the Jebel Awelia dam, the construction of the Steit dam on the Atbara river, and the development of the Khashm El-Ghirba dam).

            c)Making use of natural gas by creating stations with capacities of 1,200 mega watts.

            d)The creation of heating stations accompanying the creation of the Kosti petrol plant with a capacity of 750 mega watts.

            e)The creation of small stations in remote areas by  making use of new and renewable sources of energy.

            f)Making use of the available cheap hydro-electric power from the neighbouring states such as Ethiopia and Zaire, and linking them with the national network, helping to lower the amount of the consumption bill with respect to power generation.

            In support of these orientations it is imperative to promulgate legislation and elaborate policies that encourage the private sector to enter into the projects of electricity generation, production, transfer and distribution, in addition to enterring the area of industrialisation of electrical equipment and instruments.

THE AREA OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES

            The strategy aims at developing the sources of alternative energy (solar energy, wind energy, and … energy).  This includes the application of already tested technologies that have proven their economic viability, and the establishment of an intensive programme of applied scientific research in this area.

            With the exception of forests, the share of new and renewable energy sources, with respect to energy balance, will not be of a huge volume on the short term.  However, the qualitative role of these energies is in their limitless potentialities in solving pressing life problems, especially in the rural areas and that is through providing basic services to man and the development of his resources such as health services, making available water, education, communications, and small rural industries.  Consequently the plan in the area of new and renewable energy includes the following:

            a)The establishment of units for the production of wood and charcoal from agricultural waste.

            b)The establishment of units for production of improved oven decrease the waste in charcoal.

            c)The establishment of units for biogas for cooking and lighting especially in the rural areas.

            d)The establishment of a number of sun units to keep medicines for man and animal, and units for lighting in the rural areas.

            e)The establishment of units for the production of sun ovens for cooking and units for the production of distilled water.

            f)The establishment of a number of wind mills for water extraction.

            All this, in addition to the concentration on the rationalisation of consumption through education campaigns and the utilisation of appropriate technology as well as pricing policies.

            To achieve this, it is important to establish the legislative, structural and organisational frameworks that guarantee this sector a position, in which it can compete with the commercial sectors, and consolidate that, through applied scientific research and manpower training.

            In summary, it could be said that the point of departure for the energy sector requires the following:

            1.Paying attention to the sources of energy and making the optimal utilisation of what is available.

            2.Stopping waste and decreasing loss in the utilisation of energy through optimal exploitation of the available means.

            3.Paying attention to small industries in the area of new and renewable energy.

            4.The establishment of the legislative, structural and organisational framework that guarantee the progress of this sector.

            5.Paying attention to human resources as a basic factor to realise the strategy objectives through their training, qualification and motivation.

THE STAGE BY STAGE PROGRAMME

  1. THE FIRST STAGE (1993-1994)

            The first stage includes the first year of the strategy programme and is considered the corner stone in the take-off of this sector to achieve the ambitions included in the comprehensive strategy.

  1. THE AREA OF PETROL

            In this stage, concentration shall be put on the coverage of the need for petroleum materials, through importation via the bilateral agreements, private trade and imports.  In addition, this stage shall witness the beginning of the exploitation of Sudanese petrol, and the promotion of the basic infrastructures for the petrol sector, in a way to secure the arrival of petroleum materials and their flow in a regular manner to the production and consumption areas.

  1. THE AREA OF ELECTRICITY

            This is considered a contingency stage, with respect to the electricity sector, aiming at improving the efficiency of the sector, and what is available with respect to equipment for power generation, power transportsation and distribution, through rehabilitation programmes and the extension of the basic infrastructure and reconstruction, and that will include:

            a)The fourth and fifth energy projects in Bahri, that include the fixing of the third, fourth, fifth and sixth steam units.

            b)Raising the efficiency of the first, second and third water units in the Roseires dam.

            c)Introducing electricity to the cities of Wadi Halfa, and Jeneina, and starting the electrification of more than thirty other cities and three hundred villages, and the establishment of heating stations.

            d)Consolidation of distribution networks.

            e)Consolidation of the basic infrastructures for the electric sector.

            f)The completion of studies, preparations and designs for the Hamadab dam, and finding the necessary financing.

            g)Starting the generation of electrical power in the Jebel Aweila dam according to the prepared studies through the utilisation of the short water falls turbines.

            h)The preparation of the necessary studies and preparations, and the signing of agreements to make use of the continental line that carries the electrical surplus from Zaire to North Africa passing through the Sudan.

            i)Starting the institution of the project for the linking of the Sudanese national network in the Roseires area with a surplus of the water generated electric energy in Ethiopia.

  1. AREA OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES:

            This preliminary stage will be concentrated, with respect to new and renewable energy, on the application of already tested technologies through complete Sudanese expertise and will include the following:

            a)Extension in the utilisation of solar energy in the preservation of vaccins, vegetables and fruits.

            b)The extension in the exploitation of the mass of agricultural byproducts waste, especially cotton branches, and carrying it to the commercial exploitation.

            c)The construction of more biogas units.

            d)Extension in the exploitation of wood for the traditional industrial sector and the housing sector.

  1. THE SECOND STAGE (1995-1999)

            This is the take-off stage with respect to the energy sector programmes in the framework of the comprehensive national strategy.

  1. AREA OF PETROL

            This stage shall see the intensive exploitation of already discovered petrol in the fields of unity, higleeg, addar-yeel and in the Red Sea region, and it is expected that the production in this stage will reach more than 82,000 barrels a day of Sudanese crude oil.

            With this rate of production, the country shall attain self-sufficiency from petrol which is approximately 3.5 million tons annually.

            This stage shall witness the establishment of an internal complex of high efficiency in the country to treat Sudanese crude, in a way to achieve self-sufficiency at least.

  1. AREA OF ELECTRICITY

            This stage witnesses the beginning of the execution of the leading electrical projects in the area of water generated electricity such as:

            a)Hamadab dam with a capacity of 1 thousand mega watts on the River Nile.

            b)The beginning of the detailed study for the construction of the Laki Dam in the south of the country (south of Juba).

            c)Addition of two units in the eastern side of the Sennar Dam.

            d)The modernisation of the study for the Seteit Dam Station and the commencement of the execution procedures.

            e)The continuation of the programmes of the electrification of the cities and the rural areas.

            f)The completion of the Jebel Aweila project.

            g)The completion of the execution of the project of linking the Sudanese national network with the Ethiopian national network.

            h)Beginning the project of the western network by making use of the mazut that is extracted from discovered petrol in the western region.

            i)Making use of the continental line that is passing by the Sudan to North Africa to feed the Western network in the Sudan.

THE THIRD STAGE

  1. AREA OF PETROL:

            Exportation to international targets is expected to be reached by exploration operations using the quantities of extracted petrol, which makes it possible to go beyond the stage of self-sufficiency and to take off towards exportation.

  1. AREA OF ELECTRICITY

            a)Extension in heat generation for the important cities such as the heat generation of Port Sudan and the utilisation for the first time in Sudan of Sea Water in power generation.

            b)The completion of the Hamadab dam project and the addition of generating units to the dams of Sennar and Roseires.

            c)The beginning of the execution of the Laki Dam project in the South of the country and the Seteit Dam.

            d)The completion of electrification programmes for the country side.

            e)The completion of the national network.

                                                   THE MINING STRATEGY

            The Mining industry is considered one of the main corner stones of industrial and economic renaissance of any country.  It is strange and shocking indeed, to find a country as big as the Sudan whose land is full of minerals, and where this industry does not exist.  The Sudan is one of the very few countries in the world that still enjoys excellent opportunities for the exploration of huge raw materials with very little investment.

            For someone who looks at the geological map of the Sudan one finds that its land is covered with the basic rocks in most of its regions, and all these rocks, which are considered the main source of mineral wealth, such as gold, chrome, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, led, silver, tangasten, corrugated iron, asbestos, talc, manganzet, mica, canine, wollastonite, phosphate, fluorospare, flespar, quartz, chinese clay, uranium, graphite, marble, and granite.  These rocks appear on the surface of mountains, valleys and water run ways, in the region between the Nile River and the Red Sea Coast, and it extends southwards to the Angansana mountains, Kurmuk, in the Bayuda desert, the Nuba mountains, North Kordofan, West of Darfur, Bahr El Gazhal, and in the far end of the South of the Sudan.  All the above-mentioned minerals are industrial minerals of important strategic value.

            Sudan also has the rocks that are called Um Rwuaba deposits, and this extend southwards from the middle of the Sudan, especially in the Blue Nile area, and the White Nile area, Muglad, and the Sudd region ending up in the south-eastern borders with Kenya.  These deposits are the main source of underground water in its upper reaches, and petrol in its lower strata, and its surface is rich with various building materials.  As for Nubian deposits, these extend northward from the centre of the Sudan, up to the boarders with the Arab Republic of Egypt, Libya and Chad.  They are a source of inland water in their upper reaches.  The international petrol companies pay attention to this fact because of the possibility of finding petrol in their middle strata and of course their surface is full of various building materials.  The Red Sea coast extends for a distance of 700 kms, and where we find sand and carbonates, rocks, and ?… ?…, all are sources for building materials.  In addition, on the coast there are lots of salt fields that could use salt by evaporation by the heat of the sun, as for the black sands on the Red Sea they are mainly in the Trinktat region.

THE GUIDELINES OF THE MINING STRATEGY AND ITS GOALS

            The Mining strategy must be coordinated with the economic, political and social strategies in the Sudan, in the service of the permanent goals relating to sovereignty, national unity, economic growth, and the prosperity of life.  In the area of sovereignty and national unity, mining can contribute effectively in the national, regional and international development and the emphasis of the rights of the State in the development of its mining resources.  To realise economic growth it is imperative to reconcile and coordinate the development of the available natural resources, and guaranteeing their protection through their optimal exploitation, making raw materials available, and working towards increasing the returns from mine exports, the extension of the expertise base, and working for the protection of the environment from pollution resulting from the mining operations.

            Based on these guidelines, the mining industry will have a tangible role in the prosperity of civilisation in the Sudan.  The extraction of mines and their industrialisation shall cater for making available the needs of the citizens, with respect to lodging, food, health welfare, employment, transportsation, especially in the remote and diverse areas, in which are found the mineral resources, and the creation of the basic infrastructures in them, linking them with one another in all parts of the country.

            The main objectives of the mining strategy are the following:

            1.Updating the geological map, and the map of economic minerals.

            2.Carrying out mineral exploration operations, and the preparation of a mining investment map.

            3.Investment in mineral raw materials that are discovered in local industry which can realise self-sufficiency in the industry of cement and glass, fertilisers, tiles, chemicals and paints, with an emphasis on import alternatives.

            4.The development of the sites of chrome, mica, gypsum, marble, granite, iron, gold, zinc, copper, nickel, manganese, and uranium.

            5.Consolidation of the technical and human capabilities, and making available the appropriate financial resources that can measure up to the responsibility of the sector in the development of the national economy, and the extension of its base.

THE POLICIES, PRIORITIES AND MAJOR PROGRAMMES

            Mineral resources did not have a tangible role in the Sudanese economy, which is dependent mainly on agriculture, and the need is now very urgent to elaborate a realistic strategy for the development and the exploitation of mineral wealth to contribute side by side with the agricultural sector, in the development and prosperity of the Sudanese economy during the coming ten years.  It is imperative that this strategy be based on clear criteria which are easy to apply, clearly stating the real objectives, and the priorities that suit the geographical and geological variations of the Sudanese regions.

            The Mining strategy and programmes have been designed in a way to reflect their immediate economic impact.  Either through export, to make available foreign currency, or through local industrialisation to make available the alternatives for imported materials.  On the basis of the strategic view the following mining projects have been chosen and evaluated on the following basis:

            1.The value of the mineral or minerals and the expected return from them.

            2.The site of the mineral or minerals and their development and exploitation cost.

            3.The required investment capital.

            According to this policy the mining strategy will concentrate on the following:

            1.Increasing the production of the actually operating mines, gold extraction, the main mineral in the Sudan, due to the ease with which it can be extracted, the volume of its return, and on rocks and industrial minerals which make available raw materials for national industries and alternatives for imports.  On the basis of this policy the Mining strategy shall concentrate on the following:

                        a)Multiplying the production of chrome from the Anghasana mountains to three fold, approximately to 45,000 tons annually using rail transportsation as the major force.

                        b)Multiplying the mica production in the Rubatab region to five fold, which will be equivalent to 10,000 tons annually.

                        c)Multiplying the production of gypsum in the region situated North of Port Sudan to ten fold annually, approximately 200,000 tons, 100,000 tons of which for the plaster industry, and 50,000 for export and 50,000 for cement industry, in addition to the plaster quantity resulting from the burning of 100,000 tons of gypsum.

                        d)The gold production from the Aryiab Mines north of the Musmar station according to the partnership agreement between the government of the Sudan (60%) and French Companies (40%), according to the feasibility studies estimates, the extraction of 22 tons of gold in the following seventeen years.  The mining exploration make an overall inventory of gold in the Aryiab Mines and the estimation of its quantities shall be side by side with mining operations.  It is expected that the reserve of gold reaches more than 400 tons.

            2.The creation of new mines for the production of gold, after the detailed and complete studies which determine the exact gold reserve, during the first three years of the strategy and these are:

                        a)The Duaichat mine south of Wadi Halfa.

                        Preliminary studies have shown probability of 10 tons of gold in this site.

                        b)The Jebel Negim mine south-east of Abu Hamad.

                        The sure gold reserve in the part where the study has been completed has reached 700 kilograms and detailed researches shall be carried out to determine the total reserve in this site.

                        c)The area of Beulgwa south-east of the city of Roseires.

            This region should be intensively studied to determine the total reserve of gold up to a depth of 200 metres.  This mine has been discovered recently, where a number of thousands of citizens living in the region have the habit of extracting gold with traditional methods, from the rocks on the surface, at a rate of 2 lbs of gold weekly.  The geological phenomena that has been monitored in this region showed the existence of a huge gold reserve in it.  This region also is interesting because of its proximity from the Nile.  It is estimated that the detailed studies take about 3 years.

ROCKS AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS

            Rocks and industrial minerals are to be found in huge quantities in many parts of the Sudan.  They constitute the raw materials for most of the local industries, and they also can be exported to the international market.  These rocks and minerals are characterized by the easiness of their extraction through the open mines method which is very cheap.  Since its cost is lower in comparison with other minerals, it is important to limit its exploitation to the areas in which there is sufficient infrastructure that help in the transportsation of these materials to the regions where they could be treated or to Port Sudan for their export.

            The mining strategy concentrates on the evaluation of the raw materials and their exploitation for the cement industry to achieve self-sufficiency, from granite, ?…, phosphate, white sands, black sands, marble, asbestos, ceramics clay, wollastonite, manganzet, kianate, talc, and salt.

  1. EVALUATION OF RAW MATERIALS FOR CEMENT INDUSTRY:

            West of Berber in the northern province, and the Symaih region in the willaya of Kordofan, and Kapoeta in the equatorial willaya.  The initial studies have shown the existence of marble and clay in quantities sufficient for the production of cement for a period that goes for more than 50 years.  It is important that intensive studies be carried out in these regions during the first three years of the strategy to determine the total reserves, and to determine the quality of the raw material that is useful for industry, and hence to undertake the economic feasibility study.

  1. GRANITE MARBLE:

            It is possible to extract and export 50-100 thousand layers of marble and granite from the Red Sea regions, the Gharri mountain south of Shendi, and Makram mountain in Kassala.

  1. PHOSPHATE EVALUATION AND EXTRACTION

            From the Karan mountain in the Abu Gubaiha region for local use and where the visible quantities on the surface are estimated by about 324,000 tons.  The studies have shown the possibility of the direct utilisation of the raw material, without a need for its treatment after its crushing.  The raw material needs detailed studies to estimate the reserve up to a depth of 50 metres.

  1. WHITE SANDS:

            The quantity of these sands which are useful in the industry of glass is estimated at 20 million tons, in the Matama area west of Shendi, and at about 3.7 million tons in Bara region north of Kordofan.

  1. BLACK SANDS:

            These sands are available in huge concentrations all along the Trinktat coast along the Red Sea where Almanate mineral quantities are estimated at about 600,000 tons, the Rotel mineral by about 45,000 tons, Zarkoun by about 110,000 tons, and all these minerals have important industrial utilizations in the international markets.  The total reserve of the black sands can be increased through the application of detailed studies on an area of 25 kilometres.

  1. THE PRODUCTION OF PURE MARBLE FOR THE SUGAR FACTORIES

            And that through burning the raw materials of very good quality, in the Rabak area, or Carbonatite in the Dambir mountain, west of the Symaih station in the willaya of kordofan.

  1. THE CREATION OF A MODEL SALT PRODUCTION SITE:

            For the production of 70,000 tons annually, to be used for the industrialisation of pure food salt, caustic soda, and medical purifying elements.

  1. ASBESTOS:

            The asbestos reserves in both the Anghasana mountains and the Attache mountain in the central willaya is estimated at approximately more than 260,000 tons, that can result in the extraction of 16,000 tons annually to meet the needs of the Asbestos pipe factory importing this quantity from abroad.

  1. Undertaking the economic studies in view of the exploitation of the Wollastonite raw materials in the industrialisation of plastics, kianate and manganzet in the industry of bricks, the industry of brick and talc in the industry of reels for motor vehicles and soap and materials for beauty, and chinese clay for the industry of tiles. All these raw materials are available in economic quantity.  To facilitate the achievement of the goals of the mining strategy, and to create the suitable climate to attract investors in the area of mining, especially the international mining companies, to participate and contribute in the execution of the mining programme, and the programmes for mining exploration, it is important that the comprehensive strategy be accompanied by important legislative, institutional, and organisational changes that can be summarized as follows:

            1.The modification of the mining law of 1972 in a radical manner to suit the Sudanese economic and political system.  This law should state clearly the Sudanese policy to encourage investment in the mining area especially where it has a relationship with the needs of the State

            and its rights in its mineral wealth, the duties of the investor and his rights, the financial and taxation system, the participation of the State, and the administration of the mining industries and their operation under the supervision of the Ministry of Power and Mining in the framework of the present orientation with respect to sectoral laws.

            2.The organisation of the associations, institutions, establishments and public companies in the field of mining, to work in harmony and in total coordination, and the setting up of the administrative structures that render them more competent, which organize their performance, and that supply them with the technical and financial capabilities that can lead to the improvement of that performance.

            3.The creation of an advisory council for mining, which is responsible for the coordination, supervision and follow-up of all the mining exploration and exploitation activities, and looks into its exportation or industrialisation, with a view to raising its economic value.  This should include the authorization of licences, permits and the conclusion of mining agreements.

            4.The encouragement of the establishment of cooperative societies or specialized companies that deal with the buying and marketing of minerals internally and externally, and guaranteeing its financing from the banking sector.

            5.Laying down a programme that aims at the tapping of the specialized human resources in the area of mining in the universities and the executive sector, putting the emphasis on the economic side (the mining economies) and the rehabilitation of the specialized technical frameworks in all the areas of geology and mining and the training of their personnel.

PROJECT N°:1

Upgrading the production of chrome from the Anghansana Mines – the Blue Nile Province – the Central Willaya to 45,000 tons annually.

The Executing Agency:

  1. The Sudanese Mining Corporation.
  1. The Private Sector.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

-Includes the programme of work and the following with respect to the foundation: the rehabilitation of the operating mines through undertaking intensive geological studies inside and outside the Mines.

-Digging wells to determine the total reserves of the raw material in the open mines and around.

-Since the Mines produce nowadays about 12,000 tons, the plan aims at upgrading productivity according to the following in the span of 3 years.  1.  From 12,000-16,000 in the first year.  2.  From 16,000-20,000 in the second year.  3.  From 20,000-25,000 in the third year.  With regard to the private sector the rehabilitation of the Mines must be done in the same way by upgrading productivity to 20,000 tons annually through the rehabilitation of the Mines and the determination of the reserve therein and the preparation of a timetable for the extraction operations that is gradual in its movements upwards for a period of three years to attain in 1995, 20,000 tons

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

The Plan includes the following:  -The opening of new Mines in the licenced areas given to the Corporation so that the production reaches 25,000 tons annually and in a stable fashion.

-The undertaking of an evaluation of the total reserve of the raw material and the determination of the potential life-span of the open mines on the light of the reserve and the annual production rates.

-The private companies shall undertake with the help of the Corporation if need be, the determination of the total reserve of the raw material and the continuation in the upgrading of the productivity of the rates agreed upon as well as the estimation of the potential life span of the open mines on the light of the total reserve and the annual rates of production.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

-Continuation of the productivity with the rate of 25,000 tons annually.

-Continuation in the operations of open Mines development and the discovery of new sites in the licenced areas.

-Determination of the work development in the stage after the strategy.

-The continuation of productivity with the rate of 20,000 tons annually with regard to the private sector.

-Determination of the work progress for the stage after the strategy.

PROJECT  N°:2

The rehabilitation of the Mica Mines in the Shereik area – Northern Willaya.

To produce 10,000 tons annually as a total output of the region.

The Executing Agencies:

  1. The Sudanese Mining Corporation.
  1. The Private Sector.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

The Plan includes the following:

  1. Rehabilitation of the open mines and the upgrading of their productivity. 2.  Determination of the raw material reserve in the various sites through the geological studies and the test wells.  3.  Determination of the reserves that can facilitate the graduation of the annual productivity in the following manner:

-2,000 tons the first year.

-3,000 tons the second year

-5,000 tons the third year.

The estimated annual productivity – 5,000 tons, and the Corporation shall enncourage the private sector to invest in mica mining and the marketing for the production of 5,000 tons gradually within the span of the proposed 3 years.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

The programme includes:

-The opening of new mines for production, the estimation of the total reserves in the area, and  determination of the exploitation strategy.

-Determination of the potential life-span of the Mines and the control of productivity on that basis.

-Opening external markets for Sudanese Mica on the basis of its excellent quality.

-The coordination with the private sector to control productivity and upgrade it to 10,000 tons annually (from both public and private sector) and opening of external distribution markets.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

The control of productivity according to the distribution markets and the adoption of a production strategy in the light of the overall reserves for producing 10,000 tons for exploitation annually.

PROJECT  N°:3

The rehabilitation of the gypsum areas and the doubling of production to 200,000 tons annually in the area of Birayait – North of Port Sudan – Eastern Willaya.

The Executing Agency:

The Sudanese Mining Corporation.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

-The rehabilitation of the open gypsum sites in the area and the upgrading of the productivity.

-Opening new gypsum sites to cover the productivity aimed at.

-The study of the internal markets and the marketing ways.

-The study of the external markets and their needs for marketing 50,000 tons as a minimum.

-Working towards the establishment of a factory for the production of plaster locally and the marketing of the products, gypsum layers and blocks.

-Graduation of the production objective according to the following:  -the first year, 20,000;  -the second year, 70,000 tons of which 50,000 tons for export;  -the third year, 100,000 tons of which 50,000 tons for export and 30,000 tons for plaster.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

The completion of the plaster factory and the upgrading of the productivity of the gypsum sites to 200,000 tons to meet the expected needs for the raw material and its products due to the expected extension in the industry of cement and gypsum and other products.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

Controlling the production rates in the light of the distribution markets and the elaboration of a scenario for the progress of the work after the strategy years, knowing that the estimated quantity of the raw material in the area is 200 million tons from the high quality gypsum and which could be increased through the intensification of studies.

PROJECT N°:4

Evaluation of raw gold in the Dokshat mine south of Wadi Halfa – Northern willaya.

The Executing Agencies:

Stage 1:  The Public Corporation for Geological Research.

Stages 2 and 3:  The investing organism:

Public and private sectors.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

-A detailed review of the geological map.

-A very specific determination of the areas and the inclination of the gold-carrying roots.

-Undertaking the contouric and geophysical survey to determine the form and the underground extensions of the raw material.

-Collection of geochemical specimen to follow the nature of the availability of gold and its areas of concentration (around hundred specimens)

-The drilling of fifteen test wells to a depth of 100-150 metres and the analysis of the gold carrying specimen.

-Undertaking the laboratory analysis to determine the gold percentages and the necessary test to extract gold from the raw material to the maximum degree possible.

-The preparation of the final report about the raw material reserve and its quality.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

Based on the results of the first stage the following shall be done:

1.Undertaking the economic feasibility study.

2.Making available capital.

3.Importing mining equipment.

4.Constructing the engineering infrastructure and the preparation of the Mine for production.

5.Commercial production.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

Production and the purification of 810 kilos of gold by treating 45,000 tons of the raw material annually, and this continues until the depletion of the raw material according to what is determined by the results of the studies of the first stage.

PROJECT N°:5

The evaluation of the gold deposits in the area of Balgwa in the south of Roseires Central Willaya (new discovery).

The Executing Organisms:

Stage 1:  The Public Corporation for Geological Research.

Stage 2 and 3:  The investing organism:  Public or Private Sector.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

Undertaking general and detailed geological, geochemical and geophysical studies.

Following up the deposits extensions through digging surface areas and the collection of geochemical specimen.

Carrying out the necessary chemical analysis to determine the gold carrying rocks and the percentage of gold content and the areas of its concentration generally.

Study of the chemical and physical characteristics of the raw material.

Drilling 15 test wells to follow the raw material and its extension under the surface.

The analysis of the obtained specimen from the testing wells.

The final decision with regards to the raw material reserve and the degree of its quality.

Carrying out the economic feasibility study.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

Based on the results of the first stage:

1.Determining the required capital.

2.Importing mining equipment.

3.Constructing the engineering infrastructure and preparation of the mine for production.

  1. Commercial production.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

The commercial production shall continue with the annual production rate determined by the feasibility study upto the end of the mine life span.

PROJECT N°:6

The evaluation of gold – in the area of Jabel Najeem – East of Abu Hamad, Northern willaya.

The Executing Organism:

Stage 1:  The Public Corporation for geological research.

Stages 2 and 3:  The investing organism (public sector or private).

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

Undertaking the detailed geological, geochemical and geophysical studies with a view to determining the nature of gold availability in gold carrying rocks in addition to copper, silver and zinc and all geochemical specimens.

Drilling test wells up to 100 metres depth to determine the form and the extension of the raw material under the surface.

Undertaking the laboratory analysis to determine the percentage of gold and other elements and carrying out the necessary tests to extract gold.

The estimation of the total reserve for the raw material and its quality.

The economic feasibility study.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

On the basis of the results of the studies in the first stage:

1.Determination of the required capital.

2.Importation of mining equipment.

3.Beginning of the commercial production.

4.The capital and the production costs according to the feasibility study plan.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

The commercial production shall continue at the annual production rate determined by the feasibility study upto the end of the life span of the mine.

NOTE:  The actual amount of gold has reached in the part of the raw material studied in detail to approximately 700 kilograms.

PROJECT N°:7

The economic evaluation of the black sands in the coast of Terketab in the Red Sea – South of Sawakin – Eastern province.

Executing Organisms:

Stage 1:  The Public Corporation for geological research and Stages 2 and 3 the investing organism (public sector or private)

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

Undertaking the general and detailed geophysical survey to determine the areas of the concentration of black sands.

Collection of the regular specimen upto a depth of 6 metres (1,500-20,000 specimen).

Undertaking laboratory tests to separate black sands from white sands and to separate important industrial pines from one another.

The estimation of the overall reserve for black sands, and hence determination of the industrial mine reserves such as almanite -zarkoun and rofiel.

Carrying out the economic feasibility study.

SECOND STATE (2 YEARS)

Making available the required capital.

Importation of mining equipment and a factory for the separation of minerals and packing.

The establishment of a port for exports.

Commercial prdoduction for export.

It is possible to start immediately in the exploitation of the established reserves of the black sands (11 million tons to extract 600,000 tons of almanate and 100,000 tons of zarkoun mineral and 35,000 tons of rofiel minerals side by side with the studies appearing in the first stage to determine the overall reserve in the area.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

The commercial production continues through the productive life according to the plan and the studies upto the end of the life span of the mine.

PROJECT N°:8

The evaluation of the phosphate raw material – Abu Gubaiha – willaya of Kordofan.

The Executing Organisms:

Stage 1:  The Public Corporation for geological research.

Stages 2 and 3:  The investing organisms (public sector or private).

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

Undertaking a detailed geological and geophysical studies.

Drilling 30 wells upto a depth of 50 metres to follow the extensions of the raw material and its quality.

Carrying out the laboratory analysis to determine the percentage of the phosphore oxide in the raw material and undertaking necessary choices to treat the raw material so as to make use of it as a fertilizer.

The estimation of the overall reserve.

Undertaking the economic study to help in the industrial and agricultural benefit from the raw material in the Sudan.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

The study of local marketing and the possibility of export.

Generalising mines and engineering establishments.

The importation of mining equipment and a factory for the treatment of the raw material.

Commercial production.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

The production continues according to the annual rate that will be contained in the feasibiliity study and upto the end of the life span of the mine.

PROJECT N°:9

The evaluation of the raw material for the industrialization of cement, West of Berber – Northern willaya.

The Executing Organisms:

Stage 1:  The Public Corporation for geological research.

Stages 2 and 3:  The investing organisms (public sector or private).

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

Carrying out the geological surveys on marble and clay deposits.

Studying the chemical and natural specifications for the raw material.

Executing the drilling of wells to the depth of 100 metres and the collection of raw material specimens (25 wells or 2,500 metres).

Digging out furface wells up to the depth of 2 metres in the clay deposits and the collection of a specimen.

The carrying out of chemical analysis to know the quality and suitability of the raw material for industry.

The estimation of the reserve of marble and clay.

Preparation of the final report.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

On the basis of the results of the first stage the economic feasibility study shall be undertaken to determine the establishment of a cement factory in Berber.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

The beginning of the production based on the results of the feasibility study – determines the quantity of the annual production of cement.

Taking of the decision with regard to adding industry.

Finding the necessary financing.

Establishment of the factory and opening mines.

PROJECT N°:10

The economic evaluation of the white sands deposits that are suitable for glass industry in the areas of Matama, West of Shendi, in the Northern willaya, and of Bara, North of Kordofon.

The Executing Organisms:

The Public Corporation for geological research.

When a suitability is established, the Sudanese Mining Corporation and/or the private sector, or the public sector or the mixed sector shall undertake exploitation operations.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

Undertaking the detailed geological studies with regard to the two sides, and these include:

Detailed geological mapping for the area of sand deposits.

Taking sufficient specimen from the surface and downwards in the different layers upto a depth of 5 metres to determine the quantity and the quality.

The chemical analysis of all the specimen and the determination of the suitability for glass industry.

The study of the possibility of raising the quality of the industrial specifications required for glass production.

Undertaking the economic feasibility study to exploit the raw material.

The final report with the recommendations.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

The exploitation on the light of the feasibility study.

Due to the knowledge of the sites of the raw materials, the studies could be carried out in the first four years, at the latest, if the means are available.

PROJECT N°:11

The economic evaluation for the raw material of marble, the pure and good marble that could be used in sugar industry.

The sites.

Rabak area (Nafar El Ragiga) the central province.

Jebel Dayir region.

Southern Kordofan – Kordofan willaya.

The Executing Organism:

The Public Corporation for geological research in the research stage.

The Sudanese Mining Corporation, the private sector, or the mixed sector in the stage of commercial exploitation.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

Detailed studies on the sites of the raw material in both areas and these include:  detailed geological mapping of the area.

Undertaking geochemical studies.

The digging of testing wells of 100 metres depths to determine the quality with respect to the depth.  The analysis of the extracted specimen to determine the quality of the raw material.

Determination of the useful quantity for exploitation in the sugar industry.

Undertaking economic feasibility study for exploitation.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

In the light of the feasibility study, it is possible to exploit the commercial raw material in this stage.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

PROJECT N°:12.

The evaluation of iron ore in the areas of Karanway North-West of Jebel Mara Darfor willaya.

The Executing Organism:

The Public Corporation for geological research in the research stage.

The commercial exploitation (Stage 3) shall be undertaken by other investing organisms from the public sector or the private sector or the mixed sector.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

The proposed work programmes.

Undertaking detailed studies on the raw materials that include detailed mapping for the area to know the extensions of the raw material and its geological description.

General and detailed geophysical studies.

General and detailed geochemical studies.

Digging of trenches.

Digging of testing wells upto 100-150 metres deep (about 48 wells to determine the third dimension of the raw material and its reserve.

The analysis of the mixed specimen and the determination of the quality of the raw material with regard to the depth.

The preparation of a detailed report on the quantity and the quality.

Recommendation for future studies.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

This stage includes the economic feasibility studies for the raw materials and these are:

-The extraction cost.

-Mine designs.

-Mining equipment and instruments.

-Determination of water resources in the area.

-Determination of energy sources in the area.

-Determination of the required work force.

-The basic infrastructures and their availability.

-The available alternatives for the exploitation of raw materials such as: sale in the form of raw material.

-Intermediary or complete industrialisation.

-Partnership in the exploitation with neighbouring States.

-This stage depends on the completion of the first stage on time.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

Opening mines in the light of the results of the feasibility studies.

PROJECT N°:13

The evaluation of some of the industrial raw materials and beauty materials in the various regions in the country, and these are:

1.Mangnezate and talk – Gala El Nahal – the central willaya.

2.Manganese raw material (West of Berber – Northern willaya).

3.Knanite, Walastonite and Kaoline, Northern and Read Sea willayas.

4.Marble and granite.

Various parts of the country.

5.Asbestos (Gala El Nahal).

The Executing Organism:

With respect to studies: The Public Corporation for geological research with regard to commercial exploitation – the public sector, the mining foundation, the private sector or the mixed sector.

FIRST STAGE (3 YEARS)

This includes the required studies.

The completion of all the known studies about these raw materials to a stage whereby the evaluation of the feasibility of its commercial exploitation could be achieved.

Since these studies constitute three different stages, each raw material will be considered a special case study.

Generally, however, it is important that the study contains basic geological studies (detailed mapping).

-Geochemical studies.

-Geophysical studies (when necessary).

-Analysis of rock specimen to know the specifications for commercial exploitation.

-Some sites require the study of a possibility of raising the quality to meet the industrial specifications.

-Completion of the technical reports.

NOTE:  Tiles and granite dont require intensive geological studies only the digging of the sites and the knowledge of the quality.

SECOND STAGE (2 YEARS)

Feasibility studies for exploitation on condition of the completion of the on-site on-going studies and the setting out of priorities for the sites whose feasibility studies are required on an urgent basis, for example:

  1. Absestos.

2.Manganese.

  1. Tiles and Grranite.
  1. Matrite and Talc.

THIRD STAGE (5 YEARS)

                 THE STRATEGY FOR THE SECTOR OF TRANSPORTATION,

COMMUNICATIONS AND STORAGE

INTRODUCTION

  1. THE RAILWAY STRATEGY
  1. THE ROAD TRANSPORT STRATEGY
  1. ROADS AND BRIDGES STRATEGY
  1. RIVER TRANSPORT STRATEGY
  1. SEA TRANSPORT STRATEGY
  1. SEA PORTS STRATEGY
  1. AIR TRANSPORT AND AIRPORTS STRATEGY
  1. PUBLIC TRANSPORT STRATEGY
  1. PETROL PIPELINE NETWORK STRATEGY
  1. STORAGE STRATEGY
  1. POST AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY


   TRANSPORTATION, TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND STORAGE STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

            The infrastructures, especially the infrastructure of transports and communication, have a central role in development in a huge country like the Sudan, due especially to its pivotal role in the political and cultural link of the population, the consolidation of national unity, giving the appropriate place for the cohesion and the fusion of its different ethnic groups and cultures, to build the civilisational renaissance that the strategy aims at achieving.

THE PRESENT SITUATION OF THE SECTOR

            The deterioration of the economic conditions during the last decade, the weakness of the international development, the dislocation of the agricultural and industrial production establishments, the weakness of the growth of exports, and the decrease of foreign finance and mismanagement, have reflected negatively on the growth of the transports and transportsation sector, which has led to a huge deterioration in the maintenance levels and the non-renewal of equipment.

            Despite the efforts that have been deployed in the construction of roads, and the modernisation of river transports, railways, sea ports, and the increase in the investments in the means of road transports and the programmes of the rehabilitation of the communications sector, performance of this sector has deteriorated dramatically.  This has constituted one of the major obstacles for economic revival in the country, due to a number of factors, most important of which are the following:

            1.The absence of an elaboration of a national strategy for the development of the sector.

            2.Negligence of some of the basic concepts in planning, such as the complementarity between various transports sectors and the competition among them.

            3.Lack of statistics, information, modern management and a data base.

            4.The weakness of investment in this sector, in addition to its technological and administrative under-development.

            5.Bad maintenance because of the lack of inputs and technical capabilities.

            6.The high cost of operations.

            7.Weakness in the exploitation of the available potential.

            8.The decrease in the efficiency of the administration and the necessary cadres for planning, administration, and management of operations.

            9.The non-existence of the transformation industries in the area of transports and communications.

THE GUIDELINES

            The strategic planning for developing the transports and transportsation and construction sector in the homeland necessitates the careful adoption of the following guidelines:

            1.The carrying out of a gradual and balanced programme for the development and administration of the basic structures of transports and transportsation and construction to meet the needs of all the sectors.

            2.The reform, modernisation and maintenance of the more important elements in the existing basic structures and equipments, with a view to improving its capability and capacity of utilisation, the prolongation of its assumed life span.

            3.The planning of human resources and their utilisation to improve the services of the working force, guaranteeing their availability at all levels, for the efficient administration and operation of the transports and transportsation networks.

            4.Upgrading the administrative capability by improving the quality of the services and their availability, by adopting suitable policies, and administrative arrangements that consolidate their capacities, elevate their productivity, increases their profitability, and guarantees at the same time economic and social development.

            5.The establishment of a modern data base in the sector, as a tool for analysis, planning and administrative development.

            6.The development of the industrial capacities with a view to keeping up with the rapid changes in technology and the market situation in the area of transports and transportsation, and the decrease in costs and lowering the need for foreign currency through the local industrialisation of some spare parts and equipment.

            7.Guaranteeing security and tranquillity and the protection of the environment.

            8.Improving the transports and communications in the rural areas where the majority live, and where the economic productivity resides.

            9.Paying more attention to urban transports by making available the necessary tools, and improving administration, to meet the growing demand due to the increase in the urban growth, and emigration from the rural areas.

            10.Modernisation of the wire and non-wire telecommunications networks, and making available the telephone services in all parts of the homeland.

THE GOALS

            On the light of the previous guidelines the following strategic goals for the branch sectors in the area of transportsation and construction have been specified.

  1. AREA OF RAILWAYS

            Extending the existing railway network three fold, linking it with railways in the neighbouring States, and increasing its transports capacity twenty fold.

  1. AREA OF ROAD TRANSPORT

            Increasing the transports capacity twenty fold.

  1. AREA OF ROADS AND BRIDGES

            Increasing the existing roads many folds to be connected with the eight neighbouring States, and the construction of bridges across the Nile and its main branches, in production and densely populated areas.

  1. AREA OF AIR TRANSPORT

            Linking all parts of the Sudan with air transportsation, developing airports and railways, making the Sudan a regional and international transportation centre.

  1. AREA OF SEA TRANSPORT

            Increase of the existing sea fleet five times, and the rehabilitation of Port of Sudan and Osman Digna in Sawakin, and the development of more ports and harbours.

  1. AREA OF RIVER TRANSPORT

            Increasing its present capacity twenty fold, rehabilitating steamer stations, increasing Nile ferries, and enlarging the number of sailing boats, with a view to protecting the Nile environment.

  1. AREA OF PETROL PIPELINE NETWORK

            The development of the pipeline network to meet the increasing needs of transports, and the extension of the petrol transports network, a transports network of raw and refined petrol, linking the transports of petrol with production and exportation areas.

  1. AREA OF POST, TELEGRAM AND TELEPHONE

            Covering each city and major village with mail, telegraph and telephone service, consolidating the efficiency of direct telephone communication, and all postal services.

  1. AREA OF STORAGE

            Increasing the storage capacity in the major areas of production and consumption, and on the sites of exportation, to cope with the volume of the expected increase in production, and guaranteeing the strategic reserve of cereals, making use of the modern as well as traditional resources.

  1. AREA OF THE INDUSTRIALISATION OF THE MEANS OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS

            The establishment of industries for the means of transports and communications.

THE POLICIES

            To achieve the goals of the branch sectors it is important to adopt a number of public policies within the sector that can be resumed as follows:

            1.Linking the transports and transportsation system with the economic and social development plan.

            2.Orienting transports and transportsation to strengthening the social and political interaction and cohesion between the willayas, consolidating development in them, and linking the production areas within them with the various means of transports.

            3.Orienting the policies of transports development towards the optimal utilisation of the enormous agricultural and animal resources.

            4.Determining the priorities of the transports projects on the basis of their long term contribution long term to economic and social development, and the realisation of national security, on the basis of an accurate determination of the relationship between population distribution and natural resources distribution and external trade with the other countries.

            5.The investment in the transports and transportsation sector striking a balance between satisfying the current needs and serving development in the other sectors.

            6.Investment in the transports sector should be forecast with respect to demand for its services and making available suitable capabilities to ensure the satisfaction of that demand through the stages of the strategy.

            7.The investment allotments in the various means of transports should be based on complementary approach and on coordination among them.

            8.The additional investment allotments should be awarded for the purpose of extending transports capacity or to linking projects between the various means of transports after checking their current operational efficiency and the possibilities of improving them.

            9.The operation of the means of transports should be done on a complementary basis, that takes into consideration the centrality of planning and the independence of the administration in the sub sectors.

            10.The railway is to be recognized as the main means of transportsation and work should be done to strengthen and develop it.

            11.Recognizing that the road network is a major input for the other means of transports in the medium term and a strategic alternative parallel to the railways in the major itineraries working towards the extension of the network with a view to linking the willayas.

            12.The exploitation of the Nile as a major natural water way, improving its basin, modernizing the river transports fleet, and reviewing its organisational structure.

            13.Working to adopt the system of various transports agents and establishing the appropriate systems and rules that can guarantee the utilisation of truck system.

            14.Orienting the commodity transports by utilizing the transports means appropriate for each commodity.

            15.Making available adequate storage capacities in the final and the intermediary stations to guarantee the exploitation of the transports capacities efficiently all the year round.

            16.Enlarging the capacities of ports and making available loading and unloading facilities and improving the efficiency of performance to absorb the increase in the commodity movement.

            17.Increase of the capacity of the sea transports to transports the biggest share of the Sudan foreign trade components and making available the necessary fleets for the purpose.

            18.Enlarging the capacity of the air transports internally and internationally and improving the airports and the railways and providing them with sufficient lighting to improve the efficiency level of the national aviation companies.

            19.Ensuring the sufficient level of means of communication to link all the regions.

            20.Adoption of effective maintenance systems and guaranteeing rapid movement of equipments and maintenance teams to respond to emergencies.

            21.Adoption of national policies to standardize equipment procedures, buildings and maintenance.

            22.Development of means of transports with a view to minimizing the consumption of fuel.

            23.A choice of technology with respect to the means of transports based not only on economic criteria but also on a criteria that takes into consideration the cultural and the social dimensions.

THE PRIORITIES

            The plan has adopted a scientific and a practical approach in establishing the and organizing the investment priorities in the sector through the various stages of the plan taking into consideration the available capacities and non-exploited ones, either for technical or administrative reasons, or because of the need for supportive investments which will transform them in the short term to exploited capacities thus rendering them responsive to answering the increasing demand on transports services that have not been satisfied up to now, and responding to part of the demand generated by the first stage of the strategy plan.

            It is possible to organize the priorities of this sector in the stages of the strategy in the following manner:

  1. THE FIRST STAGE

            The first stage extends to three years from 1992-93 to 1994-95 and the concentration in this stage will be on the rehabilitation and the reconstruction of the various units and patterns of transports and transportsation sector, with the purpose of developing efficiency in operational rates which are now deteriorating.  By orientating a reasonable percentage of the investments for the reconstruction of lines and operating the equipment, mechanisms and the networks that are not damaged and maintaining them and completing the execution of the projects on which work has been started.

            This stage should also see the completion of the administration reforms and the structural adjustments of the sector as well as establishing of financial investment, administrative and legal policies that achieve a greater degree of coordination in the stages of planning and execution including the development of the ?… of the working force and their training according to the strategy need.

            This stage is also concerned with doing away with the financial and technical bottle necks, the preparation of technical studies and the solution of all the problems that face the sector and prevents it from realising the desired goals.

  1. THE SECOND STAGE

            This stage extends four years covering the period from 1995-1996 to 1998-1999 and shall concentrate on the maximum utilization of the existing major lines and networks, and those which will be added in the first stage, supporting them by extending new lines and side roads linking them with the major national networks with a view to improving the flow rate of movement between the production consumption areas, for the purposes of distribution, and the realisation of the all social objectives, the first of which is giving opportunity to the less-developed rural areas to enjoy a fair share of social and economic benefits that are linked with the movement and transports.

            This stage also includes the construction of some roads and main lines which must be complete to meet the new transports needs that comes as a result of economic projects in the first and second stage or from these projects whose completion goes beyond the strategy period.

  1. THE THIRD STAGE

            The third stage extends for three years covering the period from 1999-2002 and concentrates on the extension of the major and secondary transports networks between the various willayas of the country and within these willayas with a view to increasing the link and the complementarity between various parts of the homeland and the various means of transportation.

            At the end of this stage the national network of transports and transportation will be complete, satisfying the specified goals, and it is hoped that all the maintenance projects will be completed so as to enable the transports and transportsation system to carry out its role in the realization of the comprehensive national strategy.

STAGES ACCORDING TO THE MEANS OF TRANSPORT, TRANSPORTATION AND CONSTRUCTION

            Following a summary of the stages of each means from the means of transports, transportsation and construction.

  1. RAILWAYS

            1.The first stage aims at clearing the existing bottle-necks through the development and rehabilitation of the basic infrastructures in engines, compartments, machines, equipment, communication lines and signs replacing the generators, the engines and the equipments whose life span has reached the end and the preparation of the studies, specifications and publication of tenders for the second stage.  In addition this stage will lead to raising the operational efficiency, especially on the railways, to enable it to contribute in the execution of the rest of the stages.

            2.The second stage aims at extending the modernisation of the signs and telecommunications systems and changing the bridges and the construction of more maintenance workshops, as well as the importation of train engines and new waggons to guarantee greater speed and higher capacity and thus raising the transports capabilities.

            3.The third stage aims at the extension of internal lines and includes extensions in the north, west and south line and the lines linking the country with the Arab and African neighbouring countries.  These projects represent the corner stone for realising the internal and external link.  In this stage shall be completed the project of doubling the line between Port Sudan and Haya and the modernisation of the telecommunications system, and the introduction of a centralized monitoring system on all lines, and the completion of the car fleet and the pulling power.

  1. ROAD TRANSPORT

            1.The first stage aims at the maintenance of the working trucks and the rehabilitation of the truck fleet that is out of order.

            This stage shall add a transports capacity which is estimated by about 5.2 million tons for the liquid and dry goods.  It will also contribute to the development of the means of operation with a view to increasing truck cycles at a rate of an additional cycle for each type of truck monthly.

            2.The second stage aims at satisfying the demand resulting from the new projects by extending the truck and lorry fleet annually to bridge the gap so that their capacity reaches the point of equilibrium with the demand on the transports services.  Also in this stage will be completed the exchange and the renewal of the dead trucks by new ones.

            3.The third and the last stage aims at the extension through addition to meet the demand on the transports services and the exchange of the old trucks and the completion of the maintenance and operational systems and methods and the raising of their efficiency.  It is expected that transports capacity of the trucks be raised during this period to seven fold compared with the year of the establishment, and the bringing up of the capacity to seven fold that will save a national transports capacity, whose systems will be complementary, and which is capable of coordinating with various means of transports which can meet the needs of the productive sectors.

  1. ROADS AND BRIDGES

            1.The first stage aims at supporting the public foundation for roads and bridges, reviewing in its organisational structure, in a way to keep up with the political and national developments represented by the Federal system.  The encouragement of the national contractor and the establishment of maintenance systems and regulations, the maintenance of the national roads and the existing side roads, the completion of the technical and economic studies for the major and secondary roads for the two stages, working towards making available the important ones among them and executing 5,795 kms of national roads, in addition to 1,805 km of secondary roads.

            2.The second stage aims at executing 2,653 km of side roads in addition to 2,921 km of various roads in the southern willaya.  At the end of this strategy the country will have achieved an interlink network of national and secondary roads that guarantees the smooth movement of goods and passengers for most parts of the country and links it with neighbouring States.

  1. RIVER TRANSPORT

            1.The first stage aims at the rehabilitation of the fleet and the basic infrastructure represented by the ?… and harbours and the ?… the rehabilitation of the workshops.  It is expected that 30% of these projects will be realized during this stage.

            2.The second stage aims at executing about 40% of the rehabilitation projects that were mentioned in the first stage and by the end of this stage 70% of the reform of the lines, the fleet and the ports will be completed which will enable contribution in a bigger way in the transports of people and goods across the various water ways.

            3.The third stage aims at executing the remaining percentage, which is 30%, and hence will complete the rehabilitation and modernisation operation by increasing the fleet, river capacities, station services, and maintenance thus raising the capacity of the river or river transports by the end of the stage to 6 million tons a year.

  1. SEA TRANSPORT

            1.The first stage aims at the execution of the projects and the establishment of financial organisation and legal policies that lead to the rehabilitation of the national sea career, which includes the modernisation of the equipment and engines that are used in loading and unloading, opening new lines, and buying of three new ships for the transports of passengers and animals and petrol, to enable the national career to provide all services of sea transports.  The ships represent a new addition to meeting the demand on services at an earlier stage of the strategy, opening opportunities for the hiring of ships to meet any new demand on the transports services.

            2.The second stage aims at the extension of the national career capacity from various angles, the first of which is the exchange of some of the old ships of intermediate carrying capacity and intermediate technology by 2 ships with bigger transports capacity (15-25 thousand tons), with modern technology that can cope with the technical developments in the area of sea transports.  The plan also aims at buying two new ships with modern technology and of an overall transports capacity of (30-40 thousand tons), to meet the extension in exports and imports transportsation.

            3.The third stage aims at the evaluation of the results of the projects that have been executed and the policies that have been applied in the previous two stages.  This evaluation will be apparent towards the end of the second stage through comparing the demand on the sea transportsation services and its available capacities, taking the decisions and drawing the policies linked with the projects of buying new ships or any other additions to enable the national career to realise the objectives of the strategy and, in this regard, the choice made between buying or hiring the ships and the determination of the types and required capacities to meet the expected volume of exports and imports.

  1. SEA PORTS

            1.The first stage aims at raising the operational efficiency, and increasing the absorption capacity in the ports (5-6 million tons) during this stage, through the execution of all the strategy policies represented in the financial, administrative and legal reform and the development of the human resources by intensifying their training and the execution of higher priority projects in the areas of civil works, equipment and mechanisms, and beginning the execution of the new port projects such as the port of Osaif and Salak and Halayab.

            2.The second stage aims at adding a new capacity that meets the demand generated by the increase in exports and imports by the completion of investments in the Port of Port Sudan, the Port of Osman Digna in Sawakin, the construction of the new Port of Sawakin, Saquala or Sakala, and the completion of the importation of equipment and machinery for loading and unloading, and the construction of open and close air warehouses to increase the percentage of loading and unloading of goods movement in the ports.

            3.The third stage aims at arriving with the absorption capacity to (30‑40 million tons, annually) through the completion of the sea ports projects that were started in the first two stages.

  1. AIR TRANSPORT AND AIR PORTS

            1.The first stage aims at raising the operational efficiency of the existing fleet of airplanes in the country, be it the property of the Sudan airways or the other airline companies or that which is used in the spraying of agriculture, and the rehabilitation and the maintenance of the present Khartoum Airport and the remaining operational airports and beginning the construction of new airports starting by the last year in this stage.

            2.The second stage aims at the extension in new airports and run-ways in their different degrees (the new international Khartoum airports, New Halfa, Damazin, Dinder, Marawi, El Muglad, El-Gineina, Nyala), satisfying the shortage with respect to people and goods transportsation by the fleet of airplanes, including spray planes, and the establishment of maintenance workshops, land equipment, and air navigation equipment.

            3.The third stage aims at completing the construction of the decided airports and runways and buying observation, air navigation and weather forecast equipment, and completing the construction of maintenance basis and buying of aircrafts for the transports of people and goods including spray aircrafts.

  1. PUBLIC TRANSPORT

            General transports plan aims at making available transports services of an acceptable standard and a wide extension of these services with the least possible costs for urban transports and transports between cities.  The plan includes the following stages:

            1.The first stage aims at the rehabilitation of damaged public buses in the willayas.

            2.The second stage aims at the importation of 388 big buses, 3,014 medium range buses, 325 cooperative taxis, 2,180 taxis and 1,350 trip buses.  It aims at the establishment of a tyre factory and battery factory and the encouragement of establishment of Assembly Plants for cars.

            3.The third stage aims at the importation of 3,880 big transports trucks, 3,014 medium size trucks, 325 cooperative taxis, 2,180 taxis and 1,350 buses for long distance travel.  It also aims at the introduction of the tunnel train system and the establishment of more tyre and battery factories.

  1. PETROL PIPELINE NETWORK

            1.The first stage aims at raising the efficiency of the operational plan by changing the pumping units.  Raising the designed plan capacity by adopting the ?… ?… ?… system, and the establishment of the Shendi pumping station, changing three kilometres of the line and changing the pumping units in Ports Sudan and Atbara to work by electrical turbines instead of diesel.  In addition, to prepare technical studies for the extension of the new lines network.

            2.The completion of the technical study for the extension of the network and starting it.

            3.The third stage aims at the completion of the extension of the new approved lines in the network and the preparation of studies that help in the elaboration of new plans in case of petrol discovery in huge commercial quantities in a way that these lines meet the new needs and extension in the new lines.

  1. STORAGE

            When we compare the available storage capacities and the needs of the strategic storage of cereals and cold storage for vegetables, fruits, meats according to the strategy goals, the storage is estimated by about 530 thousand tons in the first year, 3,430,500 tons in the fifth year, and 7,937,500 tons in the tenth year of the plan.  To meet the planned needs of the storage capacities the plan is divided into three stages that include the establishment of warehouses of new dimensions distributed as follows:

            1.The first plan for 3 years: the construction of ten stores of a capacity of 50 tons.

            2.The second stage for 3 years: the construction of 86 stores with the capacity of 50 tons.

            3.The third stage for 4 years: the construction of 159 warehouses with the capacity of 50 tons.

            In addition to raising the storage capacity for the export ports by rehabilitating the Port Sudan warehouses and raising its storage capacities to 100,000 tons, and the addition of a new warehouse with the same capacity.

  1. POST, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, WIRE AND RADIO TELECOMMUNICATIONS

            The plan in the area of telecommunications and posts aims at the rehabilitation of the services available, and the utilisation of modern tested technologies, the review of the existing laws to be in tune with the existing policies and investment systems prevailing in the world and the establishment of a national organism for specifications and criteria, ensuring the qualified human resources or personnel and the preparation for national industries in the area of Posts and Telecommunications equipment and instruments, the execution of the priorities in extending the stage lines at the horizontal or the geographic level, another service line, and a third for the preparations (equipment and construction sites).  The stages aim at the following:

  1. POST AND TELEGRAM

            a)The first stage aims at rehabilitating 165 postal and telegraphic units in addition to 270 new units.

            b)The second stage aims at adding 300 new postal and telegraphic units.

            c)The third stage aims at adding 300 new postal and telegraphic units.

  1. THE TELEPHONE AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS

            a)The first stage aims at rehabilitating 18,360 telephone lines and adding 18,680 new telephone lines.

            b)The second stage aims at adding 105,900 new telephone lines.

            c)The third stage aims at adding 288,500 new telephone lines.  Consequently the targeted total telephone capacity will be 665,500 telephone lines distributed among all cities and villages of the Sudan, so as to reach a percentage of telephone density ?… telephones per 100 persons on average, and the programmes of the three stages shall include the establishment of the accompanying preparations, for land cable networks, and means of radio transmission and power and cooling equipment etc.!

                                   THE EXTERNAL RELATIONS STRATEGY

INTRODUCTION

   THE CHANGES IN THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICS IN THE COMING DECADE

            Important changes in the nature of international politics has started to appear in the theatre of international life.  This calls for a strategic thinking to link our understanding of the present problems and complexities of international politics with projections relating to the changes, thus probing future orientations and prospects.

FIRST: THE NATURE OF POLITICAL FORCES IN INTERNATIONAL LIFE

            The coming period shall witness in the medium term a lack of clarity of power centres, a wide plurality of its models and impacts, and the downfall of the Soviet Empire shall lead to a gradual dismantlement of the traditional western strategic alliance.  We can therefore expect a new role in the world for a united Europe and Japan more independent from the United States of America.  We also can expect the appearance of new forces from the Pacific Ocean Basin States, Latin America, Asia and Islamic States, as well as the sovereign Soviet Republics.  These forces shall have a very important influence, based on their cultural, economic and political weight on the evolution and the nature of relations in the international life.

            The future shall not be determined by a one-power centre, and the criteria of power shall not be limited to military, political and economic power alone but new criteria of (soft) power shall appear in the international arena as a measure of cultural power, and the leadership in valid environmental affairs.  The State shall not be the sole actor in the international scene.  International, regional and non-governmental organisations as well as transnational companies shall have an effective role in the international life.

SECONDLY: MATTERS PERTAINING TO INTERNATIONAL POLITICS

            The international relations in the coming years shall not be limited to relations of war or the management of debt as said in the Arab language but rather on a number of diverse international issues which shall occupy a leading role in international relations, such as environmental issues, and the struggle against contagious diseases, the cleansing of drug money, the geographical explorations in the two Antarticas, the treasures of the sea bed, the matters pertaining to religions, cultures and civilisations, and the North/South dialogue in a more clearer framework.

THIRDLY: THE BALANCE OF INTEREST AND THE BALANCE OF POWER

            The third change would be the enlargement in the international life for relations based on the balance of interests, instead of relations based on the balance of power.  This will lead to a diminishing of zero strategy that is based on the idea that the gain of a party necessarily leads to the loss of the other party – and will be replaced by a strategy of relations of cooperation and mutual benefit.

            In other words, the areas in which the (soft) power can be used will grow at the expense of the utilisation of hard power.  This in turn will lead to widening of the meaning and the definition of power, since cultural advancement, and the brilliance of civilisational inheritance shall become an ever-growing criteria of power in the international relations.  The horizons of mutual benefits in all walks of life shall be widened.  The international trade shall develop, as well as international transfers, transfer of information and technology, and cultural exchanges in levels that have not been known by humanity.

FOURTHLY: WESTERN HEGEMONY ON THE NEW INTERNATIONAL ORDER

            The fourth change in international relations will be represented by a current that goes in contradiction with that of loosening power centres, and a relaxation in international relations, and a growing influence of soft powers.  This current is born as a result of the sudden downfall of the Soviet Union, and the monopoly of the United States of America of the position of the super power, the defeat of the fascist and marxist idealogy by the liberal capitalist idealogy.  These developments set free attitudes of comprehensiveisation of Western attitudes and pretensions of western comprehensiveisation and arrogant domination of the West, and has resulted in the creation of new criteria for international behaviour, based on Western values and western experience.  New conditions have actually come out to cover official western aids, and new pretexts for international punishments that clash with the criteria of national sovereignty have been established.  We can therefore expect in the short term the reliance on attitudes of coercion to create a world that is hypocritical and artificial.

            In these circumstances, the petrol wealth of the Arab world shall remain for a time a strategic burden for some time to the Arab future, since the shared interests of the industrialized West shall lead to the creation of an international pattern based on the violation of the control of the Arab world of its petrol resources, and its liberty in formulating its political systems.  These negative currents meet their opposite of the currents of positive change that are stronger, wider and deeper, which have in fact put an end to imperialist empires through world history.

            The essence of a strategic thinking is the ability to produce the historic future that is chosen, and not the future that is imposed by others or that is a product of haphazard development.  So what are the sources of power available in the Sudan? And what strategic potential that the Sudan has?  And what objectives the Sudan should aim at to produce the future it chooses?  It is the future in which in creating it we should be guided by the great leap forwards and the great feeling of ambition and the irresistible yearning of our Umma (Islamic Community) to glory and dignity.

            We are capable if that is our wish.

THE SUDANESE STRATEGIC FORCES

            The art of leadership is based on the realisation of a balance and practical harmony between the means available to the leadership and the objectives aimed at.  In this connection we analyse the resources of strategy power that is inherent and available in the Sudan, from the point of view of its development and transformation into effective power, and in essence it is part of the soft power that can be utilized and be influential in new international life.

            The power resources of the Sudan emanate from the facts of political and human geography, from its comprehensive history, from the depths of its ethnic and cultural relations, its natural resources and from the comprehensive nature of its living mass.  Sudanese cultures, and Sudanese languages, Sudanese religions, and Sudanese ethnic groups are deeper and wider than its political frontiers or territories.  The area of the Sudan within its boundaries equals that of the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Denmark together.  God Almighty has given the Sudan regions that each having its own vegetation, natural resources, diversity of animal and plant life, multiplicity of origins, cultures, traditions, and a variety of complexion.

THE SUDAN IS FIRST OF ALL:

            A small africa, it reflects on the complexion of its sons and daughters and the diversity of their origins and cultures, all what african represents, its ethnic origins, its civilisation and its nature embodies, as well as its plant and animal environments with the models of african nature.  And the Sudan with its linguistic, cultural, ethnic characteristics and the facts of its geography and history, extends to the East, the West and to the South to territories and a space that is wider than that of its political frontiers.  This is not a call for expansionism, but rather a definition of the most important soft resource of the Sudan, and the limitless scope, of collective benefits, and the intimate relations between the Sudan and its neighbours.

AND THE SUDAN SECONDLY:

            Is an Arab country that is authentic by the composition of its people, by its language, by its conscience, its culture and its history.  And because of its identity Sudan absorbs and contributes to the dynamism of the Arab forces and draws from these forces its power and its influence.  And if we leave aside the accidental problems, the Arab unity can make up the Arab Umma a huge worldly power, that holds the heart of the world.

AND THE SUDAN THIRDLY:

            Is part of the comprehensive universal Islamic entity, that extends across the various continents that include nations, states, provinces, communities, minorities, extending all over the world.  Islam gives the Sudan an additional deep dimension with its African and Arab culture.  Islam is the religion of Africa and its the Arabs first religion.  Sudan gets from its Islamic dimension its being part of all these diverse and wide entities, with its diverse forces, its ethnical groups, its languages, cultures, economies, and special relationships, which provide and receive from the Sudan strength and relations that go beyond its specific power and its relations, many many folds.  Islam is no longer just a matter of heritage in international relations, but rather it is developing into a force that inspires the revolutions of the Mustadafine (the damned of the earth) or the under dog …  It is a force that pushes towards the revival of identity, culture and intellectual prosperity, inspiring a living model for a human life liberated from worshipping anything except God.

THE SUDAN FOURTHLY:

            Is part of the non-aligned world and part of the South, sharing its colonial history the aggression and the hegemony in contemporary international life, and also the burden of the struggle for a new world, that is based on freedom, equality and justice.  The Sudan thus enjoys a give and take relationship as a result of the common stands with these States, and the establishments created by them, from the diversity of their powers, their resources, their cultures, and their special relations.  it also wields in this way huge power and influence.

AND THE SUDAN FIFTHLY:

            Owns tremendous resources of renewable energy, petrol and natural gas, water, agricultural land and mineral resources, and population density.  And if we leave aside the occidental and temporary problems and emphasized the wise and brilliant policies, the resources of the Sudan, from the point of view of its comprehensive development are capable of reconstructing the Sudan of the future, as a strong prosperous homeland politically, economically and culturally, capable of elaborating and adopting strategies in its foreign relations, that enable it to participate in the reformulation of the new world.

THE HIGHER OBJECTIVES OF THE SUDANESE FOREIGN POLICY

FIRSTLY:

            The protection of the higher Sudanese national security prerequisites in its comprehensive dimensions, and confronting direct and indirect interventions, aimed at internal disturbances, and that threaten the security of the country, its unity and its sovereignty.

SECONDLY:

            The protection of the fair share of Sudan from the waters of the Nile, and all other shared resources, as well as the protection of its rights in the territorial waters of the Red Sea and its regional waters and the adjacent areas, and the participation in collective projects, of the development and the management of shared resources.

THIRDLY:

            The employment of our foreign relations to consolidate the comprehensive development strategies in the country, in the economic, social, cultural, educational, scientific, military areas and the participation in international, regional, and the collective efforts and projects.

FOURTHLY:

            The utilization of the Sudanese foreign relations, and the resources of its power and its connections, to mobilize international and regional participation, especially from countries neighbouring Southern Sudan to put an end to military violence among the sons of the country, and pushing the efforts of constructive dialogue, to reach, stage by stage, conditions of building national unity, and resolving internal disputes, and the construction of peace on the basis of freedom, equality, national prosperity, reconstruction and rehabilitation.

FIFTHLY:

            Making of Sudan a centre for liberation from unfair Western hegemony on the balance of power and welcoming those who suffer, the poor, and upholding fighting side by side with the victims of injustice and accomplishing the duties of supporting the Palestinian people in its just cause and supporting the Islamic minorities that are victims of oppression, and fighting against the ethnic arrogance in Southern Africa and elsewhere.

SIXTHLY:

            Making known the authentic civilisational model the strategy aims at establishing and promoting it, to make it a model to be followed and a source of power to our Arab homeland, to our African continent, to our Islamic Umma (Community) and to the world community at large.

SEVENTHLY:

            Honouring Sudan’s commitments resulting from the nature of its ethnic and cultural relations, its political geography, its history, and taking the necessary steps that enable the optimal utilisation of the resources resulting from them, and in the following ways:

  1. The Regional Politics

            In the African plane the Sudan will endeavour to intensify profoundly its african relations, by enlarging diplomatic representation with all the nine basin States and the Sudanic belt, as well as Southern Africa by overcoming all the accidental problems that led to a cooling of relations or their deterioration with some of our neighbours and brothers.  In the Arab plane, the Sudan will endeavour to work towards the realisation of African solidarity, and the avoidance or the domination of the crisis of division and dispersal, and that all its public statements and stands will be characterized by tolerance and moderation, will endeavour to realize united arab positions, to guarantee the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people, and to encircle the provocation aiming at belittling the Sudanese/Libyan complementarity relations.

            The strategy shall endeavour to build the closest ties, especially with our brothers with whom we share very specific relations.  These include:

            a)The Sudan shall adopt comprehensive as well as partial policies, to transform the territorial regions shared with the Arab and African neighbours of the Sudan, from conflict, confrontation, illegal trafficking, to areas of shared peace, encouraging frontier trade, free social exchange, through the gradual removal of barriers for common life, and civilisational interaction, so that we can achieve comprehensive systems for regional complementarity, that lead to free movement of people, capital, commerce, and of services between the Sudan and its brothers and neighbours, and especially with Libya, Ethiopia, Eretrea, Egypt, and Chad.  The Sudan shall also endeavour towards the broadest policies of complementarity and collective solidarity between the African and the Islamic worlds, avoiding the creation of exclusive, negative or confrontational bodies, adopting an open frontier strategy with all its neighbours and brothers, with development partners and with the victims of famine and calamities and wars.

            b)Responding positively towards the needs of the neighbours of the Sudan and its brothers for Sudanese expertise and workforce, and the encouragement of the Sudanese to emigrate within the philosophy of their being part of the wide worldly family, and that wise policies be adopted to make it possible for the Sudanese communities abroad to enrich the relations of neighbourliness, and to enlarge its material as well as moral gain, and to achieve renaissance and a renewal with respect to its national links, helping them to contribute and fraternalize with their hosts.

            c)The expression of Sudanese genuine fraternity through the provision of Sudanese aid in areas in which Sudan excels to our neighbours and our brothers, without arrogance and with the utmost generosity and humility, on the following basis:

                        i)Opening our military and security colleges, our universities and institutes to the students from the African, Arab and Islamic countries, and sending our experts, our scientists and our educators on our expense or providing their services against pay to those who can manage, without embarrassment or complications, and financing of mutual scientific and technological researches.

                        ii)The financing of technical exhibitions, cultural festivals, Sudanese theatrical caravans in the brotherly countries, and promoting radio, television programmes exchange, as well as the curricula and the school text books.

                        iii)Providing the utmost help possible in the humanitarian aid programmes in the rehabilitation and reconstruction, in the neighbouring African countries, that have suffered from wars, famines and crisis.

                        iv)The Sudan endeavours to make the Red Sea an Arab/African Lake of peace whose security shall be guaranteed by the Red Sea States as well as the security of its coasts, reservation of their rights in the territorial waters, and continental shelf, and its adjacent regions, making of it an area of linkage and complementarity with the brotherly States that are overlooking the Red Sea, and to facilitate the construction of sea transportsation, fishing, mining, and the mutual researches that cover them.

  1. INTERNATIONAL POLITICS

            a)The Sudan aims to widen the contribution of Islamic, Arabic and African cultures in international life, and at the respect of their values, situation and interests, in reformulating the criteria of international behaviour and in checking the performance of international organisations.

            b)The Sudan endeavours to consolidate the linkages of collective solidarity in the framework in all its relations and the exploration of new chances for economic, military, scientific and cultural cooperation with the new groups from the emerging States whose products and terms of exchange meet the requirements of the country, as well as their international behaviour coinciding with our needs and our circumstances.

            c)Sudan endeavours to consolidate the policies of international detente, and the doing away with the utilization of force in the solution of international disputes, and the building of a new world on the basis of liberty, total equality between the States and the peoples, the recognition of cultural brilliance of suppressed nationalities and cultures, and the liberation of humanity from all forms of authoritarianism, dictatorship and discrimination.

            d)The Sudan endeavours to build a new international order that believes in freedom, justice and total equality to all States and peoples, that facilitates the growth and development of national cultures that puts and end to the suppression of cultures and that liberates humanity from all forms of dictatorship and discrimination, blocking the way against the efforts by the Western States to impose their hegemony, and to have the whole say in the way the new world order should be constituted in order to serve their interests and to suppress others.

            e)The Sudan aims at continuing the North/South dialogue, and establishing relations between them on the basis of mutually beneficial exchange and protection of interests, and mutual respect confirming the duty of the North in supporting development efforts in the States of the South on the understanding that it has exploited their resources and their energies and their markets to achieve its progress and its present domination.  The new international economic order may be the first test in this regard, basis that tilt the balance of behaviour more on the legitimacy of justice and fairness that pays back the rights of the States of the South and that liberates them from the incredible burden of debts they owe to the countries of the North, and that enables them to establish their economic concepts and models that are in tune with the interest of their peoples, and that opens the way for a just interaction and cooperation between the North and the South.

            f)The Sudan endeavours to create positive alliances with the Arab, African and Islamic countries, and to strengthening the relations between them and between all the States of the Third World to achieve the position that they merit in the new International Order, and it works towards the support and solidarity amongst themselves to expedite development efforts in their nations, improving cooperation, complementarity and unity formula amongst themselves, and unifying their positions vis à vis the designs of a return of hegemony and domination by others.

            g)The Sudan endeavours to continue the efforts of disarmament and the reduction of arms especially by the great powers that produce these arms and that sells them, imposing their hegemony and will on the Third World countries, and the utilization of the returns thus saved in the balanced development of the world.

                        The Sudan also endeavours to stop the unfair behaviour with respect to disarmament in the developing world, and the discrimination between them to serve the interests of the West and the countries that cooperate with it.

            h)The Sudan endeavours towards the sovereignty of international and regional peace and the ending of internal conflicts on the solid basis of justice, in a way to achieve stability in the developing states, and that enables them to employ their resources for the benefit of developing, and transforming the present chronic conflict zones to oasis of peace, stability and development.

            i)The Sudan endeavours to improve the international as well as the regional organisations and to bring back to life their original function, in order to deliver in serving their goals a qualitative improvement of life especially in the poorer countries and the developing countries, and the liberation of these institutions from the grip of the Western countries that continue to exploit them in the service of their interests and in the domination of peoples and states.

            j)The Sudan endeavours to make the world know the specific characteristics of the Islamic civilisation, and the upholding of the role of the Islamic world in the construction of the new human civilisation in a way that corresponds to the nobleness of its mission, its values, and the immense resources, human and material, that it has.  It also endeavours to strengthen commercial, cultural, technical and bilateral cooperation with the Islamic states, and the development of complementarity between the Islamic states and the coordination of their position and the support of the Islamic Conference Organisation so as to carry the role that is expected of it in bringing close together the Muslim peoples and the realisation of their unity.

            k)The Sudan endeavours to facilitate the ownership of the states of the world to the means of knowledge, modern technology and the spread of scientific and technological knowledge on new and just basis that put an end to the monopoly of their secrets, and that employ their fruits and their applications for the benefit of humanity without discrimination among its people.  The Sudan endeavours to consolidate the abilities of the developing states in the area of scientific and technological creativity.

ORIENTATIONS AND MEANS OF CARRYING OUT THE EXTERNAL RELATIONS STRATEGY:

            The application and the administration of the execution of the foreign relations strategy necessitates that this strategy be translated into specific policies, and programmes aimed at external relations.  We shall deal in the coming lines with the functional strategic orientations of the Sudanese diplomacy, and to the comprehensive national external movement.  Then we shall deal with issues relating to organisms and suitable mechanisms, that are necessary for the elaboration of foreign policy and the administration of its execution.

FIRSTLY: THE FUNCTIONAL ORIENTATIONS TO SUDANESE FOREIGN RELATIONS

  1. Getting adapted to the changes in international life and the changes in the balance of power and interests and responding positively to the criteria of positive international behaviour.
  1. Arriving at a practical harmony between the principles and the realistic political flexibility, and the ability to reach broader areas for common benefits, and the effort to achieve consensus in specific situations with all powers, and with all types of foreign relations dealings, and being vigilant not to fall into situations that lead to dead end roads, and positions of stagnation, of severing of relations, or of futile confrontation. The perpetual coordination of policies and stands, with the brothers and friends of the neighbouring states and of the Third World.
  1. Our general foreign movement should be respectful in its all components to the principles of the unity of foreign policy, which should be established on the basis of technical know-how and professional diplomatic behaviour, in the services of the political orientation.
  1. The development of the Sudan in the international and regional organisations, finding solutions to the handicaps that has characterized our participation and our relations with some of these organisations in the past, which resulted from bad preparation, improvisation in preparation of its meetings and lack of the payment of our financial contributions to them, which led to the freezing of Sudan’s membership in some of these Organisations. The attached technical papers deal with specific measures to resolve these weaknesses.

SECONDLY:THE ORIENTATIONS OF THE EXTERNAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THE DIPLOMACY OF DEVELOPMENT

            The diplomacy of development must take into consideration the changes in international life that indicate a greater intensification of the mutual reliance, and the internationalism of economic relations, and the dramatic jump of the commercial and financial operations, and the movement towards a united international financial market.  It is on the development diplomacy to discover the enormous new opportunities for economic technological exchange with the new partners who have better understanding of our concerns, and who are more suitable to our ambitions.  It is on development diplomacy to understand the new transformations towards market economies, and it should take into consideration the new criteria for official aid, as well as the policies of the international economic organisations.

            These changes result in basic realities that call for flexible adaptation.

FIRST:

            Official development aid from the west and the international organisations

dominated by the west on political and economic conditions that disregard national choices.

            This aid cannot therefore be accorded, in case the conditions are met, to finance productive public sector projects, rather it will be oriented to the structural adjustment programme and the basic infrastructure projects which means that the developing countries have to rely on investors, development partners and private financial markets, to execute their plans of productive development, on the basis of the free market economy, private initiatives and that which follows from the liberation of commercial, financial and investment attraction policies.

SECONDLY:

            The growing importance of external trade, the growing role of policies of production for exportation, and the policies of the encouragement of exports which are considered the main source of foreign currency.

THIRDLY:

            The exploration of horizons of mutual benefits with the new world forces, and with all development partners with whom there is a link with the Sudan.  It is incumbent on us to give the concept of self-reliance its worth by advocating realistic policies leading to the attraction of the migrant Sudanese wealth and the maximum benefit from the resources of the country and its internal as well as external energies.

            The developmental objectives of the comprehensive strategy necessitates the doubling of investments, and of the productive rates, and the immense leap forward of the technical and economic level laying down the foundation for a social, technical, dynamic, accumulational, and continuous take-off and this objective is impossible without a wide commercial tapping of the Sudanese petroleum resources, and hence the important increase in our exports.

            The achievement of these objectives is a tremendous challenge to the Sudanese external economic relations, and to development diplomacy, and to the internal and the external policy of the country as a whole.

THE ORGANISMS AND THE TOOLS FOR THE PROGRAMMING AND THE ADMINISTRATION AND THE EXECUTION OF THE EXTERNAL RELATIONS STRATEGY:

            The responsibility of drawing foreign policy falls within the sovereignty functions, and specifically on the leadership of the higher executive of the state.  Consequently, official diplomacy shall be in charge of the responsibility of programming foreign policy and its execution, as well as the monitoring and the coordination with respect to our external political activities as well as technical activities for all the organisms of the State.  With this understanding, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is considered the first adviser of the State and of the President in terms of foreign relations, and the major executing organs to official diplomacy.

            In order for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to carry out with its Embassies abroad, and other concerned organisms and bodies, with their functions in the administration and execution of foreign relations in an adequate and effective manner, it is important that they be consolidated and developed in the following manner:

THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS:

            a)New technical units are to be established specialized in handling issues pertaining to the new international relations, and to supervise the activities pertaining to the vital areas of common benefits and interests.  Such as Nile waters, the Red Sea, the Environment, International Trade, Transfer of Technology and the North-South dialogue.

            b)The establishment of appropriate organisms in the headquarters of the Ministry that deal with issues pertaining to open frontiers, plans of complementarity, border trade, Sudanese aid, regional and international conferences, forecasting, and crisis management.

            c)Consolidation and development of the human and material resources of the Ministry, the development of its organisms, equipment and their modernisation.

THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS

            The preparation of the diplomats, morally, technically and materially, intensification of their training especially in the area of negotiation, communication techniques, external information, and languages.  The support of the national centre of diplomatic studies, the strengthening of the relations between this centre

and similar centres and institutes inside and outside the country, and the appointment of experts and technicians at the middle level in the diplomatic cadre, to strengthen the office capacities and the technical diplomatic performance.  And in a general way the adoption of a complex system of choice for the diplomatic service should be adopted, with a view to arriving to a mix between the political orientation, and moral and national commitment, technical knowledge, diplomatic technologies, and enlarging the non-residential diplomatic representation, appointing honorary consuls to bridge the gap with respect to permanent and residential diplomatic representation.

POPULAR DIPLOMACY

            Popular diplomacy has a very appreciated role in promoting the spirit of brotherhood, friendliness, solidarity, cooperation among peoples, and the mobilization of their efforts, their energies to defend their just causes, emphasizing concepts of unity amongst them, and coordination of their energies to face zionism and racial discrimination, apartheid, and to serve the issues of peace and development, overcoming underdevelopment and answering the call of the needy to establish humanitarian and just basis for a new world order.  The popular diplomacy should be active in harmony with the official policies and supportive and developing of these policies, in order for the peoples to unite together, through their special and economic interests and harmonisation of their political vision, thus cultivating the potential for unity amongst them, which can gradually be transformed into a reality that will push the official relations among the States forward and consolidate the initiatives of complementarity and unity among them.

            Hence it is imperative that the popular diplomacy be active in all its facets by the ideological conferences, technical exchange, sportsing competitions, cultural contact, journalism and information, it is important also to encourage relations between associations, trade union organisations, professional organisations, popular and social organisations, and consolidate the interaction between them and the establishment of mutual projects amongst them, and also the consolidation of contact with friendship organisations and associations between the peoples and strengthening their capacities and their capabilities.

            The Strategy of External Relations in this area is based on, the emphasis on the importance of the political and popular role that is being carried out by the Council of the Popular International Friendship and other popular organisms, and their support.  They should enjoy independence in their work, to enable them to achieve the goals of the external relations strategy.

INFORMATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

            Being aware of the growing importance of the role of information in external relations, it is necessary that this sector should be provided with the necessary resources, potential and communication organisms.  This will include the intensification of the activities of publication and distribution of books, journals, information and cultural bulletins, documentary films, with the major languages.  And with the total coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Information, and making available special training for information officers and diplomats to acquire knowledge and expertise in the arts of information impact in various social environments.

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